Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India. The U. S. Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with the indigenous peoples of the Americas referred to as American Indians. In the Americas the term "Indian" has been most used to refer to the indigenous people of the continents after European colonization in the 15th century. Qualifying terms such as "American Indian" and "East Indian" were and are used to avoid ambiguity; the U. S. government has since coined the term "Native American" to refer to the indigenous peoples of the United States, but terms such as "American Indian" remain popular among both indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Since the 1980s, Indian Americans have been categorized as "Asian Indian" by the United States Census Bureau. While "East Indian" remains in use, the term "South Asian" is chosen instead for academic and governmental purposes. Indian Americans are a subgroup of South Asian Americans, a census group that includes Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans, Burmese Americans, Sri Lankan Americans, etc.
Beginning in the 1600's the East India Company begins bringing indentured Indian servants to American colonies. In 1680, due to anti-miscegenation laws, a mixed-race girl born to an Indian father and an Irish mother is classified as'mulatto' and sold into slavery; the Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only. First significant wave of Indian immigrants enter America, with more than two thousand Indian Sikhs living in the United States in California, by the end of the century, they find work on farms and on lumber mills in the states of California and Washington. Many Punjabi Sikhs settle in California, around the Yuba City area, forming close ties with Mexican Americans; the presence of Indian-Americans helped develop interest in Eastern religions in the US and would result in its influence on American philosophies such as Transcendentalism. Swami Vivekananda arriving in Chicago at the World's Fair led to the establishment of the Vedanta Society.
Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U. S. citizenship. As a Parsi, he was considered a'pure member of the Persian sect' and therefore a free white person; the judge Emile Henry Lacombe, of the Southern District of New York, only gave Balsara citizenship on the hope that the United States attorney would indeed challenge his decision and appeal it to create “an authoritative interpretation” of the law. The U. S. attorney adhered to Lacombe’s wishes and took the matter to the Circuit Court of Appeals in 1910. The Circuit Court of Appeal agreed that Parsees belong to the white race and were "as distinct from Hindus as are the English who dwell in India”. Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U. S. was isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U. S. for Indians and Sikhs who were called hindoos by locals. While anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.
S. politics and culture in the early 20th century, Indians were racialized for their anticolonialism, with U. S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu" menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. Although labeled Hindu, the majority of Indians were Sikh. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that Punjabis were not "white persons" and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship; the Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the "great body of our people" would reject assimilation with Indians. After the Luce–Celler Act of 1946 a quota of 100 Indians per year were permitted to immigrate to the U. S. and become citizens. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European groups, which would alter the demographic mix in the U. S. Not all Indian Americans came directly from India. S. via Indian communities in other countries, including the United Kingdom, the Asia-Pacific region, the Caribbean.
According to the 2010 United States Census, the Asian Indian population in the United States grew from 1,678,765 in 2000 to 2,843,391 in 2010, a growth rate of 69.37%, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. The New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, adjacent areas within New York, as well as nearby areas within the states of New Jersey and including Pike County, was home to an estimated 711,174 uniracial Indian Americans as of the 2017 American Community Survey by the U. S. Census Bureau, comprising by far the largest Indian American population of any metropolitan area in the United States. Monroe Township, Middlesex County, in central New Jersey, the geographic heart of the Northeast megalopolis, has displayed one of the fastest growth rates of its Indian population in the Western Hemisphere, increasing from 25
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Caucasian race is a grouping of human beings regarded as a biological taxon, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa. First introduced in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History, the term denoted one of three purported major races of humankind. In biological anthropology, Caucasoid has been used as an umbrella term for phenotypically similar groups from these different regions, with a focus on skeletal anatomy, cranial morphology, over skin tone. Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations were thus held to have ranged in complexion from white to dark brown. Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropologists have moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective, have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is understood in the social sciences.
Although Caucasian / Caucasoid and their counterparts Negroid and Mongoloid have been used less as a biological classification in forensic anthropology, the terms remain in use by some anthropologists. In the United States, the root term Caucasian has often been used in a different, societal context as a synonym for white or of European, Middle Eastern, or North African ancestry, its usage in American English has been criticized. The traditional anthropological term Caucasoid is a conflation of the demonym Caucasian and the Greek suffix eidos, implying a resemblance to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus. In its usage as a racial category, it contrasts with the terms Negroid and Australoid; the term Caucasian referred in a narrow sense to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus region. In his The Outline of History of Mankind, the German philosopher Christoph Meiners first used the concept of a "Caucasian" race in its wider racial sense. Meiners acknowledged two races: the Caucasian or beautiful, the Mongolian or ugly.
His Caucasian race encompassed all of the ancient and most of the modern native populations of Europe, the aboriginal inhabitants of West Asia, the autochthones of Northern Africa, the Indians, the ancient Guanches. In his earlier racial typology, Meiners put forth that Caucasians had the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin". In a series of articles, Meiners boasts about the superiority of Germans among Europeans, describes non-German Europeans' color as "dirty whites", in an unfavorable comparison with Germans; such views were typical of early proto-scientific attempts at racial classification, where skin pigmentation was regarded as the main difference between races. This view was shared by the French naturalist Julien-Joseph Virey, who believed that the Caucasians were only the palest-skinned Europeans, it was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German professor of medicine and a member of the British Royal Society, who came to be considered one of the founders of the discipline of anthropology, who gave the term a wider audience, by grounding it in the new methods of craniometry and Linnean taxonomy.
Blumenbach did not credit Meiners with his taxonomy, although his justification points to Meiners' aesthetic viewpoint of Caucasus origins: Caucasian variety – I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian. Blumenbach would assert that of the various Caucasian varieties, the Northern European type represented the perfect form. In contrast to Meiners, Blumenbach was a monogenist – he considered all humans to have a shared origin and to be a single species. Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential for achievement. In various editions of On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach expanded on Meiners' popular idea and defined five human races based on color, using popular racial terms of his day, justified with scientific terminology, cranial measurements, facial features, he established Caucasian as the "white race", Mongoloid as the "yellow race", Malayan as the "brown race", Ethiopian as the "black race", American as the "red race".
In the 3rd edition of his On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach moved skin tone to second-tier importance after noticing that poorer European people whom he observed worked outside became darker skinned through sun exposure. He noticed that darker skin of an "olive-tinge" was a natural feature of some European populations closer to the Mediterranean Sea. Alongside the anthropologist Georges Cuvier, Blumenbach classified the Caucasian race by cranial measurements and bone morphology in addition to skin pigmentation, thus considered more than just the palest Europeans as archetypes for the Caucasian race. Following Meiners, Blumenbach described the Caucasian race as con
Blood, Sweat & Tears
Blood, Sweat & Tears is a jazz-rock Canadian-American music group. They are noted for their combination of rock band instrumentation; the group recorded songs by rock/folk songwriters such as Laura Nyro, James Taylor, the Band and the Rolling Stones as well as Billie Holiday and Erik Satie. They incorporated music from Thelonious Monk and Sergei Prokofiev into their arrangements, they were formed in 1967 in New York City. Since their beginnings, the band has gone through numerous iterations with varying personnel and has encompassed a multitude of musical styles; the band is most notable for their fusion of rock, pop music, horn arrangements and jazz improvisation into a hybrid that came to be known as "jazz-rock". Unlike "jazz fusion" bands, which tend toward virtuosic displays of instrumental facility and some experimentation with electric instruments, the songs of Blood, Sweat & Tears merged the stylings of rock, pop and R&B/soul music with big band, while adding elements of 20th-century classical and small combo jazz traditions.
Al Kooper, Jim Fielder, Fred Lipsius, Randy Brecker, Jerry Weiss, Dick Halligan, Steve Katz and Bobby Colomby formed the original band. The creation of the group was inspired by the "brass-rock" ideas of the Buckinghams and its producer, James William Guercio, as well as the early 1960s Roulette-era Maynard Ferguson Orchestra. Al Kooper was the group's initial bandleader, having insisted on that position based on his experiences with the Blues Project, his previous band with Steve Katz, organized as an egalitarian collective. Jim Fielder was from Frank Zappa's the Mothers of Invention and had played with Buffalo Springfield. Kooper's fame as a high-profile contributor to various historic sessions of Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix and others was a catalyst for the prominent debut of Blood, Sweat & Tears in the musical counterculture of the mid-sixties. Kooper, Colomby and Fielder did a show as a quartet at the Village Theatre in New York City on September 16, 1967, with James Cotton Blues Band opening.
Fred Lipsius joined the others a month later. A few more shows were played as a quintet. Lipsius recruited the other three, Dick Halligan, Randy Brecker and Jerry Weiss, who were New York jazz horn players Lipsius knew; the final lineup debuted at the Cafe Au Go Go on November 17–19, 1967 moved over to play The Scene the following week. The band was a hit with the audience, who liked the innovative fusion of jazz with acid rock and psychedelia. After signing to Columbia Records, the group released; the album cover was considered quite innovative showing the band members sitting and standing with child-sized versions of themselves. The album picked up in sales despite growing artistic differences among the founding members which resulted in several personnel changes for the second album. Colomby and Katz wanted to move Kooper to keyboard and composing duties, while hiring a stronger vocalist for the group, causing Kooper's departure in April 1968, he became a record producer for the Columbia label, but not before arranging some songs that would be on the next BS&T album.
The group's trumpeters, Randy Brecker and Jerry Weiss left and were replaced by Lew Soloff and Chuck Winfield. Brecker joined Horace Silver's band with his brother Michael, together they formed their own horn-dominated musical outfits and the Brecker Brothers. Jerry Weiss went on to start the styled group Ambergris. After Kooper left the group and Katz began to look for a new vocalist, considering Alex Chilton, Stephen Stills, Laura Nyro, they decided upon David Clayton-Thomas, a Canadian singer, born in Surrey, England. Folk singer Judy Collins had seen Clayton-Thomas perform at a New York City club and was so taken and moved by his performance that she told Colomby and Katz about him. With her prodding, they came to see Clayton-Thomas perform and were so impressed that he was offered the role of lead singer in a re-constituted Blood Sweat & Tears. Trombonist Halligan took up the organ chores and Jerry Hyman joined to take over trombone. With new trumpeters Soloff and Winfield the now nine-member band debuted at New York's Cafe Au Go Go on June 18, 1968, beginning a two-week residency.
The group's second album, Sweat & Tears, was produced by James William Guercio and released in late 1968. It was more pop-oriented; the record hit the top of the charts, winning Album of the Year at the Grammy Awards over the Beatles' Abbey Road, among other nominees. Three hit singles were released from Blood, Sweat & Tears: a cover of Berry Gordy and Brenda Holloway's "You've Made Me So Very Happy", Clayton-Thomas' "Spinning Wheel", a version of Nyro's "And When I Die"; each of these three #2 singles was on Billboard Magazine's Hot 100 chart for 13 weeks. The commercial and critical acclaim enjoyed by the band in 1969 culminated in an appearance at Woodstock, in which the band enjoyed headliner status; the festival's film crew caught the band's opening number, "More and More", as they took to the stage. But the band's manager at the time, Bennett Glotzer, ordered the movie crew to turn off the cameras and leave the stage since the band had not agreed nor been paid to be filmed. While Blood, Sweat & Tears achieved commercial success alongside configured ensembles such as Chicago and the Electric Flag, the band had difficulty maintaining its status as a counterculture icon at a time when record company executiv
Linda Marie Emond is an American stage and television actress. Emond has received three Tony Award nominations for her performances in Life 3, Death of a Salesman and Cabaret. Emond was born in New Jersey, she was raised in Orange County and attended Loara Elementary, Ball Junior High and Loara High Schools. She graduated with a BA in Theatre Arts from California State University, Fullerton in 1982, she earned an MFA from the Professional Actor Training Program at the University of Washington, Seattle. Her first performance on stage was in high school as Jean Brodie in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, her first professional stage performance, for which she earned her Equity card, was in On the Verge at The Empty Space Theatre in Seattle during her last semester of graduate school. She worked extensively in Chicago where she went on to be nominated for five Joseph Jefferson Awards, winning it twice for her performances as Eliza Doolittle in Pygmalion and Paulina in The Winter’s Tale, she debuted on the New York stage in the Off-Broadway play Nine Armenians in 1996 at the Manhattan Theatre Club for which she received a Drama Desk Award nomination.
She has performed in Tony Kushner's Homebody/Kabul in three separate productions, the first at the New York Theatre Workshop in 2001, receiving a nomination for a Drama Desk Award as Outstanding Featured Actress, winning both the Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Actress and the 2002 Obie Award for Performance. She appeared in the same play at the Mark Taper Forum, Los Angeles and at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in 2004. In 2011, she appeared off-Broadway in Tony Kushner's The Intelligent Homosexual's Guide to Capitalism and Socialism with a Key to the Scriptures as “Empty”, a part, written for her, she was cast as "Elaine" in Craig Lucas's The Dying Gaul at the Vineyard Theater in 1998. She played the role of Queen Hermione in The Winter's Tale at the Public Theater production of Shakespeare in the Park in July 2010. In regional theatre, Emond has performed at Steppenwolf Theatre Company in Chicago in David Hare's The Secret Rapture in 1990 and at the Williamstown Theatre Festival in The Cherry Orchard and A.
R. Gurney's Far East. On Broadway, Emond appeared in productions of the musical 1776 as Abigail Adams, in Yasmina Reza's play Life x 3, for which she was nominated for the 2003 Tony Award as Best Featured Actress in a Play and for which she won the Outer Critics Circle Award, she starred as Linda Loman in the 2012 Broadway revival of Death of a Salesman, opposite Philip Seymour Hoffman and as Fraulein Schneider in the 2014 revival of Cabaret and received Tony nominations for both performances. Emond's film and television roles include Simone Beck in Julie & Julia, Georgia O'Keeffe a made-for-television Lifetime film, as Abigail Adams in American Experience: John and Abigail Adams for PBS. In 2009, she played Mary Ann McCray in the Hallmark Hall of Fame television presentation of A Dog Named Christmas, she has had recurring roles in such New York-based television series as The Good Wife, Law & Order: SVU, Gossip Girl, Wonderland and The Knick. She is a voiceover actor, having narrated over 50 episodes of the Lifetime series Intimate Portrait.
As an audiobook reader, Emond is the recipient of four Audiofile Earphones Awards and was named one of their Best Voices of the Year. Emond co-starred in Indignation, an adaptation of Philip Roth's 2008 novel of the same name, playing Esther Messner, the mother of Logan Lerman's lead character, she is a Series Regular on AMC’s Lodge 49, playing Connie Clark. Linda Emond on IMDb Internet Off-Broadway Database Listing
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul
Anaheim is a city in Orange County, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County and the 10th-most populous city in California. Anaheim is the second-largest city in Orange County in terms of land area, is known for being the home of the Disneyland Resort, the Anaheim Convention Center, two major sports teams: the Anaheim Ducks ice hockey club and the Los Angeles Angels baseball team. Anaheim was founded by fifty German families in 1857 and incorporated as the second city in Los Angeles County on March 18, 1876. Anaheim remained an agricultural community until Disneyland opened in 1955; this led to the construction of several hotels and motels around the area, residential districts in Anaheim soon followed. The city developed into an industrial center, producing electronics, aircraft parts and canned fruit. Anaheim is a charter city. Anaheim's city limits extend from Cypress in the west to the Riverside County line in the east and encompass a diverse collection of neighborhoods and communities.
Anaheim Hills is a master-planned community located in the city's eastern stretches, home to many of the city's affluent. Downtown Anaheim has three mixed-use historic districts, the largest of, the Anaheim Colony; the Anaheim Resort, a commercial district, includes the Disneyland Resort, with its two theme parks, multiple hotels, retail district, numerous hotels and retail complexes. The Platinum Triangle, a neo-urban redevelopment district surrounding Angel Stadium, is planned to be populated with mixed-use streets and high-rises. Anaheim Canyon is an industrial district north of California State Route 91 and east of California State Route 57. Anaheim's name is a blend of Ana, after the nearby Santa Ana River, German -heim meaning "home", a common Germanic place name compound; the city of Anaheim was founded in 1857 by 50 German-Americans who were residents of San Francisco and whose families had originated in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Franconia in Bavaria. After traveling through the state looking for a suitable area to grow grapes, the group decided to purchase a 1,165 acres parcel from Juan Pacifico Ontiveros' large Rancho San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana in present-day Orange County for $2 per acre.
For $750 a share, the group formed the Anaheim Vineyard Company. Their new community was named meaning "home by the Santa Anna River" in German; the name was altered to Anaheim. To the Spanish-speaking neighbors, the settlement was known as Campo Alemán. Although grape and wine-making was their primary objective, the majority of the 50 settlers were mechanics and craftsmen with no experience in wine-making; the community set aside 40 acres for a town center and a school was the first building erected there. The first home was built in 1857, the Anaheim Gazette newspaper was established in 1870 and a hotel in 1871; the census of 1870 reported a population of 565 for the Anaheim district. For 25 years, the area was the largest wine producer in California. However, in 1884, a disease infected the grape vines and by the following year the entire industry was destroyed. Other crops – walnuts and oranges – soon filled the void. Fruits and vegetables had become viable cash crops when the Los Angeles – Orange County region was connected to the continental railroad network in 1887.
Polish actress Helena Modjeska settled in Anaheim with her husband and various friends, among them Henryk Sienkiewicz, Julian Sypniewski and Łucjan Paprocki. While living in Anaheim, Helena Modjeska became good friends with Clementine Langenberger, the second wife of August Langenberger. Helena Street and Clementine Street are named after these two ladies, the streets are located adjacent to each other as a symbol of the strong friendship which Helena Modjeska and Clementine Lagenberger shared. Modjeska Park in West Anaheim, is named after Helena Modjeska. During the first half of the 20th century, before Disneyland opened its doors to the public, Anaheim was a massive rural community dominated by orange groves and the landowners who farmed them. One of the landowners was Bennett Payne Baxter, who owned much land in northeast Anaheim that today is the location of Angel Stadium, he came up with many new ideas for irrigating orange groves and shared his ideas with other landowners. He was not only successful, he helped other landowners and businesspeople succeed as well.
Ben Baxter and other landowners helped to make Anaheim a thriving rural community before Disneyland changed the city forever. Today, a street runs along Edison Park, named Baxter Street. During this time, Rudolph Boysen served as Anaheim's first Park Superintendent from 1921 to 1950. Boysen created a hybrid berry which Walter Knott named the boysenberry, after Rudy Boysen. Boysen Park in East Anaheim was named after him. In 1924, Ku Klux Klan members were elected to the Anaheim City Council on a platform of political reform. Up until that point, the city had been controlled by a long-standing business and civic elite, German American. Given their tradition of moderate social drinking, the German Americans did not support prohibition laws of the day; the mayor himself was a former saloon keeper. Led by the minister of the First Christian Church, the Klan represented a rising group of politically oriented non-ethnic Germans who denounced the elite as corrupt and self-serving; the Klansmen aimed to create what they saw as a model, orderly community, one in which prohibition against alcohol