Local Government Act 1972

The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974. Its pattern of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan county and district councils remains in use today in large parts of England, although the metropolitan county councils were abolished in 1986, both county and district councils were replaced with unitary authorities in many areas in the 1990s. In Wales, the Act established a similar pattern of counties and districts, but these have since been replaced with a system of unitary authorities, it was one of the most significant Acts of Parliament to be passed by the Heath Government of 1970–74 and is surpassed only by the European Communities Act 1972 which took the United Kingdom into the European Communities. Elections were held to the new authorities in 1973, they acted as "shadow authorities" until the handover date. Elections to county councils were held on 12 April, for metropolitan and Welsh districts on 10 May, for non-metropolitan district councils on 7 June.

Elected county councils had been established in England and Wales for the first time in 1888, covering areas known as administrative counties. Some large towns, known as county boroughs, were politically independent from the counties in which they were physically situated; the county areas were two-tier, with many municipal borough, urban district and rural districts within them, each with its own council. Apart from the creation of new county boroughs, the most significant change since 1899 had been the establishment in 1965 of Greater London and its thirty-two London boroughs, covering a much larger area than the previous county of London. A Local Government Commission for England was set up in 1958 to review local government arrangements throughout the country, made some changes, such as merging two pairs of small administrative counties to form Huntingdon and Peterborough and Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, creating several contiguous county boroughs in the Black Country. However, most of the Commission's recommendations, such as its proposals to abolish Rutland or to reorganise Tyneside, were ignored in favour of the status quo.

It was agreed that there were significant problems with the structure of local government. Despite mergers, there was still a proliferation of small district councils in rural areas, in the major conurbations the borders had been set before the pattern of urban development had become clear. For example, in the area, to become the seven boroughs of the metropolitan county of West Midlands, local government was split between three administrative counties, eight county boroughs. Many county boundaries reflected traditions of the Middle Ages or earlier; the Local Government Commission was wound up in 1966, replaced with a Royal Commission. In 1969 it recommended a system of single-tier unitary authorities for the whole of England, apart from three metropolitan areas of Merseyside, SELNEC and West Midlands, which were to have both a metropolitan council and district councils; this report was accepted by the Labour Party government of the time despite considerable opposition, but the Conservative Party won the June 1970 general election on a manifesto that committed it to a two-tier structure.

The new government made Peter Walker and Graham Page the ministers, dropped the Redcliffe-Maud report. They invited comments from interested parties regarding the previous government's proposals; the Association of Municipal Corporations put forward a scheme with 13 provincial councils and 132 main councils, about twice the number proposed by Redcliffe-Maud. The incoming government's proposals for England were presented in a White Paper published in February 1971; the White Paper trimmed the metropolitan areas, proposed a two-tier structure for the rest of the country. Many of the new boundaries proposed by the Redcliffe-Maud report were retained in the White Paper; the proposals were in large part based on ideas of the County Councils Association, the Urban District Councils Association and the Rural District Councils Association. The White Paper outlined principles, including an acceptance of the minimum population of 250,000 for education authorities in the Redcliffe-Maud report, its findings that the division of functions between town and country had been harmful, but that some functions were better performed by smaller units.

The White Paper set out the proposed division of functions between districts and counties, suggested a minimum population of 40,000 for districts. The government aimed to introduce a Bill in the 1971/72 session of Parliament for elections in 1973, so that the new authorities could start exercising full powers on 1 April 1974; the White Paper made no commitments on regional or provincial government, since the Conservative government preferred to wait for the Crowther Commission to report. The proposals were changed with the introduction of the Bill into Parliament in November 1971: Area 4 would have had a border with area 2, cutting area 3 off from the coast. Seaham and Easington were to be part of the Sunderland district. Humbe


Samson was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy. He is sometimes considered to be an Israelite version of the popular Near Eastern folk hero embodied by the Sumerian Enkidu and the Greek Heracles; the biblical account states that Samson was a Nazirite, that he was given immense strength to aid him against his enemies and allow him to perform superhuman feats, including slaying a lion with his bare hands and massacring an entire army of Philistines using only the jawbone of a donkey. However, if Samson's long hair were cut his Nazirite vow would be violated and he would lose his strength. Samson was betrayed by his lover Delilah, who ordered a servant to cut his hair while he was sleeping and turned him over to his Philistine enemies, who gouged out his eyes and forced him to grind grain in a mill at Gaza. Whilst there his hair began to regrow.

When the Philistines took Samson into their temple of Dagon, Samson asked to rest against one of the support pillars. In some Jewish traditions, Samson is believed to have been buried in Tel Tzora in Israel overlooking the Sorek valley. Samson has been the subject of both rabbinic and Christian commentary, with some Christians viewing him as a type of Jesus, based on similarities between their lives. Notable depictions of Samson include John Milton's closet drama Samson Agonistes and Cecil B. DeMille's 1949 Hollywood film Samson and Delilah. Samson plays a major role in Western art and traditions. According to the account in the Book of Judges, Samson lived during a time of repeated conflict between Israel and Philistia, when God was disciplining the Israelites by giving them "into the hand of the Philistines". Manoah was an Israelite from Zorah, descended from the Danites, his wife had been unable to conceive; the Angel of the Lord appeared to Manoah's wife and proclaimed that the couple would soon have a son who would begin to deliver the Israelites from the Philistines.

The Angel of the Lord stated that Manoah's wife was to abstain from all alcoholic drinks, her promised child was not to shave or cut his hair. He was to be a Nazirite from birth. In ancient Israel, those wanting to be dedicated to God for a time could take a Nazirite vow which included abstaining from wine and spirits, not cutting hair or shaving, other requirements. Manoah's wife believed the Angel of the Lord. After the Angel of the Lord returned, Manoah asked him his name, but he said, "Why do you ask my name? It is beyond understanding." Manoah prepared a sacrifice, but the Angel of the Lord would only allow it to be for God. He touched it with his staff, miraculously engulfing it in flames, ascended into the sky in the fire; this was such dramatic evidence of the nature of the Messenger that Manoah feared for his life, since it was said that no one could live after seeing God. However, his wife convinced him that, if God planned to slay them, he would never have revealed such things to them.

In due time, their son Samson was born, he was raised according to the Angel's instructions. When he was a young adult, Samson left the hills of his people to see the cities of Philistia, he fell in love with a Philistine woman from Timnah, whom he decided to marry, ignoring the objections of his parents over the fact that she was non-Israelite. In the development of the narrative, the intended marriage was shown to be part of God's plan to strike at the Philistines. According to the biblical account, Samson was seized by the "Spirit of the Lord," who blessed him with immense strength; the first instance of this is seen when Samson was on his way to ask for the Philistine woman's hand in marriage, when he was attacked by a lion. He grabbed it and ripped it apart, as the spirit of God divinely empowered him. However, Samson kept it a secret, not mentioning the miracle to his parents, he became betrothed to her. He returned home came back to Timnah some time for the wedding. On his way, Samson made honey.

He gave some to his parents. At the wedding feast, Samson told a riddle to his thirty groomsmen. If they could solve it, he would give them thirty pieces of fine linen and garments, but if they could not solve it, they would give him thirty pieces of fine linen and garments; the riddle was a veiled account of two encounters with the lion, at which only he was present: The Philistines were infuriated by the riddle. The thirty groomsmen told Samson's new wife that they would burn her and her father's household if she did not discover the answer to the riddle and tell it to them. At the urgent and tearful imploring of his bride, Samson told her the solution, she told it to the thirty groomsmen. Before sunset on the seventh day they said to him, Samson said to them, Samson traveled to Ashkelon where he slew thirty Philistines for their garments. In a rage, Samson returned to his father's house; the family of his would-have-been bride instead gave her to one of the groomsmen as wife. Some time Samson returned to Timnah to visit his wife, unaware that she was now married to one of his f

Dennis Frederiksen

Dennis Hardy Frederiksen was an American rock singer best known as the former lead singer of Trillion, Angel, LeRoux and Toto, as well as providing backing vocals for Survivor. He was credited as Fergie Frederiksen or just Fergie, he contributed to hit singles in three consecutive years, all with different bands: Survivor's "American Heartbeat" in 1982, LeRoux's "Carrie's Gone" in 1983 and Toto's "Stranger in Town" in 1984. Frederiksen started his musical career at the age of 13, he played clubs and pubs at the age of 15 with a group called the Common People in Grand Rapids, MI. In 1975, while he was still attending college at Central Michigan, Frederiksen was asked by his friend Tommy Shaw to replace him as the lead vocalist for the band MSFunk, as Shaw was leaving to join Styx. Frederiksen was with MSFunk for a year before disbanding in 1976. While living in Chicago, he helped form a local progressive rock band called Trillion with keyboardist Patrick Leonard. Trillion's debut album was produced by Gary Lyons.

The band went on to tour with Styx and Heart, where Frederiksen began performing his trademark back-flips during live shows to fire up crowds, a gimmick he would continue with bands. Frederiksen would leave the group after one album, was replaced by Thom Griffin. After leaving Trillion, Frederiksen started focusing on session work. In 1979, he signed with Casablanca Records, he sang two tracks on the soundtrack to Can't Stop The Music, as well as a more AOR-style solo album in 1981, with his friend Mark Christian as the lead guitarist. This would turn out to be one of the last albums released by Casablanca Records, as the fall of disco in the early 1980s forced the label to fold becoming part of Polygram Records, he would drop the stage name soon after going by his childhood nickname "Fergie". While at Casablanca, he met Greg Giuffria, of the defunct glam-rock band Angel; the two started working in his studio in late 1981 in hopes of a possible new Angel LP under a new line-up. It was in these Angel recordings.

The two have collaborated on many projects. This line-up never completed an official album, as Giuffria started focusing on the formation of his group Giuffria in 1982, but did record three songs during band sessions: "Whips", "Troubleshooter", "Should Have Known Better"; these tracks were released on the Angel Rarities collection, were covered by White Sister. After Kansas singer Steve Walsh left the band, auditions were held in early 1982. Frederiksen was one of several candidates who tried out, but John Elefante took over the lead vocal spot. However, Kansas manager Budd Carr spotted Fergie during auditions and began working with him soon after, which would prove instrumental for Frederiksen's career, it was around this time that long-time friends Jim Peterik and Frankie Sullivan from Survivor invited Frederiksen to their studio during the recording of their third album, while lead singer Dave Bickler was experiencing vocal cord strain. Bickler was able to finish the album, Frederiksen assisted with background vocals.

The band's third album Eye of the Tiger was released in May 1982, with Frederiksen credited as "Fergie". It jumped to number 2 on the Billboard charts, went 2x Platinum on the strength of its #1 title track. Frederiksen provided harmonies on five tracks, including the album's second single, "American Heartbeat", which charted in the top 20. In late summer of 1982, Frederiksen and Asia session-guitarist Jim Odom were both recruited by manager Budd Carr, to replace lead singer/guitarist Jeff Pollard of LeRoux, who had left the band to start his own Christian ministry. Fergie became LeRoux's new front-man soon after. So Fired Up, the band's fifth album, was released in February 1983, it included the hit song "Carrie's Gone", which Frederiksen wrote shortly after breaking up with girlfriend Carrie Hamilton. The band was dropped from RCA Records, but are still together and touring, were inducted into the Louisiana Music Hall of Fame. Meanwhile, Frederiksen reunited with Ricky Phillips to start a brand new band called Abandon Shame, featuring Journey keyboardist Jonathan Cain, his wife Tane.

The quartet worked on 5 songs with Fergie only singing on one of the tracks. The Kevin Elson-produced "You Can't Do That", "Burnin' in the Third Degree", "Photoplay" appeared in the soundtrack to The Terminator, were credited to Tahnee Cain and Trianglz. While "Kicks" and "Over Night Sensation" would appear in the 1985 film Armed Response, with Tane and Fergie singing the leads respectively. Phillips, friends with Toto drummer Jeff Porcaro, gave him a Frederiksen demo. Toto, who had fired lead singer Bobby Kimball in the midst of recording their fifth album Isolation, invited Frederiksen to come audition for his spot. After edging out Eric Martin, he got the job, the band finished recording Isolation, released in October 1984, it went Gold. The music video for "Stranger in Town", which featured Fergie as the murder victim, was nominated at the 1985 MTV Video Music Awards for Best Direction. After touring