Hounslow London Borough Council
Hounslow London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Hounslow in Greater London, England. It is one of 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London, it was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Hounslow as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council. The split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, flood prevention, refuse disposal; as an outer London borough council it has been an education authority since 1965. This arrangement lasted until 1986 when Hounslow London Borough Council gained responsibility for some services, provided by the Greater London Council, such as waste disposal. Since 2000 the Greater London Authority has taken some responsibility for highways and planning control from the council, but within the English local government system the council remains a "most purpose" authority in terms of the available range of powers and functions.
Hounslow local elections Thamesbank Credit Union London Borough of Hounslow website
London School Board
The School Board for London was an institution of local government and the first directly elected body covering the whole of London. The Elementary Education Act 1870 was the first to provide for education for the whole population of England and Wales, it created elected school boards, which had power to build and run schools where there were insufficient voluntary school places. In most places, the school boards were based on borough districts or civil parishes, but in London the board covered the whole area of the Metropolitan Board of Works – the area today known as Inner London. Between 1870 and 1904, the LSB was the single largest educational provider in London and the infrastructure and policies it developed were an important influence on London schooling long after the body was abolished; the entire board was elected every three years, with the first elections held in November 1870. The LSB consisted of forty-nine members elected from ten divisions, based around London's constituencies or the Districts formed under the Metropolis Management Act 1855.
Four divisions, representing the City, Southwark and Greenwich returned four members each. The divisions of Lambeth, Tower Hamlets and Westminster returned five members each. Finsbury and Marylebone returned six and seven members respectively; the membership increased over time: to 50 in 1876 when Lambeth was given an extra member, to 51 in 1882 when the representation of Chelsea increased to five members and to 55 in 1885 when Lambeth was sub-divided into two smaller divisions: Lambeth East and Lambeth West with four and six members respectively. The electoral system of the LSB contained several innovations. Firstly, the board's election of 1870 was polled by secret ballot, being the first large-scale election to use this approach in Britain. Secondly, the cumulative voting system gave electors a number of votes equal to the number of seats in the division in which they were voting; the elector could use up as many of their votes on a single candidate as they wished, which meant that minority interests found representation.
The LSB, at the time of its creation had one of the broadest mandates of any elected body in Britain. Unusually, women were permitted to vote on the same terms as men for the school boards and to stand for election. Three women stood in the first board election in 1870: Elizabeth Garrett, who topped the poll, Emily Davies, who won election, Maria Georgina Grey; when the second elections were held, in 1873, Garrett and Davies stood down, to be replaced by Jane Agnes Chessar and Alice Cowell, while in 1876, Florence Fenwick Miller, Elizabeth Surr, Helen Taylor and Alice Westlake all won election. One measure of the LSB's importance can be seen in the number of notable figures who stood for election to the board; the board attracted a number of the leading figures of the day, including the scientist Thomas Huxley, Helen Taylor, stepdaughter of John Stuart Mill, Lord Lawrence, who served as the LSB's first chairman. The board was responsible for launching a number of political careers, including those of Charles Reed, Benjamin Waugh, the Conservative cabinet minister, William Henry Smith.
The original intention of the board was to provide a sufficient number of school places for the poorest children in London, which were estimated at little more than 100,000. The policy adopted by the LSB was to provide London with modern, high-quality schools, whilst compelling parents, by law, to educate their children. Although education would not be compulsory on a national level until 1880, the board passed a by-law in 1871 that compelled parents to have their children schooled between the ages of five and thirteen; the LSB was successful in their aims and struggled to keep up with the demand for their services. For instance, by the end of the 1880s, the board was providing school places for more than 350,000 children; this growth was attributed to the quality of school premises, which were far superior to those of private or charity schools. The board was responsible for constructing over four hundred schools across London. An important figure in this process was the board's first chief architect.
Robson was responsible for designing. The board's policy was to construct schools which would be attractive, would serve to improve the general appearance of the districts in which they were constructed. Although school board architecture drew a considerable amount of criticism at the time, the schools were sturdy and practical structures, many schools constructed during this period are still in use. Although the school boards had been successful in increasing the number of children attending school in Britain, they were perceived as bureaucratic and expensive; as a response to this, the boards were abolished by the Education Act of 1902, which replaced them with local education authorities. In London, the London County Council had been created in 1889 to replace the Metropolitan Board of Works and in 1904 the responsibility for education in London was transferred to the LCC; the LSB held its final meeting on 28 April 1904, with the county council taking over on 1 May. The LCC itself was abolished in 1965, with education for the former School Board area passing to the Inner London Education Authority, a committee of the Greater London Council.
The ILEA was abolished in 1990, with the inner London borough councils becoming education authorities. Birmingham School Board List of former board schools in Brighton and Hove Education in Britain 1750–1914, W B Stephens, 1998, ISBN 0-333-60512-8 Educational Documents, Englan
Bexley London Borough Council
Bexley London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Bexley in the ceremonial county of Greater London, England. It is one of 32 London borough council in the county; the council comprises 45 councillors. It was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Bexley as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council; the split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, flood prevention, refuse disposal. As an outer London borough council it has been an education authority since 1965; this arrangement lasted until 1986 when Bexley London Borough Council gained responsibility for some services, provided by the Greater London Council, such as waste disposal. Since 2000 the Greater London Authority has taken some responsibility for highways and planning control from the council, but within the English local government system the council remains a "most purpose" authority in terms of the available range of powers and functions.
In 2018, the number of council seats was reduced from 63 to 45. The local authority derives its powers and functions from the London Government Act 1963 and subsequent legislation, it is a billing authority collecting Council Tax and business rates, it processes local planning applications, it is responsible for housing, waste collection and environmental health. It is a local education authority, responsible for social services and waste disposal; the council shares responsibility with the Greater London Authority for strategic policies including housing and the environment. Bexley London Borough Council is the billing authority for Council Tax, collects a precepts on behalf of the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority the Greater London Authority and Transport for London. Since the first election to the council in 1964 political control of the council has been held by the following parties: The May 2018 elections returned a council composition of 34 Conservative Party and 11 Labour Party.
London Borough of Bexley – Official website
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in Northern Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland they remain in existence but have been renamed cities under the provisions of the Local Government Act 2001; the Local Government Act 1994 re-introduced the term for certain "principal areas" in Wales. Scotland did not have county boroughs but instead counties of cities; these were abolished on 16 May 1975. All four Scottish cities of the time — Aberdeen, Dundee and Glasgow — were included in this category. There was an additional category of large burgh in the Scottish system, which were responsible for all services apart from police and fire; when county councils were first created in 1889, it was decided that to let them have authority over large towns or cities would be impractical, so any large incorporated place would have the right to be a county borough, thus independent from the administrative county it would otherwise come under.
Some cities and towns were independent counties corporate, most were to become county boroughs. Ten county boroughs were proposed; the Local Government Act 1888 as passed required a population of over 50,000 except in the case of existing counties corporate. This resulted in 61 county boroughs in two in Wales. Several exceptions were allowed for historic towns: Bath and Oxford were all under the 50,000 limit in the 1901 census; some of the smaller counties corporate—Berwick upon Tweed, Lincoln, Poole and Haverfordwest—did not become county boroughs, although Canterbury, with a population under 25,000, did. Various new county boroughs were constituted in the following decades as more boroughs reached the 50,000 minimum and promoted Acts to constitute them county boroughs; the granting of county borough status was the subject of much disagreement between the large municipal boroughs and the county councils. The population limit provided county councils with a disincentive to allow mergers or boundary amendments to districts that would create authorities with large populations, as this would allow them to seek county borough status and remove the tax base from the administrative county.
County boroughs to be constituted in this era were a mixed bag, including some towns that would continue to expand such as Bournemouth and Southend-on-Sea. Other towns such as Burton upon Trent and Dewsbury were not to increase in population much past 50,000. 1913 saw the attempts of Luton and Cambridge to gain county borough status defeated in the House of Commons, despite the approval of the Local Government Board — the removal of Cambridge from Cambridgeshire would have reduced the income of Cambridgeshire County Council by over half. Upon recommendation of a commission chaired by the Earl of Onslow, the population threshold was raised to 75,000 in 1926, by the Local Government Act 1926, which made it much harder to expand boundaries; the threshold was raised to 100,000 by the Local Government Act 1958. The viability of the county borough of Merthyr Tydfil came into question in the 1930s. Due to a decline in the heavy industries of the town, by 1932 more than half the male population was unemployed, resulting in high municipal rates in order to make public assistance payments.
At the same time the population of the borough was lower than when it had been created in 1908. A royal commission was appointed in May 1935 to "investigate whether the existing status of Merthyr Tydfil as a county borough should be continued, if not, what other arrangements should be made"; the commission reported the following November, recommended that Merthyr should revert to the status of a non-county borough, that public assistance should be taken over by central government. In the event county borough status was retained by the town, with the chairman of the Welsh Board of Health appointed as administrative adviser in 1936. After the Second World War the creation of new county boroughs in England and Wales was suspended, pending a local government review. A government white paper published in 1945 stated that "it is expected that there will be a number of Bills for extending or creating county boroughs" and proposed the creation of a boundary commission to bring coordination to local government reform.
The policy in the paper ruled out the creation of new county boroughs in Middlesex "owing to its special problems". The Local Government Boundary Commission was appointed on 26 October 1945, under the chairmanship of Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve, delivering its report in 1947; the Commission recommended that towns with a population of 200,000 or more should become one-tier "new counties", with "new county boroughs" having a population of 60,000 - 200,000 being "most-purpose authorities", with the county council of the administrative county providing certain limited services. The report envisaged the creation of 47 two-tiered "new counties", 21 one-tiered "new counties" and 63 "new county boroughs"; the recommendations of the Commission extended to a review of the division of functions between different tiers of local government, thus fell outside its terms of reference, its report was not acted upon. The next attempt at reform was by the Local Government Act 1958, which established the Local Government Commission for England and the Local Government
A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has different meanings in different countries; the county councils created under British rule in 1899 continue to exist in Ireland, although they are now governed under legislation passed by Oireachtas Éireann, principally the Local Government Act 2001. The Local Government Act 1898 introduced county councils to Ireland; the administrative and financial business carried by county grand juries and county at large presentment sessions were transferred to the new councils. Principal among these duties were the maintenance of highways and bridges, the upkeep and inspection of lunatic asylums and the appointment of coroners; the new bodies took over some duties from poor law boards of guardians in relation to diseases of cattle and from the justices of the peace to regulate explosives. The Irish county councils differed in constitution from those in Great Britain. Most of the council was directly elected: each county was divided by the Local Government Board for Ireland into electoral divisions, each returning a single councillor for a three-year term.
In addition urban districts were to form electoral divisions: depending on population they could return multiple county councillors. The county councils were to consist of "additional members": The chairman of each rural district council in the county was to be an ex officio member. Where the chairman had been elected to the council or was disqualified, the RDC was to appoint another member of their council to be an additional member; the council could co-opt one or two additional members for a three-year term. The first county council elections were held on 6 April 1899, the first business of their inaugural meetings being the appointment of additional members; the triennial elections were postponed in 1914 on the outbreak of World War I. The Local Government Act, 1919 introduced proportional representation to county councils: all councillors were to be elected by single transferable vote from multi-member electoral areas. There was only one election under the new system, held in January 1920 and on 2 June 1920, during the Irish War of Independence.
The Irish Free State inherited the local authorities created by the United Kingdom legislation of 1898 and 1919, elections were held on 23 June 1925. The first native legislation was the Local Government Act 1925; the act passed their powers to the county councils. At the following election all county councils were to be increased: the number of extra councillors was to be twice the number of abolished rural districts; the act set out the powers and duties of county councils and gave the Minister for Local Government the power to dissolve councils if he was satisfied that "the duties of a local council are not being duly and effectually discharged". He could order new elections to be held, or transfer the power and properties of the council "to any body or persons or person he shall think fit"; the power was used by ministers of all parties. For example, Kerry County Council was dissolved from 1930 to 1932, from 1945 to 1948, with commissioners appointed to perform the council's function; the number of county councils was increased from twenty-seven to twenty-nine in 1994 when the Local Government Act 1993 split County Dublin into three counties: Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin.
In the Republic of China, a county council governs each county. Members of the councils are elected through local elections held every 4–5 years. From the two provinces of the Republic of China, their county councils are County councils of Taiwan Province are Changhua County Council, Chiayi County Council, Hsinchu County Council, Hualien County Council, Miaoli County Council, Nantou County Council, Penghu County Council, Pingtung County Council, Taitung County Council, Yilan County Council and Yunlin County Council. County councils of Fujian Province are Lienchiang County Council. County councils were formed in the late 19th century. In the various constituent countries of the United Kingdom councils had different powers and different memberships. Following local government reforms in the 1970s, county councils no longer exist in Scotland or Northern Ireland. In England they form the top level in a two-tier system of administration. In England county councils were introduced in 1889, reformed in 1974.
Since the mid-1990s a series of local government reorganisations has reduced the number of county councils as unitary authorities have been established in a number of areas. County councils are large employers with a great variety of functions including education, social services, highways and rescue services, waste disposal, consumer services and town and country planning; until the 1990s they ran colleges of further education and the careers services. That decade saw the privatisation of some traditional services, such as highway maintenance and school meals. County councils were created by the Local Government Act 1888 taking over the administrative functions of the unelected county courts of quarter sessions. County councils consisted of councillors, directly elected by the electorate. There was one county alderman for every three councillors; the first elections to the councils were held at various dates in January 1889, they served as "provisional" or shadow councils until 1 April, when they came into their powers.
Elections of all councillors and half of the aldermen took
Barnet London Borough Council
Barnet London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Barnet in Greater London, England. It is one of 32 within London. Barnet is divided into each electing three councillors; the council was created by the London Government Act 1963 and replaced five local authorities: Barnet Urban District Council, East Barnet Urban District Council, Friern Barnet Urban District Council, Finchley Borough Council and Hendon Borough Council. The most recent elections to the authority were in May 2018. There have been a number of local authorities responsible for the Barnet area; the current local authority was first elected in 1964, a year before formally coming into its powers and prior to the creation of the London Borough of Barnet on 1 April 1965. Barnet replaced Barnet Urban District Council, East Barnet Urban District Council, Friern Barnet Urban District Council, Finchley Borough Council and Hendon Borough Council, it was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Barnet as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council.
The split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, flood prevention, refuse disposal. As an outer London borough council it has been an education authority since 1965; this arrangement lasted until 1986 when Barnet London Borough Council gained responsibility for some services, provided by the Greater London Council, such as waste disposal. Since 2000 the Greater London Authority has taken some responsibility for highways and planning control from the council, but within the English local government system the council remains a "most purpose" authority in terms of the available range of powers and functions; the local authority derives its powers and functions from the London Government Act 1963 and subsequent legislation. Barnet has the functions of a London borough council, it is a billing authority collecting Council Tax and business rates, it processes local planning applications, it is responsible for housing, waste collection and environmental health.
It is a local education authority, responsible for social services and waste disposal. The council shares responsibility with the Greater London Authority for strategic policies including housing and the environment. In 2012 Barnet outsourced many functions to Capita under the controversial'One Barnet' programme. Electrical items larger than 51 cm x 52 cm can be recycled at the Civic Amenity and Recycling Centre, Summers Lane, North Finchley, London N12 0RF, they collect over 40 different household materials for recycling at the centre and recycle around 68 per cent of it. Barnet London Borough Council is the billing authority for Council Tax, collects a precept on behalf of the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, the Greater London Authority and Transport for London. North West London Credit Union
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.
Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.
In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In the United Kingdom, "unitary authorities" are English local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not Unitary Authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.
Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils. Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions; the collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency.
Category: Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name. The Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle; the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, although the term is encountered in publications and in use by United Kingdom government departments. Local authorities in Wales are unitary in nature but are described by the Local Government Act 1994 as "principal councils", their areas as principal areas. Various other legislation (e.g. s.9