click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lobotomy

A lobotomy, or leucotomy, is a form of psychosurgery, a neurosurgical treatment of a mental disorder that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal cortex. Most of the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, are severed, it was used for psychiatric and other conditions as a mainstream procedure in some Western countries for more than two decades, despite general recognition of frequent and serious side effects. While some people experienced symptomatic improvement with the operation, the improvements were achieved at the cost of creating other impairments; the procedure was controversial from its initial use in part due to the balance between benefits and risks. Today, lobotomy has become a disparaged procedure, a byword for medical barbarism and an exemplary instance of the medical trampling of patients' rights; the originator of the procedure, Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz, shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine of 1949 for the "discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses", although the awarding of the prize has been subject to controversy.

The use of the procedure increased from the early 1940s and into the 1950s. The majority of lobotomies were performed on women. From the 1950s onward lobotomy began to be abandoned, first in Europe; the term is derived from Greek: λοβός lobos "lobe" and τομή tomē "cut, slice". The purpose of the operation was to reduce the symptoms of mental disorders, it was recognized that this was accomplished at the expense of a person's personality and intellect. British psychiatrist Maurice Partridge, who conducted a follow-up study of 300 patients, said that the treatment achieved its effects by "reducing the complexity of psychic life". Following the operation, responsiveness, self-awareness, self-control were reduced; the activity was replaced by inertia, people were left blunted and restricted in their intellectual range. The consequences of the operation have been described as "mixed"; some patients died as a result of the operation and others committed suicide. Some were left brain-damaged. Others became more manageable within the hospital.

A few people managed to return to responsible work, while at the other extreme people were left with severe and disabling impairments. Most people fell into an intermediate group, left with some improvement of their symptoms but with emotional and intellectual deficits to which they made a better or worse adjustment. On average, there was a mortality rate of 5 percent during the 1940s; the lobotomy procedure could have severe negative effects on a patient's personality and ability to function independently. Lobotomy patients show a marked reduction in initiative and inhibition, they may exhibit difficulty putting themselves in the position of others because of decreased cognition and detachment from society. Following surgery, patients were stuporous and incontinent; some gained considerable weight. Seizures were another common complication of surgery. Emphasis was put on the training of patients in the months following surgery. Walter Freeman coined the term "surgically induced childhood" and used it to refer to the results of lobotomy.

The operation left people with an "infantile personality". In an unpublished memoir, he described how the "personality of the patient was changed in some way in the hope of rendering him more amenable to the social pressures under which he is supposed to exist", he described one 29-year-old woman as being, following lobotomy, a "smiling and satisfactory patient with the personality of an oyster" who could not remember Freeman's name and endlessly poured coffee from an empty pot. When her parents had difficulty dealing with her behavior, Freeman advised a system of rewards and punishment. In the early 20th century, the number of patients residing in mental hospitals increased while little in the way of effective medical treatment was available. Lobotomy was one of a series of radical and invasive physical therapies developed in Europe at this time that signaled a break with a psychiatric culture of therapeutic nihilism that had prevailed since the late nineteenth-century; the new "heroic" physical therapies devised during this experimental era, including malarial therapy for general paresis of the insane, deep sleep therapy, insulin shock therapy, cardiazol shock therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, helped to imbue the therapeutically moribund and demoralised psychiatric profession with a renewed sense of optimism in the curability of insanity and the potency of their craft.

The success of the shock therapies, despite the considerable risk they posed to patients helped to accommodate psychiatrists to more drastic forms of medical intervention, including lobotomy. The clinician-historian Joel Braslow argues that from malarial therapy onward to lobotomy, physical psychiatric therapies "spiral closer and closer to the interior of the brain" with this organ taking "center stage as a source of disease and site of cure." For Roy Porter, once the doyen of medical history, the violent and invasive psychiatric interventions developed during the 1930s and 1940s ar

Transport in Swindon

Transport in Swindon and the surroundings has directly contributed to the town's growth and the ingress of businesses and industries. Located on the M4 Corridor and the Great Western Railway Main Line, Swindon's transport connections are adequate to the needs of a growing town; the town of Swindon lies near a junction of two Roman roads which passed close to the site of the Roman fortified town of Durocornovium. Ermin Way was the route from Corinium to Calleva Atrebatum. Secondly a road from Cunetio joined the Ermin Way near Durocornovium; the ancient path of the Ridgeway passes to the south of the town. With the expansion of the quarries and the introduction of the Turnpike Act, the four main access roads into the town were turned into turnpikes between 1751–1775; these were joined by the Swindon to Faringdon road completed in 1757, the Swindon to Marlborough road in 1761. Toll houses were placed on the roads to Stratton St Margaret, Devizes, Wootton Bassett and Cricklade. Residents of Rodbourne Cheney and the Liddiard's came into Swindon via roadways that linked Shaw and Rushey Platt with the gate at Kingshill.

The amount levied depended on the width of wheels. Major roads near or passing through Swindon: M4 motorway – London to South Wales, Junctions 15 and 16 A3102 – Swindon to Malmesbury A346 – Swindon to Ludgershall A361/A4361 – Devon to Northamptonshire A419Chiseldon to Whitminster, Gloucestershire A420Bristol to Oxford A4259 – Swindon to Wanborough The town is famous for its roundabouts, to the extent of selling yearly calendars featuring a different roundabout for each month; the most notable roundabout is the Magic Roundabout that lies at the junction of Drove Road, Queens Drive and Fleming Way near to the County Ground. The official name of this roundabout used to be County Islands, although hardly anyone other than officials called it by this name; the official name was changed in the late 1990s to match its popular name. It is the subject of a pop song by local band XTC. Locals refer to it by the colloquial name of "The Tragic Roundabout" due to the many motor-accidents that occur on it caused by drivers not familiar with its operation.

Accidents occur on matchdays for Swindon Town F. C. and at weekends, where the increased traffic at these periods can be a contributory factor in causing them. In 2009 Swindon became the first English local council to abandon the use of fixed speed cameras, arguing that the £320,000 a year cost did not represent an effective way to reduce road accidents. Mobile cameras continue to operate. Within four years the town was the safest town to drive in the UK, based on accident rates per 1,000 registered vehicles. Counsellor Peter Greenhalgh, the Cabinet Member for Council Transformation and Strategic Planning, linked the finding to the removal of speed cameras and resultant additional funding for road safety, alongside close working with the police. National Express operate a number of services from Swindon including the 222 which starts in Gloucester and continues on to Heathrow and Gatwick airports and the 403 which operates between Bath, Heathrow Airport and London Urban buses were introduced into Swindon in 1927, after the abandonment of the Wilts and Berks Canal.

Operated by Swindon Corporation, they made the tram network redundant by 1929. Swindon Corporation Buses became Thamesdown Transport in 1974 when the council boundaries and name changed. A limited company to comply with the Transport Act 1985 with the council as a major shareholder and subsidiser, Thamesdown Transport was Swindon's largest urban bus operator, it was rebranded Swindon's Bus Company. Swindon's second oldest operator, after Thamesdown Transport, is Stagecoach West, the successor to the Swindon branch of Bristol Tramways established in 1921. Part of the National Bus Company and operating under the name Swindon and District, it was privatised in 1986 and absorbed into the Stagecoach Group in 1993. See Swindon Corporation Tramways Swindon was chosen as the site of the Great Western Railway's Swindon Works in 1841, an event which led to the creation of a Railway Town known as New Swindon and the eventual amalgamation into the town today; the works covered a site of 320 acres and became the focal point for the creation of New Swindon and the influx of over 10,000 new residents in the next 50 years.

In its heyday, the railway employed over 14,000 people in Swindon and the main locomotive fabrication workshop, the A Shop was, at 11.25 acres, one of the largest covered areas in the world. The factory had to be adjacent to the railway, it was necessary for the workers to be housed as close as possible to it; as the town of Swindon at that time was over a mile away on top of the hill, a modest Railway Village of 300 homes was proposed in 1841. Building began using stone from Swindon's quarries and from stone excavated during the boring of Box Tunnel, 243 houses were completed by 1853 with the towns population being estimated at over 2,500. All 300 houses were completed by the mid-1860s. A new town was built, known as New Swindon; this town would remain both physically and administratively separate from Old Swindon until the creation of Swindon Corporation in 1900. Swindon railway station was opened in 1842 and until 1895 every passing train stopped here for at least 10 minutes to change locomotives.

As such Swindon station hosted the first recorded Railway refreshment rooms. In 1962 building of new locomotives ceased at Swindon. Locomotive repairs and carriage and wagon work continued

Franklin P. Turner

Franklin Parnham Turner was an American lawyer who became a delegate to the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861 where he spoke and twice voted for secession. During the American Civil War Turner raised a company to fight with the Confederate States Army in the 36th Virginia Infantry and became a staff officer. Born in Charles County, Maryland to Thomas Turner and his wife Martha Adams Turner, Franklin Turner lost his father when he young, but received an education appropriate to his class, he read law. Turner married Frances Amelia Miller, daughter of War of 1812 veteran Capt. John Miller, they had six children, but most died before reaching adulthood. By the 1850 federal census, Franklin P. Turner was a young lawyer living with his uncle, Rev. John Adams in Washington County, Maryland. A decade Turner had moved across the Appalachian Mountains to Jackson County, Virginia, he had married and practiced law in Ripley, the county seat, owned 5364 in real estate and nearly as much personal property.

Jackson county voters elected Turner as their delegate to the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861 where he spoke and twice voted for secession. Within a month after secession, Turner raised an infantry company in Roane County, which became Company G of the 36th Virginia Infantry, became its captain. However, when the company reorganized in May 1862, George Duval replaced Turner as its captain. Turner left for the capital at Richmond, in June was assigned to the staff of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, he fought at the Battle of Antietam near his childhood home. Turner served on other staffs after Jackson's death, was promoted to the rank of major before the war's end. After the war, Turner remained in Richmond, practiced law there and in Sharpsburg, his firstborn son, working as a page in the Virginia House of Delegates, was killed during the collapse of a floor of the Virginia State Capitol on April 27, 1870. Turner assisted former CSA General Armistead Lindsay Long with preparing his biography of General Robert E. Lee in support of the Lost Cause.

Turner is buried at Mountain View cemetery in Sharpsburg in the family plot. His wife would survive him by decades, but only Frank Van Lear Turner would survive both parents

Zeta Circini

Zeta Circini, Latinized from ζ Circini, is the Bayer designation for a star located in the southern constellation of Circinus. With an apparent visual magnitude of 6.08, it is visible to the naked eye on a dark night. The distance to this star, as estimated using an annual parallax shift of 2.56 mas, is around 1,300 light years. This is a B-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of B2/3 Vn, where the'n' suffix indicates broad absorption lines due to rotation, it is a pulsating B star with a frequency of 0.26877 d−1 and an amplitude of 0.0046 magnitude. The averaged quadratic field strength of the star's longitudinal magnetic field is ×10−2 T; the star is around 32 million years old and is spinning with a projected rotational velocity of 264 km/s. It has an estimated 5.5 times the mass of 3.8 times the Sun's radius. Zeta Circini radiates around 602 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 16,788 K

Duchess Maria Dorothea of W├╝rttemberg

Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg was the daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg. Maria Dorothea was the eldest of five children born to Duke Louis of Württemberg and his second wife Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg, she was born in Carlsruhe, now Poland. Her brother Alexander was the grandfather of Mary of Teck, the future queen consort of George V of the United Kingdom, she was the third wife of Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary, to whom she was married on 24 August 1819. They had five children: Hugh. Burke's Royal Families of the World, Volume 1: Europe & Latin America, London, UK: Burke's Peerage Ltd, page 22

Eucommia ulmoides

Eucommia ulmoides is a species of small tree native to China. It belongs to the monotypic family Eucommiaceae, it is considered vulnerable in the wild, but is cultivated in China for its bark and is valued in herbology such as traditional Chinese medicine. Eucommia ulmoides grows to about 15 m tall; the leaves are deciduous, arranged alternately, simple ovate with an acuminate tip, 8–16 cm long, with a serrated margin. If a leaf is torn across, strands of latex exuded from the leaf veins solidify into rubber and hold the two parts of the leaf together, it flowers from March to May. The flowers are inconspicuous and greenish. E. ulmoides is the sole living species of the genus Eucommia. Eucommia is the only genus of the family Eucommiaceae, was considered to be a separate order, the Eucommiales, it is sometimes known as "gutta-percha tree" or "Chinese rubber tree", but is not related to either the true gutta-percha tree of southeastern Asia, nor to the South American rubber tree. This tree is occasionally planted in botanical gardens and other gardens in Europe, North America and elsewhere, being of interest as the only cold-tolerant rubber-producing tree.

Fossils of other Eucommia species have been found in 10- to 35-million-year-old brown coal deposits in central Europe and in North America, indicating that the genus had a much wider range in the past. It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in Chinese herbology; because of the low production and high demand for natural rubber in China, a unique process has been developed to manufacture elastic materials with Eucommia ulmoides gum as substitutes for natural rubber products. Unlike the latex used to produce natural rubber, the EUG is the polymer trans-1,4-polyisoprene, thus materials made from EUG may demonstrate characteristics other than those of natural rubber, such as higher elasticity, lower thermoplastic temperature, etc. The iridoid glucoside geniposidic acid can be found in E. ulmoides. Chinese herbology 50 fundamental herbs HUEC Nutrition & Obesity online