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Local government in England

The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements. Legislation concerning local government in England is decided by the Parliament and Government of the United Kingdom, because England does not have a devolved parliament or regional assemblies, outside Greater London. England has, since 1994, been subdivided into nine regions. One of these, has an elected Assembly and Mayor; the other regions no longer have any statutory bodies to execute any responsibilities. Combined authorities were introduced in England outside Greater London by the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 to cover areas larger than the existing local authorities but smaller than the regions. Combined authorities are created voluntarily and allow a group of local authorities to pool appropriate responsibility and receive certain delegated functions from central government in order to deliver transport and economic policy more over a wider area.

There are 10 such authorities, with the Greater Manchester Combined Authority established on 1 April 2011, Liverpool City Region Combined Authority and three others in April 2014, two in 2016, two in 2017 and one in 2018. Below the region level and excluding London, England has two different patterns of local government in use. In some areas there is a county council responsible for services such as education, waste management and strategic planning within a county, with several non-metropolitan district councils responsible for services such as housing, waste collection and local planning. Both are elected in separate elections; some areas have only one level of local government. These are unitary authorities, which are principal councils. Most of Greater London is governed by London borough councils; the City of London and the Isles of Scilly are sui generis authorities, pre-dating recent reforms of local government. There are 125'single tier' authorities, which all function as billing authorities for Council Tax and local education authorities: 55 unitary authorities 36 metropolitan boroughs 32 London boroughs The Common Council of the City of London The Council of the Isles of ScillyThere are 32'upper tier' authorities.

The non-metropolitan counties function as local education authorities: 26 non-metropolitan counties 6 metropolitan counties There are 192'lower tier' authorities, which all have the function of billing authority for Council Tax: 192 non-metropolitan districtsThere are in total 343 principal councils, including the Corporation of London and the Council of the Isles of Scilly, but not the Inner Temple and Middle Temple, the last two of which are local authorities for some purposes. Below the district level, a district may be divided into several civil parishes. Typical activities undertaken by a parish council include allotments, public clocks, entering Britain in Bloom, they have a consultative role in planning. Councils such as districts and unitaries are known as principal local authorities in order to differentiate them in their legal status from parish and town councils, which are not uniform in their existence. Local councils tend not to exist in metropolitan areas but there is nothing to stop their establishment.

For example, Birmingham has New Frankley. Parishes have not existed in Greater London since 1965, but from 2007 they could be created. In some districts, the rural area is parished and the urban is not — such as the Borough of Hinckley and Bosworth, where the town of Hinckley is unparished and has no local councils, while the countryside around the town is parished. In others, there is a more complex mixture, as in the case of the Borough of Kettering, where the small towns of Burton Latimer and Rothwell are parished, while Kettering town itself is not. In addition, among the rural parishes, two share a joint parish council and two have no council but are governed by an annual parish meeting; the current arrangement of local government in England is the result of a range of incremental measures which have their origins in the municipal reform of the 19th century. During the 20th century, the structure of local government was reformed and rationalised, with local government areas becoming fewer and larger, the functions of local councils amended.

The way local authorities are funded has been subject to periodic and significant reform. Councils have had no split between executive and legislature. Functions are vested in the council itself, exercised by committees or subcommittees of the council; the chairman of the council itself has authority to conduct the business of meetings of the full council, including the selection of the agenda, but otherwise the chairmanship is considered an honorary position with no real power outside the council meeting. The chairman of a borough has the title'Mayor'. In certain cities the mayor is known as the Lord Mayor; the chairman of a town council too is styled the'town mayor'. Boroughs are in many cases descendants of municipal boroughs set up hundreds of years ago, so have a number of traditions and ceremonial functions attached to the mayor's office. Where a council would have both civic mayor, namely the chairman of the council, an executive mayor, it has become usual for the chairman to take the simple title'Chairman' or'Chair'.

The post of Leader of the Council has been recognised. Leaders chair several important committees, receive a higher allowance to reflect their additional responsibilities, but they have no special, legal authority. Under section 15 the Local Government and Housing Act 1989, committees

Muhammad Baquar Ali Khan

Raja Mir Syed Muhammad Baquar Ali Khan C. I. E; the Mir of Kotaha and the Raja of Pindrawal was a noted zamindar and philanthropist from Pindrawal in United Province of British India He was born in year 1842 in the noted Lalkhani branch of Muslim Rajputs. He was born to Latif-ul-nissa, his father, Quasim Ali was son of Mir Akbar Ali, the Mir of Kotaha, while his mother was granddaughter of Nahar Ali Khan and daughter of Akbar Ali Khan of Pindrawal. His grandson Akbar Ali was the jagirdar of Kotaha spoken of as the Mir of Kotaha, enjoyed a perpetual pension of Rs. 400 a year, granted in 1850, in return for the surrender of the right to levy transit duties within the limits of the Morni tract. His father Qasim Ali Khan II had died at Lahore in 1849-50, his grandfather, Meer Akbar Ali Khan had come under suspicion of British during Revolt of 1857 and Thomas Douglas Forsyth, Deputy Commissioner Umballa dismantled the Kotaha fort. The successor to him Melville was a bit liniment on Mir of Kotaha and taking advantage of this Akbar Ali rebuilt the fort without permission.

But when Captain Tighe succeeded P. S. Melville as the Deputy Commissioner of Umballa in 1864 and the Mir came under the severe displeasure of the British Government on a charge of conspiracy, ‘on an attempt to rebuild his fort at Kotaha without permission’; this led to demolition of confiscation of their jagir. However, Meer Akbar Ali died in 1864 and young Bakir Ali succeeded him as Mir of Kotaha. Due to his young age he was spared and their jagir of Kotaha was restored to him but at the same time, he was banished from town. However, his whole property in Naraingarh was brought under direct official management; the Government cancelled the sentence of banishment and the property was restored to the Mir in 1880. After death of his grandfather, Baqar Ali Khan II, inherited the title of Mir of Kotaha but due to banishment settled at Pindrawal in the Bulandshahr district of the North-West Provinces, where he had inherited a large zamindari property consisting of 365 villages, from her maternal side and was given the title of Raja of Pindrawal.

He inherited large estates in Koil and Atrauli parganas of Aligarh district and Morthal estates in Budaun district. Raja Baqar Ali Khan II, was one of the visionaries, who understood the value of education for up-liftment of Muslim community, he heartily co-operated with Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan in the foundation of the Muhammadan Anglo College and donated a substantial amount of money to build Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh. He donated Rs. 30,000 towards the construction of the Bulandshahr Town Hall. He was a fellow of the Society of Arts, Great Britain, he was given title of Khan Bahadur and created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, on 1 January 1883 by the British government in recognition of his services. Raja Mir Baqar Ali II of morni,Kotaha and pindrawal died on 20 January 1902. Mir Bakir Ali died leaving two sons Kunwar Asghar Ali Khan, he was succeeded by the elder Mir Jafar Ali Khan II, who built a fort at Atrauli, Aligarh district in 1909 that stands to date.

Asghar Ali founded the Asgharabad Estate after the partition of Pindrawal Easte. Jafar Ali Khan II was succeeded by his son, Raja Mir Muhammad Akbar Ali Khan II, O. B. E. who became a member of the UP Legislative Assembly in 1937. He was accorded kalgi and khilat by the Governor of Punjab in a special durbar at Sirhind, he had inherited the family estates at Teori and Morthal. He built a hospital at Morni. Akbar Ali Khan donated fund to start a scholarship at Aligarh Muslim University History of Morni tracts

Getty kouros

The Getty kouros is an over-life-sized statue in the form of a late archaic Greek kouros. The dolomitic marble sculpture was bought by the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California, in 1985 for ten million dollars and first exhibited there in October 1986. Despite initial favourable scientific analysis of the patina and aging of the marble, the question of its authenticity has persisted from the beginning. Subsequent demonstration of an artificial means of creating the de-dolomitization observed on the stone has prompted a number of art historians to revise their opinions of the work. If genuine, it is one of only twelve extant complete kouroi. If fake, it exhibits a high degree of technical and artistic sophistication by an as-yet unidentified forger, its status remains undetermined: today the museum's label reads "Greek, about 530 B. C. or modern forgery". The kouros first appeared on the art market in 1983 when the Basel dealer Gianfranco Becchina offered the work to the Getty's curator of antiquities, Jiří Frel.

Frel deposited the sculpture at Pacific Palisades along with a number of documents purporting to attest to the statue's authenticity. These documents traced the provenance of the piece to a collection in Geneva of Dr. Jean Lauffenberger who, it was claimed, had bought it in 1930 from a Greek dealer. No find site or archaeological data was recorded. Amongst the papers was a suspect 1952 letter from Ernst Langlotz the preeminent scholar of Greek sculpture, remarking on the similarity of the kouros to the Anavyssos youth in Athens. Inquiries by the Getty revealed that the postcode on the Langlotz letter did not exist until 1972, that a bank account mentioned in a 1955 letter to an A. E. Bigenwald regarding repairs on the statue was not opened until 1963; the documentary history of the sculpture was evidently an elaborate fake and therefore there are no reliable facts about its recent history before 1983. The Getty kouros is eclectic in style. Our understanding of the development of kouroi as delineated by Gisela Richter suggests the date of the Getty youth diminishes from head to feet.

Beginning with the hair we can observe that it is braided into a wig-like mass of 14 strands, each of which ends in a triangular point. The closest parallel here is to the Sounion kouros of the late 7th century/early 6th century, which displays 14 braids, as does the New York kouros. However, the Getty kouros's hair exhibits a rigidity unlike the Sounion Group. Descending to the hands, we may see that the last joints of the fingers turn in at right angles to the thighs, recalling the Tenea kouros of the 2nd quarter of the 6th century. Further down, a late archaic naturalism becomes more pronounced in the rendering of the feet similar to kouros No. 12 from the Ptoon sanctuary, as is the broad oval plinth which in turn is comparable to a base found on the Acropolis. Both Ptoon 12 and the Acropolis base are assigned to the Group of Anavyssos-Ptoon 12 and dated to the third quarter of the 6th century. Anachronizing elements are not unknown in authentic kouroi, but the disparity of up to a century is a strikingly unusual feature of the Getty sculpture.

Despite being of Thasian marble, the kouros cannot be securely ascribed to an individual workshop of northern Greece nor indeed to any ancient regional school of sculpture. Archaic kouroi conform to a canon of measurement and proportion to which the Getty example adheres. There is little in the tool marks, carving methods and detailing to contradict an ancient origin of the piece. Although we have a small sample with which to compare there are atypical aspects of the Getty work that may be observed; the oval plinth is an unusual shape and larger than in other examples, suggesting the figure was free-standing rather than fixed with lead in a separate base. The ears are not symmetrical: they are at different heights with the left oblong and the right rounder, implying the sculptor was using two distinct schema or none at all. Furthermore, there are a number of flaws in the marble, most prominently on the forehead, which the sculptor has worked around by parting the hair curls at the centre; the most striking evidence suggestive of the kouros's antiquity is a subtlety regarding the direction of motion of the figure.

Though the youth presents foursquare to the viewer, all kouroi have understated indicators of a turn either to the left or the right depending on where they were placed in the temple sanctuary. In the case of the Getty youth the left foot is parallel with the step axis of the right foot rather than turning outwards as would occur if the figure were moving directly forwards. Therefore, the statue is making motion toward his right, which Ilse Kleemann asserts is "one of the strongest pieces of evidence of its authenticity". Other features that suggest a similarity with known originals include the helicoid curls of the hair, closest in form to the west Cyclidian Kea kouros, the Corinthian form of the hands and the sloping shoulders akin to the Tenea kouros and the broad plinth and feet comparable to the Attic or Cyclidian Ptoon 12; that the Getty kouros cannot be identified with any one local atelier does not disqualify it as a genuine, but if real it does require of us that we admit a lectio difficilior into the corpus of archaic sculpture.

Some indication of tool marks remains on th

Nehru Zoological Park

Nehru Zoological Park is a zoo located near Mir Alam Tank in Hyderabad, India. It is one of the most visited destinations in Hyderabad. Zoo hours vary by season, the zoo is closed on Mondays. Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad was established in vide G. O. Ms. No.247, dated 26 October 1959 and opened to the public on 6 October 1963. The Park is run by forest department, Government of Telangana, is named after the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru; the zoo is adjacent to the 600-acre Mir Alam Tank. Nearly 100 species of birds and reptiles are housed at the zoo, including indigenous animals like the Indian rhino, Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, gaur, Indian elephant, slender loris, python, as well as deer and birds; the 600-acre Mir Alam Tank with its unique multiple arched bund, attracts hundreds of migratory birds, providing yet another attraction for the zoo. The nocturnal house at the zoo artificially reverses night and day for the animals so that nocturnal animals are active while visitors are at the zoo.

This exhibit includes chimpanzee, fruit bats, slender loris, slow loris, leopard cats, barn owls, mottled wood owls, fishing owls, great horned owls. There is an aquarium, dino park, butterfly park and tortoise house. Since 2014, the zoo is running a adoption program; the zoo runs multiple safari trips each day through the safari area where animals such as Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, sloth bear etc. are housed. The zoo has special educational shows and feeding sessions scheduled each day. Other attractions include a train. Several animals are bred in the zoo have been rehabilitated in various deer parks and sanctuaries to restock the depleted natural population. In order boost captive breeding of vultures at the zoo the state forest dept has requeested Maharashtra for 10 of these critically endangered birds. Biodiversity park, Hyderabad Hyderabad Botanical Garden Media related to Nehru Zoological Park at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Monsieur Lecoq (novel)

Monsieur Lecoq is a novel by the nineteenth-century French detective fiction writer Émile Gaboriau, whom André Gide referred to as "the father of all current detective fiction". The novel depicts the first case of Monsieur Lecoq, an energetic young policeman who appears in other novels by Gaboriau. Gaboriau first achieved publishing success with L’Affaire Lerouge, serialised in 1865, which featured the amateur detective, who recurs in his novels. Gaboriau went on to publish Le Crime d’Orcival, Le Dossier no. 113, Les Esclaves de Paris. In December 1867, Moïse Millaud and Gaboriau renewed their contract from the previous year, in which Gaboriau had committed to publishing his literary works in Millaud et Compagnie papers, it was decided to publish a longer work that Gaboriau had started in 1864, which he was now finishing. It would be entitled Monsieur Lecoq, the name of the policeman that the two preceding series had made famous. Millaud launched an shrewd publicity campaign to promote the work.

Around 15 April 1868, walls in Paris and other French towns were covered with large multi-coloured posters, emblazoned with MONSIEUR LECOQ! MONSIEUR LECOQ!! MONSIEUR LECOQ!!! MONSIEUR LECOQ!!! Written in four diagonal lines. On 21 April, the same exclamations appeared on the fourth page on many newspapers, which aroused curiosity. In the Petit Journal of the same date, Timothée Trim feigned ignorance and astonishment, asking "What can this Monsieur Lecoq be?" On 15 May Millaud revealed to the public that Monsieur Lecoq was the title of a long work by Emile Gaboriau that they were going to publish. He stated that Monsieur Lecoq, who had hitherto made sporadic appearances in Gaboriau's works, was to be the hero of this new story, considered that they were correct in stating that this new work was of greater interest than anything that Gaboriau had published. On 24 May newspaper vendors asked for a considerable increase in copies for the day Monsieur Lecoq was published for the first time. Publication started on 27 May and ended on 3 December, with a one-week break between parts one and two between 31 July and 7 August.

The novel was a considerable success. The novel is split into two parts: I -- II -- L'Honneur du nom. Binyon observes that this is a common structural characteristic of Gaboriau's novels, which separates the different subjects of each part: "Each novel falls into two halves: the first begins with the discovery of the crime and narrates the activities of the detective. Bonnoit highlights the influence of the Mémoires de Vidocq on Gaboriau, the fictionalised memoires of a thief who went on to become the head of the Paris police the influence of Vidocq's art of disguise. Lits observes that Lecoq's name was formed in imitation of Vidocq, that this was the name of the policeman in Paul Féval's Habits Noirs. Gaboriau's detectives, both Lecoq and Tabaret, solve crimes in a manner, similar to that of Edgar Allan Poe's detective, Dupin; as Gaboriau admired Poe, it is not surprising that Lecoq and Dupin share many traits, Murch observes, "they both regard a mysterious puzzle as a challenge to their powers of perception.

L'enquête Policemen on patrol in a dangerous area of Paris hear a cry coming from the Poivrière bar and go to investigate. There is evidence of a struggle. Two dead men are lying next to the fireplace, another is lying in the middle of the room. A wounded man, the murderer, stands in a doorway. Gévrol, the inspector, tells him to give himself up, he protests his innocence, claiming self-defence, he tries to escape, when he is caught he cries, "Lost…It is the Prussians who are coming." The wounded third man blames Jean Lacheneur for leading him to this place, vows revenge. He dies shortly afterwards. Gévrol, judging from the man's attire, concludes that he was a soldier, the name and number of his regiment are written on the buttons of his great coat, his young colleague, Monsieur Lecoq, remarks that the man cannot be a soldier because his hair is too long. Gévrol disagrees; the inspector thinks that the case is straightforward – a pub brawl that ended in murder, whereas Lecoq thinks that there is more to the affair than meets the eye, asks the inspector if he can stay behind to investigate further, chooses an older officer, Père Absinthe, to stay with him.

Lecoq expounds his interpretation of the case to him, stating that the vagabond they had arrested is in fact an upper class man. He comments that the criminal's remark about the Prussians was an allusion to the battle of Waterloo, reasons that he was waiting for accomplices, he finds footprints in the snow outside the back exit to the bar, revealing the presence of two women, who were helped to escape by an accomplice. An examination of the body of the supposed soldier leads to the discovery of a note, which reveals that his name was Gustave. Nothing is found on the bodies of the other two men; the judge, Maurice d’Escoval and commends Lecoq for the meticulousness of his investigation. After a brief interview with the suspect, the judge leaves apparently moved, leaving Lecoq to his own devices; the suspect tries to commit suicide in his cell. Lecoq continues his investigations the next day, following leads on the two women, but when he goes to report to M. d’Escorval he discovers that he has broken his leg and will be replaced by M. Segmuller.

Under interrogation, the suspect maintain

List of Lynx public art artists

This is a list of Lynx public art artists, who have contributed to public art projects along the Lynx Blue Line in Charlotte, North Carolina. As part of the budget for the Lynx system, a percentage of the overall cost was reserved for both the purchase and display of public art along the route. Through the utilization of less than one percent of the overall design and construction budget. For the initial 9.6-mile, which opened in 2007, 13 artists were selected to design displays for each of the Blue Line's 15 stations. For the 9.7-mile extension, which opened in 2018, 14 artists were selected to design stations, bridges, elevator towers and bike shelters. Lynx Blue Line Charlotte Area Transit System Media related to Lynx public art at Wikimedia Commons CATS Rapid Transit Planning