Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
A sugarloaf was the usual form in which refined sugar was produced and sold until the late 19th century, when granulated and cube sugars were introduced. A tall cone with a rounded top was the end product of a process in which dark molasses was refined into white sugar. Molasses was a rich raw sugar, imported from sugar-growing regions such as the Caribbean and Brazil; the earliest record to date appears to be 12th century in Jordan, though reference to a cone of sugar is found in al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar's 9th century Arabic Al-Akhbar al-Muwaffaqiyyat. In Europe, they were made in Italy from 1470, Belgium 1508, England 1544, Holland 1566, Germany 1573 and France 1613; when refining from sugar beet began in mainland Europe in 1799, loaves were produced in the same way and are still common in some parts in Germany, where small loaves are a required ingredient for the Christmas season drink Feuerzangenbowle. Until the mid-19th century, the British government used a system of punitive taxes to make it impossible for its colonial producers in the Caribbean to refine their own sugar and supply Britain with finished sugarloaves.
The Amsterdam industry had been protected from the importation of East India white sugar. Instead, a dark raw sugar or muscovado, produced on the plantations by initial boilings of the fresh cane juice, was shipped in hogsheads to Europe on what was the third leg of the Triangular Trade; the sugarloaf was the sign of a grocer found outside his premises or in the window, sometimes found on his trade tokens. The raw sugar was refined by a series of filtering processes. When, at the final boiling, it was considered ready for guimulation and was poured into a large number of inverted conical molds; these were made of either brown earthenware or sheet iron with an internal treatment of slip or paint and each stood in its own collecting pot. Over the next few days most of the dark syrup and noncrystalline matter drained through a small hole in the bottom of the mould into the collecting pot. To improve the whiteness of the sugar, repeated applications of either a solution of white clay or of loaf sugar dissolved in warm water was applied to the broad end of the loaf.
This drained through the loaf uniting with any remaining molasses or other coloring matter and removing it to the collecting pot. The loaves were tapped out of the molds, dried in a stove room that would have contained hundreds of loaves, trimmed to their final shape and wrapped in blue paper to enhance their whiteness; the molds, so the sugarloaves, varied in size considerably: the larger the loaf the lower the grade of sugar. The grade determined the price, though loaves were sold by weight and the sugar refiner was taxed on the weight of sugar sold; when a new batch of raw sugar was refined, the best sugar came from the first boiling. After that, the waste and trimmings from the first boiling were returned to the beginning of the process and mixed with further raw sugar for the second boiling, and, as this was repeated to the end of the batch, subsequent boilings reduced in quality; the finest of the loaves—maybe 5 inches dia and 5 inches high—were expensive owing to the prolonged repeating of the whitening process, as were the somewhat larger double refined loaves from the first few boilings.
Lower grades of sugar were more difficult to crystallize and so larger molds were used—usually 10–14 inches in diameter and up to about 30 inches high—with loaves weighing up to 35 pounds. The lowest standard refined grades were called bastards, though an lower grade was produced from the filtration scums by a scum-boiler at his own separate premises. Households bought their white sugar in tall, conical loaves, from which pieces were broken off with special iron sugar-cutters. Shaped something like large heavy pliers with sharp blades attached to the cutting sides, these cutters had to be strong and tough, because the loaves were large, about 14 inches in diameter at the base, 3 feet... In those days, sugar was used with great care, one loaf lasted a long time; the weight would have been about 30 pounds. The weight of a loaf varied from 5 to 35 pounds, according to the moulds used by any one refinery. A common size was 14 pounds, but the finest sugar from Madeira came in small loaves of only 3 to 4 pounds in weight...
Up till late Victorian times household sugar remained little changed and sugar loaves were still common and continued so until well into the twentieth century... Jaggery Panela Peen tong – a Chinese slab brown sugar and sugar candy Media related to Sugar loaves at Wikimedia Commons
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness": for example, syrup has a higher viscosity than water. Viscosity can be conceptualized as quantifying the frictional force that arises between adjacent layers of fluid that are in relative motion. For instance, when a fluid is forced through a tube, it flows more near the tube's axis than near its walls. In such a case, experiments show; this is because a force is required to overcome the friction between the layers of the fluid which are in relative motion: the strength of this force is proportional to the viscosity. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an inviscid fluid. Zero viscosity is observed only at low temperatures in superfluids. Otherwise, the second law of thermodynamics requires all fluids to have positive viscosity. A fluid with a high viscosity, such as pitch, may appear to be a solid; the word "viscosity" is derived from the Latin "viscum", meaning mistletoe and a viscous glue made from mistletoe berries.
In materials science and engineering, one is interested in understanding the forces, or stresses, involved in the deformation of a material. For instance, if the material were a simple spring, the answer would be given by Hooke's law, which says that the force experienced by a spring is proportional to the distance displaced from equilibrium. Stresses which can be attributed to the deformation of a material from some rest state are called elastic stresses. In other materials, stresses are present which can be attributed to the rate of change of the deformation over time; these are called. For instance, in a fluid such as water the stresses which arise from shearing the fluid do not depend on the distance the fluid has been sheared. Viscosity is the material property which relates the viscous stresses in a material to the rate of change of a deformation. Although it applies to general flows, it is easy to visualize and define in a simple shearing flow, such as a planar Couette flow. In the Couette flow, a fluid is trapped between two infinitely large plates, one fixed and one in parallel motion at constant speed u.
If the speed of the top plate is low enough in steady state the fluid particles move parallel to it, their speed varies from 0 at the bottom to u at the top. Each layer of fluid moves faster than the one just below it, friction between them gives rise to a force resisting their relative motion. In particular, the fluid applies on the top plate a force in the direction opposite to its motion, an equal but opposite force on the bottom plate. An external force is therefore required in order to keep the top plate moving at constant speed. In many fluids, the flow velocity is observed to vary linearly from zero at the bottom to u at the top. Moreover, the magnitude F of the force acting on the top plate is found to be proportional to the speed u and the area A of each plate, inversely proportional to their separation y: F = μ A u y; the proportionality factor μ is the viscosity of the fluid, with units of Pa ⋅ s. The ratio u / y is called the rate of shear deformation or shear velocity, is the derivative of the fluid speed in the direction perpendicular to the plates.
If the velocity does not vary linearly with y the appropriate generalization is τ = μ ∂ u ∂ y, where τ = F / A, ∂ u / ∂ y is the local shear velocity. This expression is referred to as Newton's law of viscosity. In shearing flows with planar symmetry, it is what defines μ, it is a special case of the general definition of viscosity, which can be expressed in coordinate-free form. Use of the Greek letter mu for the viscosity is common among mechanical and chemical engineers, as well as physicists. However, the Greek letter eta is used by chemists and the IUPAC; the viscosity μ is sometimes referred to as the shear viscosity. However, at least one author discourages the use of this terminology, noting that μ can appear in nonshearing flows in addition to shearing flows. In general terms, the viscous stresses in a fluid are defined as those resulting from the relative velocity of different fluid particles; as such, the viscous stresses. If the velocity gradients are small to a first approximation the v
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses dry heat in an oven, but can be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is transferred "from the surface of cakes and breads to their center; as heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit; because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for day-to-day meals and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories; the art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods breads, are a common and important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view.
A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. All types of food can be baked. Various techniques have been developed to provide this protection. In addition to bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pies, quiches, scones, crackers and more; these popular items are known collectively as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery, a store that carries only baked goods, or at markets, grocery stores, farmers markets or through other venues. Meat, including cured meats, such as ham can be baked, but baking is reserved for meatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats, or whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as bread crumbs or buttermilk batter; some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid in the bottom of a closed pan, letting it steam up around the food, a method known as braising or slow baking. Larger cuts prepared without stuffing or coating are more roasted, a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times.
Roasting, however, is only suitable for finer cuts of meat, so other methods have been developed to make tougher meat cuts palatable after baking. One of these is the method known as en croûte, which protects the food from direct heat and seals the natural juices inside. Meat, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte. Well-known examples include Beef Wellington; the en croûte method allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire – a favorite method of cooking venison. Salt can be used to make a protective crust, not eaten. Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking is to cook it en papillote. In this method, the food is covered by baking paper to protect it; the cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products cheese, they are prepared as a dessert.
For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch, the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, the bain-marie method serves this purpose; the cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more applied during the baking process. Baking a successful soufflé requires that the baking process be controlled; the oven temperature must be even and the oven space not shared with another dish. These factors, along with the theatrical effect of an air-filled dessert, have given this baked food a reputation for being a culinary achievement. A good baking technique are needed to create a baked Alaska because of the difficulty of baking hot meringue and cold ice cream at the same time. Baking can be used to prepare other foods such as pizzas, baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans, some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagne.
The first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by resulting in a bread-like substance; when humans mastered fire, the paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created. The world's oldest oven was discovered in Croatia in 2014 dating back 6500 years ago; the Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast, which they had been using to brew beer. Bread baking began in Ancient Greece around 600 BC. "Ovens and worktables have been discovered in archaeological digs from Turkey to Palestine and date back to 5600 BC."Baking flourished during the Roman Empire. Beginning around 300 B. C. the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans and became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, Romans loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastr
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, most used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens used in metalworking, respectively; the earliest ovens were found in Central Europe, dated to 29,000 BC. They were boiling pits inside yurts used to cook mammoth. In Ukraine from 20,000 BC they used pits with hot coals covered in ashes; the food was wrapped in leaves and set on top covered with earth. In camps found in Mezhirich, each mammoth bone house had a hearth used for cooking. Ovens were used by cultures who lived in pre-dynastic Egypt. By 3200 BC, each mud-brick house had an oven in settlements across the Indus Valley. Ovens were used to make bricks. Pre-dynastic civilizations in Egypt used kilns around 5000–4000 BC to make pottery. Culinary historians credit the Greeks for developing bread baking significantly. Front-loaded bread ovens were developed in ancient Greece; the Greeks created a wide variety of doughs, loaf shapes, styles of serving bread with other foods.
Baking developed as a trade and profession as bread was prepared outside of the family home by specially trained workers to be sold to the public. During the Middle Ages, instead of earth and ceramic ovens, Europeans used fireplaces in conjunction with large cauldrons; these were similar to the Dutch oven. Following the Middle-Ages, ovens underwent many changes over time from wood, coal and electric; each design had purpose. The wood burning stoves saw improvement through the addition of fire chambers that allowed better containment and release of smoke. Another recognizable oven would be the cast-iron stove; these were first used around the early 1700s when they themselves underwent several variations including the Stewart Oberlin iron stove, smaller and had its own chimney. In the early part of the 19th century, the coal oven was developed, it was cylindrical in shape and made of heavy cast-iron. The gas oven saw its first use as early as the beginning of the 19th century as well. Gas stoves became common household ovens once gas lines were available to most houses and neighborhoods.
James Sharp patented one of the first gas stoves in 1826. Other various improvements to the gas stove included the AGA cooker invented in 1922 by Gustaf Dalén; the first electric ovens were invented in the late 19th century, like many electrical inventions destined for commercial use, mass ownership of electrical ovens could not be a reality until better and more efficient use of electricity was available. More ovens have become more high-tech in terms of cooking strategy; the microwave as a cooking tool was discovered by Percy Spencer in 1946, with the help from engineers, the microwave oven was patented. The microwave oven uses microwave radiation to excite the molecules in food causing friction, thus producing heat. Double oven: a built-in oven fixture that has either two ovens, or one oven and one microwave oven, it is built into the kitchen cabinet. Earth oven: An earth oven is a pit dug into the ground and heated by rocks or smoldering debris; these have been used by many cultures for cooking.
Cooking times are long, the process is cooking by slow roasting the food. Earth ovens are among the most common things archaeologists look for at an anthropological dig, as they are one of the key indicators of human civilization and static society. Ceramic oven: The ceramic oven is an oven constructed of clay or any other ceramic material and takes different forms depending on the culture; the Indians refer to it as a tandoor, use it for cooking. They can be dated back as far as 3,000 BC, they have been argued to have their origins in the Indus Valley. Brick ovens are another ceramic type oven. A culture most notable for the use of brick ovens is its intimate history with pizza. However, its history dates further back to Roman times, wherein the brick oven was used not only for commercial use but household use as well. Gas oven: One of the first recorded uses of a gas stove and oven referenced a dinner party in 1802 hosted by Zachaus Winzler, where all the food was prepared either on a gas stove or in its oven compartment.
In 1834, British inventor James Sharp began to commercially produce gas ovens after installing one in his own house. In 1851, the Bower's Registered Gas Stove was displayed at the Great Exhibition; this stove would set the basis for the modern gas oven. Notable improvements to the gas stove since include the addition of the thermostat which assisted in temperature regulation. Masonry oven: Masonry ovens consist of a baking chamber made of fireproof brick, stone, or clay. Though traditionally wood-fired, coal-fired ovens were common in the 19th century. Modern masonry ovens are fired with natural gas or electricity, are associated with artisanal bread and pizza. In the past, they were used for any cooking task that required baking. Microwave oven: An oven that uses micro radiation waves as a source of heat in order to cook food as opposed to a fire source. Conceptualized in 1946, Dr. Percy Spencer discovered the heating properties of microwaves while studying the magnetron. By 1947, the first commercial microwave was in use in Mass..
Toaster oven: Toaster ovens are small electric ovens with a front door, wire rack and removable baking pan. To toast bread with a toaster oven, slices of bread are placed horizontally on the rack; when the toast is done, the toaster turns off, but in most case
A bread pan called a loaf pan, is a kitchen utensil in the form of a container in which bread is baked. Its function is to shape bread; the most common shape of the bread pan is the loaf, or narrow rectangle, a convenient form which enables uniform slicing. The bread pan is made from a conductive material such as metal which might be treated with a non-stick coating, it can be made of heat resistant glass, ceramic, or a special type of paper that sticks to the dough but is removed, once cooked. Bread pans are found in a variety of designs and sizes providing the baker with different possibilities not only for baking bread, but cakes and puddings. Types of bread baked in bread pans include sandwich breads, brioche and raisin bread. Cake pan List of cooking vessels Proofing Pullman loaf, type of square slicing bread, made with a lidded bread pan
Online Etymology Dictionary
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words. Douglas Harper compiled the etymology dictionary to record the history and evolution of more than 30,000 words, including slang and technical terms; the core body of its etymology information stems from Ernest Weekley's An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. Other sources include the Middle English Dictionary and the Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, although the sources for each entry are not stated. In producing his large dictionary, Harper says that he is and for the most part a compiler, an evaluator of etymology reports which others have made. Harper works as a Copy editor/Page designer for LNP Media Group; as of June 2015, there were nearly 50,000 entries in the dictionary. The Online Etymology Dictionary has been referenced by Oxford University's "Arts and Humanities Community Resource" catalog as "an excellent tool for those seeking the origins of words" and cited in the Chicago Tribune as one of the "best resources for finding just the right word".
It is cited in academic work as a useful, though not definitive, reference for etymology. In addition, it has been used as a data source for quantitative scholarly research. Official website