Israeli system of government
The Israeli system of government is based on parliamentary democracy. The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of leader of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the Knesset; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The political system of the State of Israel and its main principles are set out in 11 Basic Laws. Israel does not have a written constitution; the President of the State is the de jure head of state of Israel. The position is an apolitical and ceremonial role, is not considered a part of any Government Branch; the President's ceremonial roles include signing every law and international or bilateral treaty, ceremonially appointing the Prime Minister and endorsing the credentials of ambassadors, receiving the credentials of foreign diplomats. The President has several important functions in government; the President is the only government official with the power to commute prisoners. The President appoints the governor of the Bank of Israel, the president of the national emergency relief service Magen David Adom, the members and leaders of several institutions.
The President ceremonially appoints judges to their posts after their selection. The Prime Minister is the most powerful political figure in the country; the Prime Minister is ceremonially appointed by the President upon recommendation of party Representatives in the Knesset, makes foreign and domestic policy decisions which are voted on by the cabinet. The cabinet is composed of ministers, most of whom are the heads of government departments, though some are deputy ministers and ministers without portfolio. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the Prime Minister, who must appoint members based on the distribution of votes to political parties; the cabinet's composition must be approved by the Knesset. The Prime Minister may dismiss cabinet members, but any replacements must be approved by the Knesset. Most ministers are members of the Knesset; the cabinet meets weekly on Sundays, there may be additional meetings if circumstances require it. Each cabinet meeting is chaired by the Prime Minister. A select group of ministers led by the Prime Minister forms the security cabinet, responsible for outlining and implementing a foreign and defense policy.
This forum is designed to coordinate diplomatic negotiations, to make quick and effective decisions in times of crisis and war. The Israeli government has 28 ministries, each of them responsible for a sector of public administration. Many Ministries are located in the Kiryat Ben Gurion Government complex in the area of Givat Ram in Jerusalem; each ministry is led by a minister, a member of the cabinet and is a member of the Knesset. The Office of the Prime Minister coordinates the actions of the work of all government ministries, serving and assisting the Prime Minister in his daily work; the State Comptroller, which supervises and reviews the policies and operations of the government, is elected by the Knesset in secret ballot. The Knesset is seated in Jerusalem, its 120 members are elected to 4-year terms through party-list proportional representation, as mandated by the 1958 Basic Law: The Knesset. Knesset seats are allocated among parties using the D'Hondt method of party list proportional representation.
Parties select candidates using a closed list. Thus, voters select the party of their choice, rather than any specific candidate. Israel requires a party to meet an election threshold of 3.25% to be allocated a Knesset seat. All Israeli citizens 18 years of age and older may participate in legislative elections, which are conducted by secret ballot; as the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset has the power to enact and repeal all laws. It enjoys de jure parliamentary supremacy, can pass any law by a simple majority one that might arguably conflict with a Basic Law, unless it has specific conditions for its modification; the Knesset can amend Basic Laws acting through its capacity as a Constituent Assembly. The Knesset supervises government activities through its committees, nominates the Prime Minister and approves the cabinet, elects the President of the State and the State Comptroller, it has the power to remove the President and State Comptroller from office, revoke the immunity of its members, to dissolve itself and call new elections.
The February 2009 elections produced five prominent political parties. Three of these parties were ruling parties in the past. However, only once has a single party held the 61 seats needed for a majority government. Therefore, aside from that one exception, since 1948 Israeli governments have always comprised coalitions; as of 2009, there are 12 political parties represented in the Knesset, spanning both the political and religious spectra. Israel's electoral system operates within the parameters of a Basic Law and of the 1969 Knesset Elections Law; the Knesset's 120 members are elected by secret ballot to 4-year terms, although the Knesset may decide to call for new elections before the end of the 4-year term, a government can change without a general election. In addition a motion of confidence may be called. Voting in general elections takes place using the highest averages method of party-list proportional representation, using the d'Hondt formula. General el
Visa requirements for Israeli citizens
Visa requirements for Israeli citizens refers to regulations pertaining to visas for holders of Israeli passports. As of 26 March 2019, Israeli citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 161 countries and territories, ranking the Israeli passport 22nd in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index. According to Israeli law, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran are designated as "enemy countries" and an Israeli citizen must obtain a special permit from the Israeli Ministry of the Interior to visit these countries. An Israeli who visits these countries, whether with a foreign or an Israeli passport, may be prosecuted when coming back to Israel; this list was set in 1954, was updated on 25 July 2007 to include Iran. Egypt and Jordan remained on the "enemy countries" list. A 2008 amendment to the Nationality Law of 1952 designated nine countries as enemy states: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Sudan and Yemen, as well as the Gaza Strip. Under an Israeli military order, Israeli citizens except for security personnel carrying out operations are prohibited from entering Area A of the West Bank, where the Palestinian Authority exercises full civil and security control.
Some controversial rejections of Israeli nationals include tennis player Shahar Pe'er, denied a visa to the United Arab Emirates which would have allowed her to play in the 2009 Dubai Open. People who make aliyah to Israel are eligible for an Israeli passport after 90 days in the country. Visa requirements for holders of normal passports traveling for tourist purposes: There are 70 resident embassies, 23 consulates and five "special" missions in the 159 states that recognise Israel. See List of diplomatic missions of Israel. Due to ongoing conflict with Arab nations, 18 Arab members of the United Nations do not recognize the State of Israel: Algeria, Comoros, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. Israeli citizens need special approval from the Ministry of Interior to visit these countries. Visa policy of Israel Israeli passport Israeli identity card Who is a Jew? List of nationalities forbidden at border References Notes
City council (Israel)
A city council is the official designation of a city within Israel's system of local government. Municipality status may be granted by the Interior Minister to a municipality a local council, whose population surpasses 20,000 and whose character is urban, defined as having areas zoned for distinct land use like residential and industrial areas. City mayors and members of the city councils are elected every five years. List of cities in Israel Local council Regional council Local Government in Israel; the Knesset Lexicon of Terms. 2009 Local Authorities on Israel Government portal City Council Ordinance
The Knesset is the unicameral national legislature of Israel. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government. In addition, the Knesset elects the State Comptroller, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, dissolve the government in a constructive vote of no confidence, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Prime Minister may dissolve the Knesset. However, until an election is completed, the Knesset maintains authority in its current composition; the Knesset is located in Jerusalem. The term "Knesset" is derived from the ancient Knesset HaGdola or "Great Assembly", which according to Jewish tradition was an assembly of 120 scribes and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism – about two centuries ending c. 200 BCE.
There is, however, no organisational continuity and – aside from the number of members – little similarity, as the ancient Knesset was a religious unelected body. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the president, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government through its committees, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Knesset has de jure parliamentary supremacy, can pass any law by a simple majority one that might arguably conflict with the Basic Laws of Israel, unless the basic law includes specific conditions for its modification. In addition to the absence of a formal constitution, with no Basic Law thus far being adopted which formally grants a power of judicial review to the judiciary, the Supreme Court of Israel has in recent years asserted its authority, when sitting as the High Court of Justice, to invalidate provisions of Knesset laws it has found to be inconsistent with a Basic Law.
The Knesset is presided over by a Deputy Speaker. The Knesset is divided into committees. Committee chairpersons are chosen by their members, on recommendation of the House Committee, their factional composition represents that of the Knesset itself. Committees may elect sub-committees and delegate powers to them, or establish joint committees for issues concerning more than one committee. To further their deliberations, they invite government ministers, senior officials, experts in the matter being discussed. Committees may request explanation and information from any relevant ministers in any matter within their competence, the ministers or persons appointed by them must provide the explanation or information requested. There are four types of committees in the Knesset. Permanent committees amend proposed legislation dealing with their area of expertise, may initiate legislation. However, such legislation may only deal with Basic Laws and laws dealing with the Knesset, elections to the Knesset, Knesset members, or the State Comptroller.
Special committees function in a similar manner to permanent committees, but are appointed to deal with particular manners at hand, can be dissolved or turned into permanent committees. Parliamentary inquiry committees are appointed by the plenum to deal with issues viewed as having special national importance. In addition, there are two types of committees that convene only when needed: the Interpretations Committee, made up of the Speaker and eight members chosen by the House Committee, deals with appeals against the interpretation given by the Speaker during a sitting of the plenum to the Knesset rules of procedure or precedents, Public Committees, established to deal with issues that are connected to the Knesset. Permanent committees: House Committee Finance Committee Economic Affairs Committee Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee Interior and Environment Committee Immigration and Diaspora Affairs Committee Education and Sports Committee Constitution and Justice Committee Labour and Health Committee Science and Technology Committee State Control Committee Committee on the Status of WomenSpecial committees: Committee on Drug Abuse Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on Foreign Workers Israeli Central Elections Committee Public Petitions CommitteeThe other committees are the Arrangements Committee and the Ethics Committee.
The Ethics Committee is responsible for jurisdiction over Knesset members who violate the rules of ethics of the Knesset, or involved in illegal activities outside the Knesset. Within the framework of responsibility, the Ethics Committee may place various sanctions on a member, but is not allowed to restrict a members' right to vote; the Arrangements Committee proposes the makeup of the permanent committees following each election, as well as suggesting committee chairs, lays down the sitting arrangements of political parties in the Knesset, the distribution of rooms in the Knesset building to members and parties. Knesset members join together in formal or informal groups known as "lobbies" or "caucuses", to advocate for a particular topic. There are hundreds of such caucuses in the Knesset; the Knesset Christian Allies Caucus and the Knesset Land of Israel Caucus are two of the largest and mo
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.
Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.
In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.
Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.
South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici
Prime Minister's Office (Israel)
Israeli Prime Minister's Office is the Israeli government office responsible for coordinating the work of all governmental ministry offices and assisting the Israeli Prime Minister in his daily work. The Prime Minister's Office is responsible for formulating the Israeli cabinet's policy, conducting its cabinet meetings, as well as responsible for the foreign diplomatic relations with countries around the world, supervising and overseeing the implementation of the Cabinet's policy. In addition, it is in charge of other governmental bodies, which are directly under the Prime Minister responsibilities. Unlike many other countries, the Office of the Prime Minister of Israel does not serve as his residence; the official residence of the prime minister of Israel is in Beit Aghion, in Jerusalem's Rehavia neighborhood. National Security Council of Israel – National security counseling to the Prime Minister of Israel, security recommendations to the Cabinet of Israel and coordinating between the various security bodies of Israel and overseeing the implementation of the decisions concerning the various security bodies.
Atomic Energy Commission – responsible for the nuclear activities of Israel. Israel Institute for Biological Research – engaged in research of biology and chemistry, is known for developing preemptive defendable means against biological and chemical weapons. Mossad – The Israeli intelligence body. Shin Bet – internal security service of Israel. National Economic Council – Economic counseling to the Prime Minister of Israel, assisting him with formulating the economic policy, while designated to focus on the long term planning. Government Appellation Committee – determines the Hebrew names for the Israeli geographical places, its decisions are binding for all state institutions. Lapam – – A unit within the Prime Minister's office serving as an advertising agency for all governmental ministry offices, other governmental or public bodies. La'am – – A unit within the Prime Minister's office responsible for handing Journalist diploma for Israeli mass media workers and giving a Journalist visa to foreign Journalists staying in Israel.
In addition, it is in charge of coordinating between the Cabinet of Israel and the foreign Journalists community staying in Israel on media activities matters. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics – an Israeli governmental body responsible to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, economy, industry and physical infrastructure, that will serve the decision makers and the public. Israel State Archive National Authority for Religious Services. Minhelet Sela – A governmental directorate responsible for the evacuees of the Israel's unilateral disengagement plan for finding them an alternative dwelling places, compensations and psychological support on adjustment. Pensioner Affairs Minister of Israel – A unit within the Prime Minister's office responsible for Pensioners and the Holocaust survivors; the Prime Minister himself, Benjamin Netanyahu is the Minister for Pensioner Affairs. Beit Aghion Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Prime Minister of Israel Official website
Esther Hayut is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel. She was sworn in on 26 October 2017, is expected to serve as Chief Justice until October 2023. Esther Hayut was born in Herzliya in the Shaviv ma'abara to Yehuda and Yehudit Avni, who were both Romanian Holocaust survivors, her parents divorced when she was a toddler, her father emigrated to the United Kingdom. She grew up in her grandparents' home in the Neve Amal neighborhood of Herzliya. At age 17, she moved to Eilat to live with her mother, she completed high school in Eilat in 1971. After graduating high school, she was conscripted into the Israel Defense Forces, where she served in the military music band of Central Command. After her discharge from the army, Hayut attended law school at Tel Aviv University, graduating in 1977. During her law studies, she met her husband, David Hayut, with whom she had two sons. Hayut interned at the law firm of Haim Yosef Zadok, a former Israeli Minister of Justice, where she stayed on to work as an associate lawyer between 1977 and 1985.
After leaving the firm, Hayut opened an independent office together with her husband, specializing in commercial and tort law. In March 1990 Hayut was appointed as a judge in the Tel Aviv Magistrate Court, in 1996 was appointed to the Tel Aviv District Court where she gained tenure in 1997. In March 2003 Hayut was appointed a Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel, where she gained tenure in March 2004. In May 2015 Hayut was appointed Chairperson of the Central Election Committee for the 21st Knesset. Hayut was elected to replace Miriam Naor as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 2017 and serve as such until 2023, according to the seniority method used in Israel. Women in Israel