Robert Todd Carroll
Robert Todd Carroll was an American writer and academic. Carroll was best known for his contributions in the field of skepticism, he was elected a fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry in 2010. He described himself as a naturalist, an atheist, a materialist, a metaphysical libertarian, a positivist, his published books include Becoming a Critical Thinker. He was a professor of philosophy at Sacramento City College from 1977 until his retirement in 2007. Carroll was born in Joliet, Illinois on May 18, 1945, his father worked in a coal processing plant. The family moved to San Diego in 1954, he described his early years in Ocean Beach as an ideal childhood. He was raised Catholic. Carroll went to the University of San Diego High School, the same school that Phil Mickelson and Scott Peterson attended. After that, he received a Catholic education in the University of Notre Dame, he went into seminary in Notre Dame, he left after a short time in 1965 and went back to San Diego. Carroll earned his Ph.
D. in philosophy in 1974 at the University of California, San Diego, writing his doctoral thesis under the direction of Richard H. Popkin on the religious philosophy of Edward Stillingfleet who defended the Anglican church passionately against Catholic and atheist offenders before becoming Bishop of Worcester, it was published in 1975. By Carroll was married with two daughters; the new family moved to Susanville, California where he started teaching philosophy at Lassen Community College. After that he moved to the Sacramento area, he has been living in Davis since 1977. Carroll said that he never went through a religion deconversion moment, he first started having strong doubts about Catholicism. He became intrigued by eastern religions after leaving the Seminary. Inspired by Alan Watts, he started looking at eastern religions' holy books. Carroll became interested in Paramahansa Yogananda and attended his Self-Realization Fellowship group to do yoga and chanting, he identified as agnostic at the time.
After leaving the fellowship, he spent many years thinking in depth about his religion. He said "The more I thought about religious ideas, the more false and absurd they seem to me." Carroll became enchanted by the ideas of Kierkegaard, namely the idea that religious beliefs require a leap of faith because they cannot be rationally proven. Instead, Carroll decided to take a leap in the other direction: he said that he "found many reasons for disbelief and no reasons for belief", that his former religious beliefs lost their attractiveness. Carroll's teaching career started with a part-time position teaching philosophy at Lassen Community College, he taught philosophy of religion at American River College for two years before going full-time in Sacramento City College where he taught introductory philosophy classes and critical reasoning, law justice and punishment and critical thinking about the paranormal for three decades as well as serving several years as chairman. Carroll authored Becoming a Critical Thinker, a textbook for introductory logic and critical thinking courses.
It covers subjects such as language and critical thinking, the mass media and other sources of information, fallacies of reasoning, inductive and deductive arguments. The book is subtitled A Guide for the New Millennium. Pearson Educational published the first edition in 2000 and the second edition was published in 2005. Becoming a Critical Thinker was born out of Carroll's classwork during his time in Sacramento City College; the Skeptic's Dictionary is the print version of the website skepdic.com and is available in Dutch, Japanese and Russian. It provides definitions and essays on supernatural, occult and pseudo-scientific subjects; the book features many examples of pseudoscientific beliefs over its eight chapters. In the last chapter, Carroll provided ways to improve critical skepticism. Similar to the website, it takes a skeptical stance assuming that something is false until proven otherwise; the book came about when a literary agent, contacted Carroll about creating the book. The book was published by John Wiley & Son in August 2003 as an inexpensive paperback.
The book is intended to be biased towards the skeptical side. Carroll wrote a children's version of the Skeptic's dictionary, released online on July 22, 2011. In 2013, it was published as a children's book under the title Mysteries and Science: Exploring Aliens, Monsters, the End of the World and Other Weird Things, he wrote Unnatural Acts: Critical Thinking and Science Exposed!, published by the James Randi Educational Foundation as an e-book in 2011. A paperback version is available from Lulu; the Critical Thinker's Dictionary was published in 2013. It features short articles about logical fallacies. A long-time advocate of scientific skepticism and critical thinking, Carroll said that he had been investigating controversial beliefs since he was seven years old when he had doubts about Santa Claus. Carroll described the importance of critical thinking and open-mindedness in the following quotation: "If you are willing to be open minded, accept th
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. branded as Wiley in recent years, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, educational materials for undergraduate and continuing education students. Founded in 1807, Wiley is known for publishing the For Dummies book series. In 2017, the company had a revenue of $1.7 billion. Wiley was established in 1807; the company was the publisher of such 19th century American literary figures as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal and other non-fiction titles. Wiley worked in partnership with Cornelius Van Winkle, George Long, George Palmer Putnam, Robert Halsted; the firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley shifted its focus to scientific and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests. Charles Wiley's son John took over the business when his father died in 1826.
The firm was successively named Wiley, Lane & Co. Wiley & Putnam, John Wiley; the company acquired its present name in 1876, when John's second son William H. Wiley joined his brother Charles in the business. Through the 20th century, the company expanded its publishing activities, the sciences, higher education. Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize in 1901, Wiley and its acquired companies have published the works of more than 450 Nobel Laureates, in every category in which the prize is awarded. One of the world's oldest independent publishing companies, Wiley marked its bicentennial in 2007 with a year-long celebration, hosting festivities that spanned four continents and ten countries and included such highlights as ringing the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange on May 1. In conjunction with the anniversary, the company published Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807-2007, depicting Wiley's pivotal role in the evolution of publishing against a social and economic backdrop.
Wiley has created an online community called Wiley Living History, offering excerpts from Knowledge for Generations and a forum for visitors and Wiley employees to post their comments and anecdotes. In December 2010, Wiley opened an office in Dubai; the company has had an office in Beijing, since 2001, China is now its sixth-largest market for STEM content. Wiley established publishing operations in India in 2006, has established a presence in North Africa through sales contracts with academic institutions in Tunisia and Egypt. On April 16, 2012, the company announced the establishment of Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA in São Paulo, effective May 1, 2012. Wiley's scientific and medical business was expanded by the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007; the combined business, named Scientific, Technical and Scholarly, publishes, in print and online, 1,400 scholarly peer-reviewed journals and an extensive collection of books, major reference works and laboratory manuals in the life and physical sciences and allied health, the humanities, the social sciences.
Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799. Wiley-Blackwell publishes on behalf of about 700 professional and scholarly societies. Other major journals published include Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, International Finance and Liver Transplantation. Launched commercially in 1999, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, major reference works, books, including backfile content. Journals from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. On February 17, 2012, Wiley announced the acquisition of Inscape Holdings Inc. which provides DISC assessments and training for interpersonal business skills. Wiley described the acquisition as complementary to the workplace learning products published under its Pfeiffer imprint, one that would help Wiley advance its digital delivery strategy and extend its global reach through Inscape's international distributor network.
On March 7, 2012, Wiley announced its intention to divest assets in the areas of travel, general interest, nautical and crafts, as well as the Webster's New World and CliffsNotes brands. The planned divestiture was aligned with Wiley's "increased strategic focus on content and services for research and professional practices, on lifelong learning through digital technology". On August 13, 2012, Wiley announced it entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of its travel assets, including all of its interests in the Frommer's brand, to Google Inc. On November 6, 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt acquired Wiley's cookbooks and study guides. In 2013, Wiley sold its pets and general interest lines to Turner Publishing Company and its nautical line to Fernhurst Books. H
60 Minutes is an American news magazine and television program, broadcast on the CBS television network. Debuting in 1968, the program was created by Don Hewitt, who chose to set it apart from other news programs by using a unique style of reporter-centered investigation. In 2002, 60 Minutes was ranked at No. 6 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time and in 2013, it was ranked #24 on TV Guide's 60 Best Series of All Time. The New York Times has called it "one of the most esteemed news magazines on American television". Season 50 debuted on September 24, 2017, it has been renewed for a record 51st. The program employed a magazine format, similar to that of the Canadian program W5, which had premiered two years earlier, it pioneered many of the most important investigative journalism procedures and techniques, including re-editing interviews, hidden cameras, "gotcha journalism" visits to the home or office of an investigative subject. Similar programs sprang up in Australia and Canada during the 1970s, as well as on local television news.
60 Minutes aired as a bi-weekly show hosted by Harry Reasoner and Mike Wallace, debuting on September 24, 1968, alternating weeks with other CBS News productions on Tuesday evenings at 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time; the first edition, described by Reasoner in the opening as a "kind of a magazine for television," featured the following segments: A look inside the headquarters suites of presidential candidates Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey during their respective parties' national conventions that summer. Wallace said that the show aimed to "reflect reality"; the first "magazine-cover" chroma key was a photo of two helmeted policemen. Wallace and Reasoner sat in chairs on opposite sides of the set; the logo was in Helvetica type with the word "Minutes" spelled in all lower-case letters. Further, to extend the magazine motif, the producers added a "Vol. xx, No. xx" to the title display on the chroma key. The trademark stopwatch, did not appear on the inaugural broadcast. Alpo dog food was the sole sponsor of the first program.
Don Hewitt, a producer of the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, sought out Wallace as a stylistic contrast to Reasoner. According to one historian of the show, the idea of the format was to make the hosts the reporters, to always feature stories that were of national importance but focused upon individuals involved with, or in conflict with, those issues, to limit the reports' airtime to around 13 minutes. However, the initial season was troubled by lack of network confidence, as the program did not garner ratings much higher than that of other CBS News documentaries; as a rule, during that era, news programming during prime time lost money. 60 Minutes struggled under that stigma during its first three years. Changes to 60 Minutes came early in the program's history; when Reasoner left CBS to co-anchor ABC's evening newscast, Morley Safer joined the team in 1970, he took over Reasoner's duties of reporting less aggressive stories. However, when Richard Nixon began targeting press access and reporting Safer the CBS News bureau chief in Saigon and London, began to do "hard" investigative reports, during the 1970–71 season alone 60 Minutes reported on cluster bombs, the South Vietnamese Army, draft dodgers, the Middle East, Northern Ireland.
By 1971, the Federal Communications Commission introduced the Prime Time Access Rule, which freed local network affiliates in the top 50 markets to take a half-hour of prime time from the networks on Mondays through Saturdays and one full hour on Sundays. Because nearly all affiliates found production costs for the FCC's intended goal of increased public affairs programming high and the ratings low, making it unprofitable, the FCC created an exception for network-authored news and public affairs shows. After a six-month hiatus in late 1971, CBS found a prime place for 60 Minutes in a portion of that displaced time, 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. on Sundays in January 1972. This proved somewhat less than satisfactory, because in order to accommodate CBS' telecasts of late afternoon National Football League football games, 60 Minutes went on hiatus during the fall from 1972 to 1975; this took place because football telecasts were protected contractually from interruptions in the wake of the infamous "Heidi Bowl" inciden
False equivalence is a logical fallacy in which two opposing arguments appear to be logically equivalent when in fact they are not. This fallacy is categorized as a fallacy of inconsistency. A common way for this fallacy to be perpetuated is one shared trait between two subjects is assumed to show equivalence in order of magnitude, when equivalence is not the logical result. False equivalence is a common result when an anecdotal similarity is pointed out as equal, but the claim of equivalence doesn't bear because the similarity is based on oversimplification or ignorance of additional factors; the pattern of the fallacy is as such: "If A is the set of c and d, B is the set of d and e since they both contain d, A and B are equal". D is not required to exist in both sets. False equivalence arguments are used in journalism and in politics, where the minor flaws of one candidate may be compared to major flaws of another; the following statements are examples of false equivalence: "They're both living animals that metabolize chemical energy.
There's no difference between a pet cat and a pet snail."The "equivalence" is in factors that are not relevant to the animals' suitability as pets. "The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is no different from your neighbor dripping some oil on the ground when changing oil in his car."The comparison is between things differing by many orders of magnitude: Deepwater Horizon spilled 210 million US gal of oil. Equivocation False balance False analogy Tu quoque Whataboutism Wronger than wrong
Lesley Rene Stahl is an American television journalist. She has spent most of her career with CBS News, having been affiliated with that network since 1972. Stahl was born in 1941 to a wealthy Jewish family in Lynn and was raised in Swampscott, Massachusetts, she is Louis E. Stahl, a food company executive, she attended Wheaton College. Stahl began her television broadcasting career at Boston's original Channel 5, WHDH-TV, as a producer and on-air reporter, she joined CBS News in 1972, became a correspondent in 1974. "I was born on my 30th birthday," Stahl would write about the experience. "Everything up till was prenatal." Stahl credits her CBS News hire to the Federal Communication Commission's 1972 inclusion of women in its affirmative action mandate: "the television networks were scouring the country for women and blacks with any news experience at all. A friend in New York had called to tell me about a memo floating around CBS News mandating that'the next reporter we hire will be a woman.'"
According to Stahl, Connie Chung and Bernard Shaw were "the two other'affirmative action babies' in what became known as the Class of'72." Stahl reflected in an interview on her early days at CBS how, on the night of the'72 Nixon-McGovern election returns, she found her on-air studio chair marked with masking tape, not with her name as with her colleagues, but with "Female." Stahl was the mentor of CBS news producer Susan Zirinsky. Stahl's prominence grew. "I found an apartment in the Watergate complex, moved all my stuff from Boston, didn't miss a day of work.... June 1972. Most of the reporters in our bureau were on the road. Thus, I was sent out to cover the arrest of some men who had broken into one of the buildings in the Watergate complex; that CBS let me, the newest hire, hold on to Watergate as an assignment was a measure of how unimportant the story seemed:... I was the only television reporter covering the early court appearances; when the five Watergate burglars asked for a bail reduction, I got my first scoop.
Unlike my competitors, I was able to identify them. The next time the cameraman listened when I said,'Roll! That's them!' And so CBS was the only network to get pictures of the burglars. I was a hero at the bureau." She went on to become White House correspondent during the presidencies of Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. At the Republican Convention of 1980, she broke the news on CBS that Reagan's negotiations with ex-President Gerald Ford had broken down and the answer to the question of who would be vice-presidential nominee was: "It's Bush! Yes, it's Bush!" George H. W. Bush had been standing not far away off by himself, looking discouraged because he was sure he wasn't going to be chosen. Stahl was the moderator of Face the Nation between September 1983 and May 1991. In addition, she hosted 48 Hours Investigates from 2002 to 2004. In 2002, Stahl made headlines when Al Gore appeared on 60 Minutes and revealed for the first time that he would not run for president again in 2004.
When Katie Couric was hired, CBS News asked Stahl to reduce her salary by $500,000 to accommodate Couric's salary, bringing her salary down to $1.8 million. In October 2007 Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France, stood up and walked away from an interview with Stahl because she asked him about his relationship with his soon-to-be estranged wife, Cécilia. In 1998, she appeared on the NBC sitcom Frasier, playing herself in the episode "Desperately Seeking Closure". In 2014, she served as a correspondent for Years of Living Dangerously, a documentary show about climate change. Stahl has written two books, the first of which, Reporting Live, was published in 1999: I had decided by August 1989, in my 48th year, that I had had the best day of my life.... We went to Rwanda to see the mountain gorillas, Dian Fossey's gorillas in the mist.... After two and a half hours... There they were: two baby gorillas frolicking like any four-year-olds. We stared. We were right there, in the middle of their open-air house.
And the silverback, the patriarch, seemed to welcome us, as three females kept grooming him.... We spent one hour in their world, watching them tumble and wrestle, nurse their babies, swing in the trees, forage for food—vines, berries—... so close that a female reached out to touch me. When I went to reciprocate, the guide hit my arm with a stick. "Non, madame. C'est inderdit."... What I decided that day with the gorillas in Rwanda was that the best day of your life may not have happened yet. No matter what you think, her second book, Becoming Grandma: The Joys and Science of the New Grandparenting, which chronicles her own experiences with her grandchildren, was published in 2016. She received a Doctorate of Humane Letters honoris causa from Colgate University in 2008 and a Doctorate of Humane Letters honoris causa from Loyola College in Maryland in 2008. Lesley Stahl was a founding member in 2008, along with Liz Smith, Mary Wells Lawrence, Joni Evans, of wowOwow.com, a website for "women over 40" to talk about culture and gossip.
By the end of 2010 it had merged into PureWow, a Web site aimed at younger women. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Stahl is on the Board of Selectors of Jefferson Awards for Public Service. September 1983–May 1991: Face the Nation moderator October 1990–March 1991: America Tonight anchor March 1991–present: 60 Minutes correspondent 2002–2004: 48 Hours host In 1977, Stahl married author Aaron Latham. 2004 Gerald Loeb Award for Television Long Form busi
United States Ambassador to the United Nations
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U. S. delegation, the U. S. Mission to the United Nations; the position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations". S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations. There is a Deputy Ambassador who assumes the duties of the ambassador in his or her absence. Like all United States ambassadors, the ambassador to the UN and the deputy ambassador are nominated by the U. S. President and confirmed by the Senate; the Ambassador serves at the pleasure of the President. The U. S. Permanent Representative is charged with representing the United States on the U. N. Security Council and during all plenary meetings of the General Assembly, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer of the United States is present.
Jonathan Cohen, the deputy permanent representative since June 8, 2018, a career diplomat, became the Acting U. S. Ambassador on January 1, 2019, after the resignation of Nikki Haley came into effect. On December 7, 2018, President Donald Trump named Heather Nauert to become the Permanent Ambassador, subject to Senate confirmation. On February 16, 2019, after a lengthy period where Nauert had retreated from the public gaze, it was announced that she had withdrawn her name from consideration. On February 22, 2019, President Trump nominated Kelly Knight Craft to become the Ambassador. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. a leading moderate Republican who lost his seat in the United States Senate to John F. Kennedy in the 1952 elections, was appointed ambassador to the United Nations in 1953 by Dwight D. Eisenhower in gratitude for the defeated senator's role in the new president's defeat of conservative leader Robert A. Taft for the 1952 Republican nomination and subsequent service as his campaign manager in the general election.
The Ambassadorship continued to hold this status through the Ford and Reagan administrations but was removed from cabinet rank by George H. W. Bush, who had held the position himself, it was restored under the Clinton administration. It was not a cabinet-level position under the George W. Bush administration, but was once again elevated under the Obama administration, retained as such by the Trump administration. Former UN Ambassador John R. Bolton has publicly opposed the granting of cabinet-level status to the office, stating "One, it overstates the role and importance the U. N. should have in U. S. foreign policy, you shouldn't have two secretaries in the same department". In December 2018, it was reported by several news organizations that along with the nomination of Heather Nauert to replace Nikki Haley, the Trump administration would once again downgrade the position to non-Cabinet rank; the following is a chronological list of those who have held the office: As of April 2019, there are twelve living former U.
S. Ambassadors to the United Nation, the oldest being Edward J. Perkins; the most recent Ambassador to die was George H. W. Bush, on November 30, 2018. Living former U. S. Ambassadors to the United Nations Diplomatic Security Service Residence of the United States Ambassador to the United Nations Official website