Loígis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Loígis [ˈloiɣʲisʲ] is the name of an Irish tribe, as it is called by contemporary scholars.[1] Formerly, scholars generally called the tribe Laoighis or Laeighis in Irish, while they Anglicized the name as Leix (Latinized: Lagisia).[2] Loígis is also the name of the territory in western Leinster that the tribe settled during the third century AD, and of the minor kingdom that the Loígis chieftains ruled until 1608. County Laois derives its named from Loígis, although the present county encompasses baronies that were not traditionally part of the territory of Loígis.

Background[edit]

The name Loígis stems from the name of the tribe’s first chieftain, Laigse(a)ch, Laeighsech, or Loígsech. Historical texts render that chieftain’s full name variously as Lugaid Laigsech;[3] Lugaid Loígsech Cennmár;[4][5] Lugaid Laigseach, and Laigsech Ceandmar.[6] One nineteenth-century source says that Laeighsech Cenn-mor and Lugaidh Laeighsech were actually two distinct individuals, the former being the father of the latter.[7] Laeighsech Cenn-mor, who was a son of the famed Conall Cernach, would according to that account be the father of the tribe’s eponymous ancestor, Lugaidh Laeighsech. A twelfth or thirteenth century gloss on the tribe’s name says that Loígsech comes from “lóeg secha.”[4] The word “lóeg,” literally “calf or fawn,” has the figurative meaning of “favorite or darling,” while “secha” means “more than, above, or beyond.”[8][9]

Before migrating to Leinster, the Loígis belonged to the northeastern Irish Dál nAraidi, a confederation of tribes that claimed descent from the eponymous ancestor Fiachu Araide (Fachtna Araide),[10] the Dál nAraidi were part of the Cruthin, a people whose name is considered to be related etymologically to that of the Picts, although current scholarship questions whether there was any cultural or linguistic relationship between the Irish Cruthin and Scottish Picts.[11]

The Loígis tribe received their territory from the king of Leinster in reward for contributing troops to expel a Munster occupation of western Leinster.[12] A record of that campaign appears in Keating’s early seventeenth century Foras Feasa ar Éirinn [The History of Ireland].[13] Another early seventeenth-century account of the campaign is contained in McGeoghegan’s translation of The Annals of Clonmacnoise.[14] The campaign has provisionally been dated to the third century AD,[15] although the Loígis were originally from Ulster in the north, Lugaidh Laeighsech led his tribe into the southern conflict at the request of his foster father, Eochaid Find Fuath nAirt (Eochaid the Fair, Art's Abhorrence). Initially the king of Leinster, Cu Corb, had sought military aid from Eochaid, whose nephew, Art mac Cuinn, the High King of Ireland, had shortly before exiled Eochaid. According to one source, the High King banished his uncle for sneaking a human head into Tara to desecrate a royal feast.[16] Another account says that Art exiled Eochaid for killing Art’s brothers, Connla and Crionna, leaving their only surviving brother with the name Art Óenfer, or “Art, the Solitary.”[17] Regardless of why he left Meath, Eochaid brought his forster son (dalta) Lugaidh Laeighsech into the alliance with Leinster’s king, who consequently granted the Loígis tribe the territory in western Leinster that the allies recaptured from Munster, for his own part in that campaign Eochaid similarly won for the Fothart tribe, which was named after him, territories in what are now Counties Kildare, Wicklow, and Carlow.

As compensation for expelling the Munster men from Leinster, the Loígis tribe received not only the territory that came to bear their name, but also certain hereditary rights that the king of Leinster bestowed on the tribe’s chieftains, who were from that point recognized as kings of Loígis (ríg Laíchsi/ rí Laí[gh]si) in their own right.[18] Many of the Loígis king’s rights acknowledged that there were seven Loígis of Leinster (secht Loíchsi Lagen),[4] those seven were what early seventeenth-century English records would later call the seven septs of Leix.[19] The king of Leinster covenanted, for example, to retain in his employ seven of the followers of the king of Loígis, while the latter agreed to provide seven oxen and to maintain seven score of warriors to fight for the king of Leinster.[20] English etymologists since the eighteenth century have held that the word ‘sept,’ which specifically applies to the Irish clan structure, is derived from the Latin ‘septum,’ meaning literally ‘a hedge or fence’ and figuratively ‘a division.’[21] One nineteenth century scholar of Irish history, however, suggested that ‘sept’ might alternatively have derived from the Latin ‘septem’ or ‘seven,’ and argued that the number seven had particular relevance to peoples of Cruthin or Pictish origin, like the Loígis, who invariably divided their tribes into seven parts,[22] the Loígis maintained such a seven-part division until English authorities transplanted the tribe to Kerry in 1608.

The Loígis had already been identified with the number seven in a poem attributed to Mael Mura of Othain (fl. ninth century), which was perhaps the earliest texts that mentioned the tribe.[23] Nevertheless, no text explicitly named the seven septs before 1607, when they were identified as the “Moores and their followers, the Kellies, Lalors, Clanmelaughlins, Clandebojes, Dorans, and Dolins.”[24] That appeared in a report to the Privy Council, where Arthur Chichester (1563-1625), the Lord Deputy of Ireland, said that chronic rebellions throughout the island had been inspired primarily by the seven septs of Queen’s County, among the seven, the Moore sept claimed an uninterrupted succession to the chieftainship of Loígis since the reign of Lugaidh Laeighsech, although they only assumed the surname Moore around the eleventh century.[25] The Annals of the Four Masters record in 1018 the killing of Cernach Ua Mórdha, meaning Cernach, grandson of Mordha, from which derives the surname O’More, or Moore,[26] the pedigree of the kings of Loígis (Genelach Rig Laigsi) in the Book of Leinster says that Cernach was the son of Ceinneidigh, who was the son of Morda [“Cernaig m Ceinneidig m Morda”].[27]

It was not until the nineteenth century that all of the seven Loígis septs were definitively identified with a fixed group of surnames, which were the “O’Mores, O’Kellys, O’Lalors, O’Devoys or O’Deevys, Macavoys, O’Dorans, and O’Dowlings.”[28] With the exception of the O’Devoys or O’Deevys and the Macavoys, Chichester's 1607 report named the other five septs; in a 1608 agreement with the English, the sept leaders relinquished their hereditary landholdings in Queen’s County in exchange for new grants in County Kerry. Only six groupings of families signed that agreement, namely the "Moores, the Kellies, the Lalours, the Dorans, the Clandeboys, and the Dowlins."[29] Clandeboys and Clandebojes, was a variant form of the Macavoy/McEvoy sept name,[30][31] the agreement does not mention any representatives of the O'Devoy/Deevy sept.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ Duffy, Seán (2005). Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. London: Routledge. p. 196. 
  2. ^ Ó Dubhagáin, Seán; Ó Huidhrin, Gilla na naomh (1862). The Topographical Poems of John O’Dubhagain and Giolla Na Naomh O’Huidhrin; Edited in the Original Irish, from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin; with Translation, Notes, and Introductory Dissertations. Translated by O’Donovan, John. Dublin: Printed for the Irish Arachaeological and Celtic Society, by Alexander Thom. pp. lii. 
  3. ^ Royal Irish Academy MS 23 P 12 [The Book of Ballymote / Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta]. Dublin. pp. 219 c. 
  4. ^ a b c O’Brien, Michael A. (1962). Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. p. 87. 
  5. ^ Meyer, Kuno, ed. (1909). Rawlinson B. 502: a Collection of Pieces in Prose and Verse in the Irish Language, Compiled during the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, now Published in Facsimile from the Original Manuscript in the Bodleian Library with an Introduction and Indexes. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 
  6. ^ Royal Irish Academy MS 23 P 2 [The Book of Lecan]. Dublin. 126 135 (125) v° [274]a 1 and 95 104 v° [212]c 1. 
  7. ^ O’Mahony, John (ed.). Annala Rioghachta Eireann [Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland] by the Four Masters, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1616: Edited from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, Dublin, with a Translation and Copious Notes. Volume I. Translated by O’Donovan, John. p. 334. 
  8. ^ "EDIL - Irish Language Dictionary, entry for Lóeg". Retrieved 3 October 2017. 
  9. ^ "EDIL - Irish Language Dictionary, entry for Sech". Retrieved 3 October 2017. 
  10. ^ Othain, Mael Mura (1848). Herbert, Algernon, ed. Duan Eireannach. Leabhar Breathnach annso sis. The Irish Version of the Historia Britonum of Nennius. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by J. H. Todd, the Introduction and Additional Notes by the Hon. A. Herbert. Translated by Todd, James Henthorn. Dublin: The Irish Archaeological Society. p. 267. 
  11. ^ Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (2013). Early Medieval Ireland, 400-1200. London: Routledge. pp. 48–49. 
  12. ^ O'Mahony, John (ed.). Annala Rioghachta Eireann. Volume III. pp. 105 (note f). 
  13. ^ Keating, Geoffrey (1857). The History of Ireland: From the Earliest Period to the English Invasion. Translated by O’Mahony, John. New York: P. M. Haverty. pp. 334–36. 
  14. ^ Murphy, Denis, ed. (1896). The Annals of Clonmacnoise, Being Annals of Ireland from the Earliest Period to A.D. 1408. Translated by McGeoghegan, Connell. Dublin: Printed at the University Press for the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. pp. 54–57. 
  15. ^ Dobbs, Margaret C. (January 1927). "On the Settlement of the Fotharta and the Laigsi". Zeitschrift Für Celtische Philologie. 16, no. 1: 395. 
  16. ^ Meyer, Kuno (1912). "An Old-Irish Parallel to the Motive of the Bleeding Lance". Ériu. IV: 157–58. 
  17. ^ Keating. The History of Ireland. p. 314. 
  18. ^ Leabhar Na GCeart, or The Book of Rights, Now for the First Time Edited, with Translation and Notes. Translated by O’Donovan, John. Dublin: Printed at the University Press by M. H. Gill for the Celtic Society. 1847. p. 219. 
  19. ^ Prendergast, John Patrick; Russell, Charles William, eds. (1874). Calendar of the State Papers Relating to Ireland, of the Reign of James I. 1603-1625: Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office, and Elsewhere. Vol. I. London: Longman & Company. p. 140. 
  20. ^ Keating. The History of Ireland. p. 336. 
  21. ^ Johnson, Samuel (1755). "A Dictionary of the English Language". Retrieved 10 October 2017. 
  22. ^ Hore, Herbert F. (1 January 1863). "Notes on a Fac Simile of an Ancient Map of Leix, Ofaly, Irry, Clanmalier, Iregan, and Slievemargy, Preserved in the British Museum". Journal of the Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Vol. IV (New Series), no. 1862–63: 347. 
  23. ^ Othain. Duan Eireannach. p. 267. 
  24. ^ Prendergast and Russell (ed.). Calendar of the State Papers, Relating to Ireland, of the Reign of James I. 1603-1625. p. 140. 
  25. ^ Bewley, Edmund T. (1905). "Notes on an Old Pedigree of the O'More Family of Leix". Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. (Consecutive Series, Vol. XXXV), Fifth Series, Vol. XV: 413–14. 
  26. ^ O’Mahony. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters. Vol. II. p. 793. 
  27. ^ Trinity College Dublin MS 1339 [The Book of Leinster, Formerly Lebar Na Núachongbála]. section 96, 1483 folio 337f. 
  28. ^ Nennius. Leabhar Breathnach. pp. lxxiii (additional notes). 
  29. ^ Prendergast and Russell (ed.). Calendar of the State Papers, Relating to Ireland, of the Reign of James I. 1603-1625. pp. 466–67. 
  30. ^ Fitzgerald, Walter (Lord) (1911). "Historical Notes on the O'Mores and their Territory of Leix, to the End of the Sixteenth Century". Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society and Surrounding Districts. Vol. VI: 6. 
  31. ^ Hore, Herbert F. (1863). "Notes on a Fac Simile of an Ancient Map of Leix, Ofaly, Irry, Clanmalier, Iregan, and Slievemargy, Preserved in the British Museum". Journal of the Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Vol. IV (New Series): 369.