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Reed's law

Reed's law is the assertion of David P. Reed that the utility of large networks social networks, can scale exponentially with the size of the network; the reason for this is that the number of possible sub-groups of network participants is 2N − N − 1, where N is the number of participants. This grows much more than either the number of participants, N, or the number of possible pair connections, N/ that if the utility of groups available to be joined is small on a per-group basis the network effect of potential group membership can dominate the overall economics of the system. Given a set A of N people, it has 2N possible subsets; this is not difficult to see, since we can form each possible subset by choosing for each element of A one of two possibilities: whether to include that element, or not. However, this includes the empty set, N singletons, which are not properly subgroups. So 2N − N − 1 subsets remain, exponential, like 2N. From David P. Reed's, "The Law of the Pack": "ven Metcalfe's law understates the value created by a group-forming network as it grows.

Let's say. If you add up all the potential two-person groups, three-person groups, so on that those members could form, the number of possible groups equals 2n. So the value of a GFN increases exponentially, in proportion to 2n. I call that Reed's Law, and its implications are profound." Reed's Law is mentioned when explaining competitive dynamics of internet platforms. As the law states that a network becomes more valuable when people can form subgroups to collaborate, while this value increases exponentially with the number of connections, business platform that reaches a sufficient number of members can generate network effects that dominate the overall economics of the system. Other analysts of network value functions, including Andrew Odlyzko, have argued that both Reed's Law and Metcalfe's Law overstate network value because they fail to account for the restrictive impact of human cognitive limits on network formation. According to this argument, the research around Dunbar's number implies a limit on the number of inbound and outbound connections a human in a group-forming network can manage, so that the actual maximum-value structure is much sparser than the set-of-subsets measured by Reed's law or the complete graph measured by Metcalfe's law.

Andrew Odlyzko's "Content is Not King" Beckstrom's law Coase's penguin List of eponymous laws Metcalfe's law Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon Sarnoff's law Social capital That Sneaky Exponential—Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building Weapon of Math Destruction: A simple formula explains why the Internet is wreaking havoc on business models. KK-law for Group Forming Services, XVth International Symposium on Services and Local Access, March 2004, presents an alternative way to model the effect of social networks

Northside High School (Warner Robins, Georgia)

Northside High School is a high school in Warner Robins, United States. Located at 926 Green Street on the northern side of Warner Robins, it was built in 1963 and enrolls 1960 students, it is a part of Houston County Schools. Northside's mascot is the eagle, its official colors are blue and white, though orange is commonly used. Northside High School opened in 1963 as the second high school to be built in Warner Robins, after Warner Robins High School. Many cosmetic changes were implemented starting in 2001. At the end of the 2004-2005 school year, the school began renovation projects to increase the size of the school. Northside was last renovated during 2005 and 2006; this most recent renovation included a new commons area, an expanded lobby, a bigger cafeteria which connects the Vocational Building with the main building, an expansion of the Technology lab and the band room, a new gymnasium. Construction ended during the 2006-2007 school year. In 2002, Tabor Middle School became Tabor Academy at Northside, a 9th grade-only school which introduces 9th grade students to the high school atmosphere.

The school sponsors athletic teams, including girls' and boys' basketball, cheerleading, cross country, track, soccer, swimming, golf and football. In 1998 Northside Eagle ladies' track team won state in the 100 meters; the Northside Eagles football team have had winning seasons for 22 consecutive years. Northside had 17 consecutive seasons with 10 or more wins from 1998-2014. From 1998 to 2005, the school had five teams go 10-0 in the regular season but falter in the playoffs. In 2006 and 2007, the school broke through with consecutive 15-0 finishes in Class 4-A, won two state championships. In 2009 the Eagles had wins against Lowndes and Newnan in the semi-finals, leading the way for the Eagles to contest for the 5A state championship in 2009, which they lost against Camden County at the Georgia Dome. Northside was moved back down to 4-A due to lack of enough students to remain in the 5-A classification. Northside won the 5A Georgia State Football Championship in 2014; this brought their total number of state titles with three state runner-up titles.

Since 1999, Northside has had nine semi-final appearances and six final appearances in the play-offs, making it to the second round or higher every year, except 2010. In the 2011-2012 school year, the band won first place in class 3A East Georgia Marching Festival, third place, overall band of the day, they received Superior ratings at LGPE Symphonic Band, Excellent ratings at Concert Band LGPE. Their marching show was "The Music of Journey." The school has a show choir program, integrating fundamentals of dance and vocal music. The annual Northside High School One-Act Play is under the direction of Brian Barnett, a 1985 Northside graduate. Over the years, Northside productions have participated in the GHSA One-Act Competition, the Georgia Theatre Conference, Georgia Thespian Conference, International Thespian Festival, the Southeastern Theatre Conference. Northside placed at the GHSA State One-Act Play Competition 34 years in a row, 1974-2008. Overall, Northside has finished second 27 times, 19 of those as State Champion.

Northside was State One-Act Champion in 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014. Until the 1980s, the GHSA State One-Act Competition was held in early February. During the 1990s it was held the first weekend in December, it is now held in mid-November. The GHSA State Literary Contest has ten events: Boys'/Girls' Dramatic Interpretation, Boys'/Girls' Essay, Boys'/Girls' Extemporaneous Speaking, Boys'/Girls' Solo and Quartet; until the 1999-2000 school year, One-Act Play and Debate were included in the total points calculated for the literary events. Northside has placed as one of the top three schools 33 times and finished as State Literary Champion 20 times. Northside was State Literary Champion in 1969, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2013. Kal Daniels, former Major League Baseball player Corey Harris, NFL player Abry Jones, NFL player Steven Nelson, NFL player David Perdue, US Senator Chansi Stuckey, NFL player Robert Davis, NFL player Tobias Oliver, Georgia Tech Quarterback Northside High School


Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. NEDD-9 is known as enhancer of filamentation 1, CRK-associated substrate-related protein, Cas scaffolding protein family member 2. An important paralog of this gene is BCAR1. In 1992, Kumar, et al. First described a sequence tag corresponding to the NEDD9 3′ untranslated region based on the cloning of a group of genes predominantly expressed in the brain of embryonic, but not adult mice, a group of genes designated neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated. In 1996, two groups independently described the complete sequence of the NEDD9 gene, provided initial functional analysis of NEDD9 protein. Law et al. overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, screened for genes that affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, thus identified the HEF1 protein. This study identified HEF1/NEDD9 as an interactive partner for focal adhesion kinase, connecting it to integrin signaling.

Separately, Minegishi et al. cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L. The genomic coordinates of the NEDD9 gene are 6:11,183,530-11,382,580 in the GRCh37 assembly, or 6:11,183,298-11,382,348 in the GRCh38 assembly; the gene is on the minus strand. The cytogenetic location is 6p25-p24, based on the nomenclature developed by the Human Genome Organization gene nomenclature committee. NEDD9 is the HGNC approved symbol. Official IDs are 7733, 4739, ENSG00000111859. CAS-L, CASL, HEF1, dJ49G10.2, dJ761I2.1, CAS2, CASS2 are alias symbols. The NEDD9 gene is conserved in Rhesus monkeys, cows, rats, chickens and frogs. In vertebrates, it is a member of a 4-gene family, with the other paralogous genes known as BCAR1, EFS, CASS4 The NEDD9 promoter has 2 transcriptional start sites; the transcript variants NM _ 006403.3 and NM _ 001142393.1 encode proteins.

In mouse, the two alternative first exons are MKYK and MWAR. Their function is not known. NM_001142393 initiates translation at an upstream location compared to NM_006403.3, but both transcripts have 7 exons. Shorter transcripts with missing exons or an alternative 3' terminal exon have been detected in various studies; the 5' region of the NEDD9 promoter is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid, contains a retinoic acid response element, bound by a retinoid X receptor /retinoic acid receptor heterodimer. NEDD9 is induced by the environmental pollutant dioxin, based on regulation through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. One study has found NEDD9 repressed based on binding of the SAFB1 co-repressor. NEDD9 is induced by Wnt signaling in colon cancer, based on binding to T-cell factor factors in the promoter region. NEDD9 is induced by hypoxia and loss of VHL, based on binding of hypoxia-induced factor transcription factors to the NEDD9 promoter. Prostaglandin E2 induces NEDD9 transcription; the Fox transcription factor Forkhead box C1 and PAX5 transcription factor have been reported to induce NEDD9 transcription.

TGF-beta induces NEDD9 transcription. Based on inspection of sequence, the NEDD9 promoter has potential binding sites for a number of additional transcription factors, including STAT5A and NF-kappa B. In the 3'UTR of NEDD9 is a match to positions 2-8 of mature miR-145. NEDD9-binding regions in the miR-145 locus would allow the direct binding of the NEDD9 3'UTR to the genomic region of miR-145, some studies suggests this miR regulates NEDD9 in glioblastoma prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma cells. A non-coding RNA, named B2, extending from 10 kb upstream of NEDD9 exon 1 to exon 4 has been described, but the functional role for this ncRNA is not yet clear. NEDD9 is expressed in the embryonal brain, in numerous tissues in the embryo and adult organism. Elevated expression is associated with cancer. NEDD9 is a member of the CAS protein family; the other paralogous genes are known BCAR1, EFS, CASS4. There is no detectable NEDD9-related gene in bacteria, yeast, or C. elegans. A single family member exists in termed DCas.

In humans, NEDD9 is 834 amino acids long. NEDD9 is a noncatalytic scaffolding protein that contains docking sites for proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, regulating magnitude and duration of cell signaling cascades The overall structure of NEDD9 is represented graphically in Figure 1; these domains include: SH3 domain This conserved N-terminal domain mediates NEDD9 binding to the polyproline motifs of a number of important interacting proteins, with some well-studied partners being FAK and the related PYK2/RAFTK kinase, C3G, PTP-PEST, PTP1B and CIZ. Substrate domain This unstructured region contains multiple YxxP motifs, which are phosphorylated by src family kinases to create binding sites for proteins with SH2 domains, such as Crk. Phosphorylation of these motifs can be activated by mechanical forces such as cytoskeletal stretch. Other phosphorylation events in this region are imposed by the kinase Aurora-A, which phosphorylates residue S296, for processes related to cell cycle control.

Serine rich region The SR

Carrickabraghy Castle

Carrickabraghy Castle stands on a rocky outcrop at the north-western extremity of the Isle of Doagh, at the head of Pollan Bay, in the north of Inishowen, a peninsula on the north coast of County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland. The castle is located in the Parish of Clonmany in the Barony of Inishowen East. Known locally as'The Castles', the site is of significant importance to both local and national Irish history. Whilst it is accepted that the Irish word'Carraig' means rock, there is some debate as to the meaning of'Bhrachai', it is thought the word could be a personal name, as it is mentioned in the pre-Norman genealogy of the Cineal Fhearghasa, could be an ancestor of the McFall sept. Machtochair, in his book Inishowen, Its History and Antiquities says Carraig Bhrachai means'The Friars Rock'. From the ninth to the thirteenth century Inishowen was politically divided into three'tuatha' or districts; these were known as Bredach to the east and Carraig Bhrachai to the west. The Lords of Carraig Bhrachai were the Ó Maolfabhail sept, who were descended from Cineal Fhearghasa, a branch of Cineal Eoghain.

They ruled from the town-land of the area where the Castle now stands. They were one of the most important families in Inishowen; the earliest historical mention of Carrickabraghy comes in The Annals of the Four Masters. In 857 Sechonnan, son of Conaing, king of Carraig Bhrachai, died. In 878 Maolfabhail, son of Loingseach, lord of Carraig Bhrachai, died. In 907 Ruarc, son of Maolfabhail, lord of Carraig Bhrachai, died. In 915 in a battle between the Irish and foreigners – Danes or Norse – the chief of Carraig Bhrachai was slain. In 965 Tiarnach, son of Ruarc, lord of Carraig Bhrachai, died. In 1014 Cu Dubh, son of Maolfabhail, chief of Carraig Bhrachai, was slain by the race of Tadhg Breagha. In 1053 Flaitheartach O Maolfabhail, lord of Carraig Bhrachai, died. In 1065 Muireartach O Maolfabhail, king of Carraig Bhrachai, was killed by the Ui Meith of Menna Tire. In 1082 Giolla Chriost O Maolfabhail, king of Carraig Bhrachai, was slain. In 1102 An army was led by Cineal Eoghain to Maigh Cobha; the Ulidians entered their unguarded camp by night and killed a number, among whom was the king of Carraig Bhrachai, Sitric O Maolfabhail.

In 1166 Aodh O Maolfabhail, king of Carraig Bhrachai, was treacherously killed by Muireartach, son of Niall Mac Lochlainn. In 1199 Cathalan O Maolfabhail, king of Carraig Bhrachai, was killed by O Dearain, slain in revenge afterwards by adherents of Cathalan. In 1215 Trad O Maolfabhail, chief of Cineal Fhearghasa, his brothers and a great number of people were slain in Dumbartonshire in Scotland by Muireadach, the chief steward of Lennox; the particulars of the conflict are not given. At this point all reference to the Lords of Carriag Brachai ceases, it is striking to see that the Lords of Carrickabraghy were important enough to be included in this book of Irish History over such a long period of time. They were involved in medieval conflicts and were considered important military officers in these battles, fighting alongside kings, taking to battle across the seas. Seán Beattie, in his book Ancient Monuments of Inishowen, recounts a tale regarding a Viking raid on Donegal in the tenth century.

Three princesses were taken as hostages during the raid. One of the princesses took plundered treasure with her, she married a local chief. Throughout the period of Viking invasion in Inishowen the McFall sept maintained their control over Carrickabraghy. Carraig Bhrachai is not mentioned again in the history books until 1600; the present remains of The Castle are thought to have been built around this time. The O Dochartaigh Clan had risen into power in Inishowen and the Chief of the clan and Lord of Inishowen was Sean Og O Dochartaigh; the English invasion of Ireland was well underway, to protect his livestock and supplies from English raids, Sean Og decided the best place to store them was on The Isle of Doagh with his kinsman, The Lord of Carraig Bhrachai, Feilimi Brasleach O Dochartaigh. There was good reason for this as The Isle of Doagh was unfamiliar territory to the English and was defended as it was only accessible at low tide. Sean Og O Dochartaigh died in 1601 and his successor as Lord of Inishowen had not yet been decided.

The natural choice, his first-born son, Cathaoir Rua, had not yet come of age, there were other forces at work wanting their own man installed. Aodh Rua O Donaill, the Lord of Tir Chonaill, wanted an experienced and mature man at the helm, someone who would remain loyal to him keeping the peninsula and its resources under his control; that man was Sean Og's half-brother. The English commander in Derry, Sir Henry Dowcra, was not bothered who the successor was as long as they were ready to submit himself and the territory to the Queen. Aodh Bui Mac Daibheid wanted the young Cathaoir as successor. Aodh Rua O Donaill prevailed and Feilim Og was inaugurated in February 1601, his reign, was to be short lived. Aodh Bui Mac Daibheid, though cunning negotiations with both Dowcra and O Donaill, had Cathaoir Rua O Dochartaigh rightfully installed as Lord of Inishowen in May 1601, he was just 14 years old, he was to be the last of the great Irish Lords. Ireland at this time was fragmented, with feuds and arguments happening between different clans.

The English were seen as just another enemy, the rulers of the clans were interested only in keeping hold of their own lands. Aodh Rua O Donaill mobilised his army in May 1601 t

Paul Hillegonds

Paul C. Hillegonds was a Republican member of the Michigan House of Representatives, he served as co-speaker with Democrat Curtis Hertel from 1993 until 1994. Hillegonds received his bachelor's degree from the University of Michigan and a law degree from Thomas M. Cooley Law School. Hillegonds was first elected to the state house in 1978, beginning his service in 1979, he had been a legislative aid and campaign chairman for U. S. Representative Philip Ruppe, he was the leader of the Republicans in the house beginning in 1987. He served as speaker of the house after having been co-speaker for one term. In 1997 Hillegonds left the legislature to become president of Detroit Renaissance, he remained in this position for nine years. In 2006 he was a co-leader of'One United Michigan the main group opposed to the end of affirmative action on the ballot at the time. Hillegonds now works as the director of government relations for DTE Energy. In early 2013 Hillegonds was appointed director of the newly formed Southeast Michigan Regional Transit Authority.

The name Hillegonds is Dutch. It stands for "the child of Hillegond", a variant of the name Hildegonde; the family name does not occur any more in The Netherlands. Daniel Loepp. Sharing the Balance of Power: An Examinnation of Shared Power in the Michigan House of Representatives, 1993-94. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999. Forbes bio of Hillegonds