An electrical load is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes electric power. This is opposed to a power source, such as a generator, which produces power. In electric power circuits examples of loads are lights; the term may refer to the power consumed by a circuit. The term is used more broadly in electronics for a device connected to a signal source, whether or not it consumes power. If an electric circuit has an output port, a pair of terminals that produces an electrical signal, the circuit connected to this terminal is the load. For example, if a CD player is connected to an amplifier, the CD player is the source and the amplifier is the load. Load affects the performance of circuits with respect to output voltages or currents, such as in sensors, voltage sources, amplifiers. Mains power outlets provide an easy example: they supply power at constant voltage, with electrical appliances connected to the power circuit collectively making up the load; when a high-power appliance switches on, it reduces the load impedance.
If the load impedance is not much higher than the power supply impedance, the voltages will drop. In a domestic environment, switching on a heating appliance may cause incandescent lights to dim noticeably; when discussing the effect of load on a circuit, it is helpful to disregard the circuit's actual design and consider only the Thévenin equivalent. The Thévenin equivalent of a circuit looks like this: With no load, all of V S falls across the output. We would like to ignore the details of the load circuit, as we did for the power supply, represent it as as possible. If we use an input resistance to represent the load, the complete circuit looks like this: Whereas the voltage source by itself was an open circuit, adding the load makes a closed circuit and allows charge to flow; this current places a voltage drop across R S, so the voltage at the output terminal is no longer V S. The output voltage can be determined by the voltage division rule: V O U T = V S ⋅ R L R L + R S If the source resistance is not negligibly small compared to the load impedance, the output voltage will fall.
This illustration uses simple resistances, but similar discussion can be applied in alternating current circuits using resistive and inductive elements. Dummy load
Load is the sixth studio album by the American heavy metal band Metallica, released on June 4, 1996 by Elektra Records in the United States and by Vertigo Records internationally. The album showed more of a hard rock side of Metallica than the band's typical thrash metal style, which alienated much of the band's fanbase, it featured influences from genres such as Southern rock, blues rock, country rock and alternative rock. Drummer Lars Ulrich said about Load's more exploratory nature, "This album and what we're doing with it – that, to me, is what Metallica are all about: exploring different things; the minute you stop exploring just sit down and fucking die". At 79 minutes, it is Metallica's longest studio album. Load spent four consecutive weeks at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart. Load sold 680,000 units in its first week, making it the biggest opening week for Metallica as well as the biggest debut of 1996, it was certified 5× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipping five million copies in the United States.
Four singles—"Until It Sleeps", "Hero of the Day", "Mama Said", "King Nothing"—were released as part of the marketing campaign for the album. Load, released five years after the commercially successful album Metallica, saw the band shifting toward hard rock and away from their thrash metal roots; as on previous releases, the album's fourteen songs began as rough demos created by principal songwriters James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich in Ulrich's basement recording studio, "The Dungeon". In early 1995, the band took over thirty demos into The Plant Studios, where they would work for one year. Metallica worked with producer Bob Rock, at the helm during the recording process for Metallica; the songwriting dispenses entirely with the thrash metal style that characterized the band's sound in the 1980s. In place of staccato riffs and lead guitarist Kirk Hammett experimented with blues rock-based tones and styles. Additionally, Ulrich adopted a minimalist approach to his drum recording, abandoning the speed and complex double bass drumming patterns of previous albums, using simpler techniques and playing styles.
Hetfield displayed a lyrical evolution, writing what many said were his most personal and introspective lyrics. "Until It Sleeps", the album's lead single, addressed his mother's unsuccessful battle with cancer, "Mama Said" explores his relationship with her. All of this marked a departure from the political and social overtones of... And Justice for All and Master of Puppets. Hammett, encouraged by producer Bob Rock played rhythm guitar on a Metallica album for the first time, having only played lead parts with Hetfield playing all the rhythm parts to achieve a tighter feel, in contrast to the looser feel they were looking for here. Hammett continued playing rhythm until Death Magnetic when Hetfield once again played all the rhythm parts. At 79 minutes, Load is Metallica's longest studio album. With the CD length at 78:59, initial pressings of the album were affixed with stickers boasting of its long playtime reading "78:59". "The Outlaw Torn" had to be shortened by about one minute to fit on the album.
An explanation on the single's back cover stated: When we were doing the final sequencing of the'LOAD' album, the record company told us that we couldn't go a second past 78:59, or your CD's wouldn't play without skipping. With our 14 songs, we were running about 30 seconds over, something had to give, so the cool-ass jam at the end of'Outlaw' got chopped. Load was Metallica's first album. Hammett states: I started tuning to E-flat for my riff tapes because I copied a lot of the Hendrix stuff. You know I used to try to figure out Jimi Hendrix solos, Stevie Ray Vaughan solos, Thin Lizzy solos and those three bands tune to E-flat, and so a lot of my riffs were in E-flat, I guess when James would hear the riffs tuned in E-flat and he'd try to sing to'em, I think he kind of liked it. He liked the break, he didn't have to pitch that extra half step. And that's why on both Load and Reload the primary tuning is E-flat rather than E. Hetfield felt that the change to Eb was a bonus, as it was easier to perform string bends in the riffs.
The band had recorded songs on earlier albums in tunings lower than E. The Australian CD release of Load includes a bonus interview CD, unavailable elsewhere. 10 songs from the album have been played live including "King Nothing", "Until It Sleeps", "Ain't My Bitch", "Bleeding Me", "Wasting My Hate", "Hero of the Day", "The Outlaw Torn", "2 X 4", "Poor Twisted Me", "Mama Said". Songs that have not been played live in their entirety are "The House Jack Built", "Cure", "Thorn Within", "Ronnie"; the cover of Load is an original artwork titled "Semen and Blood III". It is one of three photographic studies that Andres Serrano created in 1990 by mingling bovine blood and his own semen between two sheets of Plexiglas; the liner notes state "cover art by Andres Serrano" rather than listing the title of the work. In a 2009 interview with Classic Rock, Hetfield expressed his dislike of the album cover and its inspiration: Lars and Kirk were into abstract art, pretending they were gay. I think, it was a statement around all.
I not for the sake of shocking others. I think the cover of Load
Happy Mondays are an English rock band formed in Salford in 1980. The band's original line-up was Shaun Ryder, his brother Paul Ryder, Mark Day, Paul Davis, Gary Whelan. Mark "Bez" Berry joined the band onstage as a dancer/percussionist. Rowetta joined the band as a guest vocalist in 1990; the group's work bridged the Manchester independent rock music of the 1980s and the emerging UK rave scene, drawing influence from funk and psychedelia to pioneer the Madchester sound. They experienced their commercial peak with the releases Bummed, Madchester Rave On, Pills'n' Thrills and Bellyaches, with the latter going platinum in the UK, they disbanded in 1993, have reformed several times in subsequent decades. The band were signed to Factory Records after passing a demo tape to Phil Saxe, a trader at Manchester Arndale, on friendly terms with Mike Pickering, a DJ at the Haçienda nightclub. Saxe became the band's manager, their first release was the "Forty Five EP" called the "Delightful EP" after its first track.
It was released on Factory Records in September 1985. Their first album, Squirrel and G-Man Twenty Four Hour Party People Plastic Face Carnt Smile, was released in 1987 and was produced by John Cale; this was followed by two further albums: Bummed, in 1988, produced by Martin Hannett, Pills'n' Thrills and Bellyaches, in 1990, produced by Paul Oakenfold and Steve Osborne. The latter, recorded at Capitol Studios in Los Angeles, went platinum in the UK, selling more than 350,000 copies. Singles "Step On" and "Kinky Afro" from this album both reached number 5 in the UK singles chart. By the late 1980s, the Happy Mondays were an important part of the Manchester music scene and personified rave culture. Numerous world tours meant the band had international success as well as massive success in their home country; the line-up of the band during this first and most important ten year phase never changed, the six original members Shaun Ryder, Paul Ryder, Gary Whelan, Paul Davis, Mark Day and Mark "Bez" Berry remained a tight unit until the first incarnation came to an end in 1994.
The band appeared on the bill at the 1990 Glastonbury Festival. In November of that year, Paul McCartney commented in NME: "I saw the Happy Mondays on TV, they reminded me of the Beatles in their'Strawberry Fields' phase."Musically, the band fused indie pop guitars with a rhythmic style that owed much to house music, Krautrock and northern soul. Much of their music was remixed by popular DJs, emphasizing the dance influences further. In terms of style and dress, they crossed hippy fashion and ideals with 1970s glamour. Sartorially and musically, the band helped to encourage the psychedelic revival associated with acid house. One of their most popular songs was "Lazyitis", featuring a surreal duet between Ryder and Karl Denver. In February 1991, Happy Mondays played at the Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro and famously went to meet Ronnie Biggs in Brazil with Piers Morgan, who at the time was a writer for The Sun newspaper; the Mondays influenced many bands around the Northwest and beyond, including the Stone Roses and the Charlatans.
A multi-city US tour followed with the group returning home early in May 1991. By July that year they revealed details of a fourteen track'official bootleg' live album, Baby Big Head, recorded in Leeds; the official record label release, Live followed in the year. Yes Please! Followed in 1992, produced by Chris Frantz and Tina Weymouth, recorded at Eddy Grant's studio in Barbados; the album was a commercial failure. Happy Mondays disbanded in 1993, Shaun Ryder and Bez formed Black Grape with ex-Paris Angels guitarist "Wags" and ex-Ruthless Rap Assassins star Kermit. Seven years passed, but in 1999 Happy Mondays re-formed, with founding members Shaun Ryder, Paul Ryder, Gary Whelan and Mark "Bez" Berry minus Paul Davis and Mark Day. In the place of Day and Davis were Wags and a number of other session musicians including Ben Leach who had once been a member of The Farm, percussionist Lea Mullen and rapper "Nuts". Joining the new line-up was soul diva Rowetta Satchell; the band toured extensively in the UK and internationally, selling out the 20,000 capacity Manchester Arena and two nights at Brixton Academy and released of a new single, a cover version of the Thin Lizzy hit "The Boys Are Back in Town".
The single reached number 24 in the UK Singles Chart. They provided support for Oasis on their "Standing on the Shoulder of Giants" arena tour, played at the Fuji Rock Festival in Japan, numerous European festivals including T in the Park and toured Australia the same year. Although critically acclaimed and playing to sell-out crowds, the band once more ceased their activity in 2001 following the departure of bass player and founding member Paul Ryder. A fictionalised depiction of the band is featured in the 2002 film 24 Hour Party People, with Danny Cunningham as Shaun Ryder and Paul Popplewell as Paul Ryder. Paul Ryder himself had a cameo role in the film as a gangster and Rowetta appeared in the film as herself. 2004 saw another re-formation, comprising original members Bez and Shaun Ryder along with another group of musicians. Shaun Ryder recruited Kav Sandhu to join on bring in a new group of musicians. Kav brought keyboard player Dave Parkinson & guitarist Jonn Dunn. Dave Parkinson was replaced by Dan Broad.
Backing singers on the first tour were Angie Brown and
The Load is a 2018 Serbian war drama film directed by Ognjen Glavonić. It was selected to screen in the Directors' Fortnight section at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, it won the Golden Pram Award for Best Feature Film at the 2018 Zagreb Film Festival. Leon Lučev as Vlada Pavle Čemerikić Tamara Krcunović Ivan Lučev Igor Benčina On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 100% based on reviews from 7 critics; the Load on IMDb
In geology, a lode is a deposit of metalliferous ore that fills or is embedded in a fissure in a rock formation or a vein of ore, deposited or embedded between layers of rock. The current meaning dates from the 17th century, being an expansion of an earlier sense of a "channel, watercourse" in late Middle English, which in turn is from the 11th-century meaning of lode as a ‘course, way’; the accepted hydrothermal model of lode deposition posits that metals dissolved in hydrothermal solutions deposit the gold or other metallic minerals inside the fissures in the pre-existing rocks. Lode deposits are distinguished from placer deposits, where the ore has been eroded out from its original depositional environment and redeposited by sedimentation. A third process for ore deposition is as an evaporite. A stringer lode is one in which the rock is so permeated by small veinlets that rather than mining the veins, the entire mass of ore and the enveined country rock is mined, it is so named because of the irregular branching of the veins into many anastomosing stringers, so that the ore is not separable from the country rock.
One of largest silver lodes was the Comstock Lode in Nevada, although it is overshadowed by the more discovered Cannington Lode in Queensland, Australia. The largest gold lode in the United States was the Homestake Lode; the Broken Hill Lode in South Australia is the largest lead-zinc lode discovered. Lodestone, known just as lode in the 16th and 17th centuries. Mother lode, the principal vein Ore genesis Thickness
Lod is a city 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv in the Central District of Israel. In 2017 it had a population of 74,604; the name is derived from the Biblical city of Lod, it was a significant Judean town from the Maccabean Period to the early Christian period. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War most of the city's Arab inhabitants were expelled in the 1948 Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle; the town was resettled by Jewish immigrants, most of them from Arab countries, alongside 1,056 Arabs who remained. Israel's main international airport, Ben Gurion Airport is located on the outskirts of the city; the Hebrew name Lod appears in the Bible as a town of Benjamin, founded by Shamer. In the New Testament, it appears at Lydda; the city finds reference in an Islamic Hadith, as the location of the battlefield where the antichrist will be slain before the Day of Judgment. The city is mentioned several times in the Bible: in Ezra 2:33, it is mentioned as one of the cities whose inhabitants returned after the Babylonian captivity, in the New Testament, it is the site of Peter's healing of a paralytic man in Acts 9:32-38.
Pottery finds have dated the initial settlement in the area now occupied by the town to 5600–5250 BCE. The earliest written record is in a list of Canaanite towns drawn up by the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III at Karnak in 1465 BCE. From the fifth century BCE until the Roman conquest in 70 CE, the city was a centre of Jewish scholarship and commerce. According to Martin Gilbert, during the Hasmonean period, Jonathan Maccabee and his brother Simon Maccabaeus enlarged the area under Jewish control, which included conquering the city. In 43 BC, the Roman governor of Syria, sold the inhabitants of Lod into slavery, but they were set free two years by Mark Antony. During the First Jewish–Roman War, the Roman proconsul of Syria, Cestius Gallus, razed the town on his way to Jerusalem in 66 CE, it was occupied by Emperor Vespasian in 68 CE. In the period following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, Rabbi Tarfon, who appears in many Tannaitic and Jewish legal discussions, served as a rabbinic authority in Lod.
During the Kitos War, 115-117 CE, the Roman army laid siege to Lod, where the rebel Jews had gathered under the leadership of Julian and Pappos. Torah study was outlawed by the Romans and pursued in the underground; the distress became so great, the patriarch Rabban Gamaliel II, shut up there and died soon afterwards, permitted fasting on Ḥanukkah. Other rabbis disagreed with this ruling. Lydda was next taken and many of the Jews were executed. In 200 CE, emperor Septimius Severus elevated the town to the status of a city, calling it Colonia Lucia Septimia Severa Diospolis; the name Diospolis may have been bestowed earlier by Hadrian. At that point, most of its inhabitants were Christian; the earliest known bishop is a friend of Arius. In December 415, the Council of Diospolis was held here to try Pelagius. In the sixth century, the city was renamed Georgiopolis after St. George, a soldier in the guard of the emperor Diocletian, born there between 256 and 285 CE; the Church of St. George is named for him.
The Madaba map shows Lydda as an unwalled city under a black inscription with a cluster of buildings. An isolated building with a columnated plaza in front of it might represent the St. George shrine. After the Muslim conquest of Palestine by Amr ibn al-'As in 636 CE, Lod, referred to as "al-Ludd" in Arabic served as the capital of Jund Filastin before the seat of power was moved to nearby Ramla during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik in 715-716; the population of al-Ludd was relocated to Ramla, as well. With the relocation of its inhabitants and the construction of the White Mosque in Ramla, al-Ludd lost its importance and fell into decay; the city was visited by the local Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi in 985, when it was under the Fatimid Caliphate, was noted for its Great Mosque which served the residents of al-Ludd and the nearby villages. He wrote of the city's "wonderful church at the gate of which Christ will slay the Antichrist." The Crusaders named it St. Jorge de Lidde.
It was conquered by Saladin, but retaken by the Crusaders in 1191. The Crusaders built a cathedral changed to become the Great Mosque of Ramla—one of Israel's best-preserved Crusader churches. For the English Crusaders, it was a place of great significance as the birthplace of Saint George; the Crusaders made it the seat of a Latin rite diocese, it remains a titular see. It owed the service of 10 knights and 20 sergeants, it had its own burgess court during this era. In 1226, Ayyubid Syrian geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi visited al-Ludd and stated it was part of the Jerusalem District during Ayyubid rule. Sultan Baybars brought Lydda again under Muslim control by 1267-8. According to Qalqashandi, Lydda was an administrative centre of a wilaya during the fourteenth and fifteenth century in the Mamluk empire. Mujir al-Din described it as a pleasant village with an active Friday mosque. During this time, Lydda was a station on the postal route between Damascus. In 1517, Lydda was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire as part of the Damascus Eyalet, in the 1550s, the revenues of Lydda were designated for the new waqf of Hasseki Sultan Imaret in Jerusalem, established by Hasseki Hurrem Sult