A local exchange trading system is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and records transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using locally created currency. LETS allow people to negotiate the value of their own hours or services, to keep wealth in the locality where it is created. Similar trading systems around the world are known as Community Exchange Systems, Mutual Credit trading systems, Clearing Circles, Trade Exchanges or Time Banks; these all use'metric currencies' – currencies that measure, as opposed to the fiat currencies used in conventional value exchange. These are all a type of complementary currency. In the 21st century, the internet-based networks haves been used to link individual LETS systems, into national or global networks. Michael Linton may have originated the term "local exchange trading system" in 1983, for a time running the Comox Valley LETSystems in Courtenay, British Columbia.
The system he designed was intended as an adjunct to the national currency, rather than a replacement for it. He called the currency "green dollars" and it was used by a local dentist, but dwindled when he moved away. Linton started at least four more versions, with varying degrees of success, such as the "Community Way Dollars" in 2008. In 2018 the University of Victoria undertook to research his archives as a demonstration of people react to new ideas that are outside the norms of society. Linton thought. After flourishing in the 1990s, the LETS movement waned. Interest in local currency moved on to other designs such as time-based currency and dollar-backed local voucher schemes. On the whole, the movement was slow to adapt to the internet and to the possibility of networking together. Reluctance to engage with technology, a belief in decentralisation/localisation and lack of funds all contributed to this. Examples of LETS networks based on free software are the Cape Town-based Community Exchange System, which as of March 2019 links to the Geneva-based Community Forge and Spanish IntegralCES.
LETS networks facilitate exchange between members by providing a directory of offers and needs and by allowing a line of interest-free credit to each. Members' IOUs are logged in a centralised accounting system which publishes a directory as well as balances visible to all members. In case of a default, the loss of value or units is absorbed by all members, which makes it a mutual credit exchange. For instance, a member may earn credit by doing childcare for one person and spend it on carpentry with another person in the same network, or they may spend first and earn later. In many countries, the distinction between LETS and timebanking is not clear, as many LETS use time as their unit of account; as per Linton's definition, LETS are considered to have the following five fundamental criteria: Cost of service: from the community for the community Consent: there is no compulsion to trade Disclosure: information about balances is available to all members Equivalence to the national currency No interestAccording to a 1996 survey by LetsLink UK, only 13% of LETS networks practise equivalence, with most groups establishing alternative systems of valuation "in order to divorce from the mainstream economy."
Michael Linton has stated that such systems are "personal money" networks rather than LETS. The first LETS required nothing more than an answering machine and a notebook. Since there have been several attempts to improve the process with software, printed notes, other familiar aspects of traditional currencies. Local people set up an organization to trade between themselves paying a small membership fee to cover administration costs Members maintain a directory of offers and wants to help facilitate trades Upon trading, members may'pay' each other with printed notes, log the transaction in log books or online, or write cheques which are cleared by the system accountant. Members whose balances exceed specified limits are obliged to move their balance back towards zero by spending or earning. LETS is exchange system, unlike direct barter. LETS members are able to spend them with anyone else on the scheme. Since the details are worked out by the users, there is much variation between schemes. LETS is not a scheme for avoiding the payment of taxation, groups encourage all members to undertake their liabilities to the state for all taxation, including income tax and goods and services tax.
In a number of countries, various government taxation authorities have examined LETS along with other forms of counter trade, made rulings concerning their use. For personal arrangements, social arrangements, hobbies or pastimes, there are no taxation implications; this covers the vast majority of LETS transactions. Taxation liabilities accrue when a tradesperson or professional person provides his or her professional services in payment for LETS units, or a registered or incorporated business sells part of its product for LETS units. In such cases, the businesses are encouraged to sell the service or product for LETS units and in the national currency, to allow the payment of all required taxation; this does imply, that in situations where national-currency expenditures would be tax-deductible, LETS must be as well. In a number of countries, LETSystems have been encouraged as a social security initiative. For example, in Australia, Peter Baldwin, a former Minister of Social Secu
George X, of the Bagrationi royal dynasty, was a king of the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartli from 1599 until his death. George was the eldest son of his wife, Nestan-Darejan of Kakheti. George fought alongside his father against the Ottoman occupation forces since 1598, he held power after Simon was taken captive by the Turks at the Battle of Nakhiduri in 1599. George attempted several times, though vainly, to ransom his father from captivity and offered to the Sublime Porte his son as hostage, he soon returned to his struggle against the Ottomans and recovered Lorri in 1601. In 1602, when the Safavid shah of Persia Abbas I resumed a war against the Ottomans, George sided with the Persians and led the Georgian auxiliary troops which took part in the conquest of Erivan in 1603/1604; as a reward, Abbas I granted Giorgi X a minor possession in Iran. In exchange, the shah asked for an area in the Debed River valley in the strategic Lorri district. Abbas I populated this territory with members of the Turkmen tribe Borchali.
The Shah permitted Giorgi X to return to Kartli. He was the first king of Kartli who attempted to establish diplomatic ties with the northern co-religionist power of Muscovy. George decided to give his daughter Elene to the Czar Boris Godunov in marriage. However, unstable political situation in both countries terminated these contacts. According to Georgian chronicles, George X died from a sting on his tongue, after biting into a cake with a bee in it, at Mejvriskhevi, 1606. There have been some speculations that the king was poisoned on the orders of the shah Abbas I, he was buried at Mtskheta. George married on September 15, 1578, daughter of Giorgi I Lipartiani, of the Dadiani dynasty, their children were: Luarsab King of Kartli. David, who disappeared while on a mission to rescue Simon I from the Turkish captivity. Elene, affianced to Feodor II of Russia. Khorashan, second wife of Teimuraz I of Kakheti. Tinatin was given in marriage in 1604 to Shah Abbas I, who divorced her after the execution of her brother Luarsab II and married her of to Paykar Khān Igīrmī Dūrt, Khan of Barda and governor of Kakheti.
Floor, Willem. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1850439301. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield. P. 335. ISBN 978-1442241466. Giorgi X Kings of Kartli at Royal Ark website
A milking pipeline or milk pipeline is a component of a dairy farm animal-milking operation, used to transfer milk from the animals to a cooling and storage bulk tank. In small dairy farms with less than 100 cows, goats or sheep, the pipeline is installed above the animals' stalls and they are are milked in sequence by moving down the row of stalls; the milking machine is a lightweight transportable hose assembly, plugged into sealed access ports along the pipeline. In the United States, for farmers who participate in the voluntary Dairy Herd Improvement Association once a month the milk volume from each animal is measured using additional portable metering devices inserted between the milker and the pipeline. In large dairy farms with more than 100 animals, the pipeline is installed within a milking parlor that the animals walk through in order to be milked at fixed stations; because the machine is stationary, it can include additional fixed equipment such as computerized milk-metering systems to measure volume, which would be cumbersome to use with portable milkers.
In both cases the pipeline is constructed out of stainless steel, which does not corrode and is resistant to most chemicals, though larger operations may use larger-diameter pipes in order to handle greater milk volumes. There is a transition point to move the milk from the pipeline under vacuum to the bulk tank, at normal atmospheric pressure; this is done by having the milk flow into a receiver bowl or globe, a large hollow glass container with electronic liquid-detecting probes in the center. As the milk rises to a certain height in the bowl, a transfer pump is used to push it through a one-way check valve and into a pipe that transfers it to the bulk tank; when the level has dropped far enough in the bowl, the transfer pump turns off. Without the check valve, the milk in the bulk tank could be sucked back into the receiver bowl when the pump is not running. In the event of electronics or pump failure, there is usually a secondary bowl attached to the top of receiver bowl, which contains a float and a diaphragm valve.
If the main receiver bowl overflows due to pump failure, the rising milk lifts the float in the secondary bowl, which will cut off vacuum to the entire milk pipeline and will prevent the milk or wash water from being sucked into the vacuum pump. Some milk handling systems eliminate the receiver bowl and transfer pump by having rubber seals on the bulk tank covers, to permit the entire tank to be under vacuum until milking is finished. Milk can just flow directly by gravity from the pipeline into the bulk tank; the pipeline and all milk handling systems are cleaned after every milking session using a washing system that first rinses out the remaining milk and flushes cleaning solution through the piping to kill bacteria and remove milkstone, a layer of scale formed by cations like calcium and magnesium. The entire washing mechanism is operated much like a household dishwasher with an automatic fill system, soap dispenser, automatic drain opener; the pipeline is set up so that the vacuum in the system that lifts milk up can be used to drive the cleaning process.
Rather than having a single line run to the bulk tank a pair of lines transport milk by gravity flow to the receiver bowl and transfer pump. The high ends of these two lines are joined together to form a complete loop back to the receiver bowl. Cleaning is accomplished by inserting a choke plug into one of the lines leading to the transfer pump, sucking large volumes of water from a wash-water supply tank into the choked line; this choke plug is mounted on a rod, is inserted into the line before cleaning, pulled out for regular milking. Due to the choke, the water, sufficient to fill the pipe, is sucked up one side of the pipeline, over the high point joining the two pipeline sections, flows back to the receiver bowl and transfer pump through the unchoked line; the transfer pump is used to move the cleaning solution from the receiver bowl back to the wash-water supply tank to restart the process. The inlet ports on the receiver globe are designed so that large slugs of wash water moving at high speed will enter on a tangent to the sides of the globe and spin around inside to assist in vigorous cleaning of the globe's interior.
It is normal for wash water to overflow out the top of the globe and for some wash water to be sucked into the overflow chamber to flush it out. During cleaning the bottom of the overflow chamber is connected to a drain channel on the receiver globe to permit water to flow out. For the small-farm pipeline, portable milkers are inserted into this cleaning loop by sucking the cleaning solution out of the wash supply tank through the milker claw and outputting from the milker hoses into the choked end of the line; when the water returns to the receiver bowl, the transfer pump returns the water back to the milker's water pickup tank. Dairy farming Bulk tank DeLaval.com - Dairy Knowledge / Efficient Cleaning / What is Cleaning DeLaval.com - Dairy Knowledge / Efficient Cleaning / Circulation Cleaning
Nicole de Weever is a dancer and choreographer from Sint Maarten. After completing her primary schooling in the Caribbean, she moved to the United States, completing education, she has performed in film, on television and appeared on Broadway in the musical Fela! during its initial run in 2009 and reprise in 2012, after a world tour. She was honored as a cultural ambassador by the government of Sint Maarten in 2009. Nicole Chantal de Weever was born in 1979 in Cay Hill, Sint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles to Beatrice and Wilfred de Weever, her father was a general manager of her mother worked in civil service. From a young age, de Weever wanted to pursue a career in dance. After graduating from her primary schooling at the St. Maarten Academy, taking dance lessons at the Motiance Dance School under the tutelage of Arlene Halley and Cees van Doldren, de Weever moved to Fairfax and completed her secondary schooling at Centreville High School. During her high schooling, she was selected to participate in a magnet program with twenty-five students at the Governor's School for the Arts on the campus of the University of Richmond and she trained with the Fairfax Ballet Company.
Furthering her education at the Tisch School of the Arts in New York City, de Weever graduated in 2001. De Weever began her career teaching in programs offered through the New York City Board of Education, teaching at public and private schools, she was selected to demonstrate the techniques of Katherine Dunham for a project of the Library of Congress, Preserving American Dance History and was a featured performer in the PBS documentary, Dancing with Life. She has performed with a variety of dance companies, including Ballet Noir, Creative Outlet Dance Theatre and Forces of Nature Dance Theatre, she has performed in Africa and Asia. In 2008, she was selected as one of the ensemble who performed as the wives of Kuti in the Broadway production of the musical Fela!. The musical was premiered off-Broadway and opened in 2009 on Broadway at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre, running fifteen months; that same year, the government of St Maarten honored her as a cultural ambassador for bringing recognition to the island.
After the show completed its Broadway run, de Weever was part of the musical's worldwide tour for a year before appearing in the reopening on Broadway in 2012. In addition to her work in dance, de Weever founded a non-profit organization, Art Saves Lives, on Sint Maarten in 2012; the NGO helps them learn creative means of expression. It organizes workshops for students to learn from noted Caribbean artists and provides cultural exchange programs where students can visit other islands in the Caribbean or in the United States to develop their skills
Intelsat 605 named Intelsat VI F-5, was a communications satellite operated by Intelsat. Launched in 1991, it was the fourth of five Intelsat VI satellites to be launched; the Intelsat VI series was constructed based on the HS-389 satellite bus. Intelsat 605 was launched at 23:15:13 UTC on 14 August 1991, atop an Ariane 4 44L carrier rocket, flight number V45; the launch took place from ELA-2 at Kourou, placed Intelsat 605 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The satellite raised itself into its final geostationary orbit using two liquid-fuelled R-4D-12 engines, with the satellite arriving in geostationary orbit on 20 August 1991. Intelsat 605 operated in a geostationary orbit with a perigee of 35,756 kilometres, an apogee of 35,818 kilometres, 0 degrees of inclination; the satellite carried 38 IEEE C band and ten IEEE Ku band transponders, had a design life of 13 years and a mass of 4,296 kilograms. During late 1991, Intelsat 605 was operated at a longitude of 21.5 degrees west. In July 1992, it was placed at 24.5 degrees west, where it operated until November 1997.
It subsequently operated at 27.5 degrees west from December 1997 to March 2003. It was placed into a graveyard orbit and decommissioned in January 2009
Indagationes Mathematicae is a Netherlands mathematics journal. The journal originates from the Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded in 1895. From 1939, mathematics articles in this journal were published separately, under the alternative title Indagationes Mathematicae. In 1951 the proceedings split into three journals, keeping the same name but distinguished from each other by being in separate series, they were Series A, Series B, Series C. At that time, Series A became published by the North-Holland Publishing Company. In 1971, North-Holland merged with Elsevier. Beginning in 1990 the journal dropped the "" from its title, leaving the journal's name in its current form as Indagationes Mathematicae. In 2010, sponsorship of the journal was transferred from the Royal Netherlands Academy to the Royal Dutch Mathematical Society, while it continued to be published by Elsevier; the typesetting from this journal, including its mathematical formulae, was chosen by Donald Knuth as one of three examples of typesetting quality when he designed the TeX digital typesetting software from 1978.