A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
Video search engine
A video search engine is a web-based search engine which crawls the web for video content. Some video search engines parse externally hosted content while others allow content to be uploaded and hosted on their own servers; some engines allow users to search by video format type and by length of the clip. The video search results are accompanied by a thumbnail view of the video. Video search engines are computer programs designed to find videos stored on digital devices, either through Internet servers or in storage units from the same computer; these searches can be made through audiovisual indexing, which can extract information from audiovisual material and record it as metadata, which will be tracked by search engines. The main use of these search engines is the increasing creation of audiovisual content and the need to manage it properly; the digitization of audiovisual archives and the establishment of the Internet, has led to large quantities of video files stored in big databases, whose recovery can be difficult because of the huge volumes of data and the existence of a semantic gap.
The search criterion used by each search engine depends on its purpose of the searches. Metadata is information about facts, it could be information about, the author of the video, creation date and all the information that could be extracted and included in the same files. Internet is used in a language called XML to encode metadata, which works well through the web and is readable by people. Thus, through this information contained in these files is the easiest way to find data of interest to us. In the videos there are two types of metadata, that we can integrate in the video code itself and external metadata from the page where the video is. In both cases we optimize them to make them ideal. All video formats incorporate their own metadata; the title, coding quality or transcription of the content are possible. To review these data exist programs like FLV MetaData Injector, Sorenson Squeeze or Castfire; each one has special specifications. Keep in mind that converting from one format to another can lose much of this data, so check that the new format information is correct.
It is therefore advisable to have the video in lots of formats, so that all search robots will be able to find and index. In most cases the same mechanisms must be applied as in the positioning of an text content, they are the most important factors when positioning a video, because they contain most of the necessary information. The titles have to be descriptive and should be removed every word or phrase, not useful, it should be descriptive, including keywords that describe the video with no need to see their title or description. Ideally, separate the words by dashes "-". On the page where the video is, it should be a list of keywords linked to the microformat "rel-tag"; these words will be used by search engines as a basis for organizing information. Although not standard, there are two formats that store information in a temporal component, specified, one for subtitles and another for transcripts, which can be used for subtitles; the formats are TTXT for transcripts. Speech recognition consists of a transcript of the speech of the audio track of the videos, creating a text file.
In this way and with the help of a phrase extractor can search if the video content is of interest. Some search engines apart from using speech recognition to search for videos use it to find the specific point of a multimedia file in which a specific word or phrase is located and so go directly to this point. Gaudi, a project developed by Google Labs, uses voice recognition technology to locate the exact moment that one or more words have been spoken within an audio, allowing the user to go directly to exact moment that the words were spoken. If the search query matches some videos from YouTube, the positions are indicated by yellow markers, must pass the mouse over to read the transcribed text; the text recognition can be useful to recognize characters in the videos through "chyrons". As with speech recognizers, there are search engines that allow to play a video from a particular point. TalkMiner, an example of search of specific fragments from videos by text recognition, analyzes each video once per second looking for identifier signs of a slide, such as its shape and static nature, captures the image of the slide and uses Optical Character Recognition to detect the words on the slides.
These words are indexed in the search engine of TalkMiner, which offers to users more than 20,000 videos from institutions such as Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, TED. Through the visual descriptors we can analyze the frames of a video and extract information that can be scored as metadata. Descriptions are generated automatically and can describe different aspects of the frames, such as color, shape and the situation; the usefulness of a search engine depends on the relevance of the result set returned. While there may be millions of videos that include a particular word or phrase, some videos may be more relevant, popular or have more authority than others; this arrangement has a lot to do with search engine optimization. Most search engines use different methods to classify the results and provide the best video in the first results. However, most programs allow sorting the results by several criteria; this criterion is more ambiguous and less objective, but sometimes it is the closest to what we want.
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Ask.com is a question answering–focused e-business founded in 1996 by Garrett Gruener and David Warthen in Berkeley, California. The original software was implemented by Gary Chevsky from his own design. Warthen, Justin Grant, others built the early AskJeeves.com website around that core engine. From the mid-2000s, The "Jeeves" name was dropped and focused on the search engine, with its own algorithm. In late 2010, facing insurmountable competition from more popular search engines like Google, the company outsourced its web search technology and returned to its roots as a question and answer site. Douglas Leeds was elevated from president to CEO in 2010. Ask.com has been criticized for its browser toolbar, accused of behaving like malware due to its bundling with other software and the difficulty of its uninstallation. Three venture capital firms, Highland Capital Partners, Institutional Venture Partners, The RODA Group were early investors. Ask.com is owned by InterActiveCorp under the NASDAQ symbol NASDAQ: IAC, its corporate headquarters are located at 555 City Center, in the Oakland City Center development in downtown Oakland, California.
Ask.com was known as Ask Jeeves, "Jeeves" being the name of a "gentleman's personal gentleman", or valet, fetching answers to any question asked. The character was named after Bertie Wooster's butler character Jeeves, in the fictional works of P. G. Wodehouse; the original idea behind Ask Jeeves was to allow users to get answers to questions posed in everyday, natural language, as well as by traditional keyword searching. The current Ask.com still supports this, with support for math and conversion questions. Ask Jeeves launched in beta in mid-April 1997 and launched on June 1, 1997. On September 18, 2001, Ask Jeeves acquired Teoma for over $1.5 million. In July 2005, Ask Jeeves was acquired by IAC. In February 2006, Jeeves was removed from the search engine rebranded to Ask. On June 5, 2007, Ask.com relaunched with a 3D look. On May 16, 2006, Ask implemented a "Binoculars Site Preview" into its search results. On search results pages, the "Binoculars" let searchers have a sneak peek of the page they could visit with a mouse-over activating a pop-up screenshot.
In December 2007, Ask released the AskEraser feature, allowing users to opt-out from tracking of search queries and IP and cookie values. They vowed to erase this data after 18 months if the AskEraser option is not set. HTTP cookies must be enabled for AskEraser to function. On July 4, 2008, Ask acquired Lexico Publishing Group, which owns Dictionary.com, Thesaurus.com, Reference.com. In August 2008, Ask launched the Ask Kids search engine designed for children. On July 26, 2010, Ask.com released a closed-beta Q&A service. The service was released to the public on July 29, 2010. Ask.com launched its mobile Q&A app for the iPhone in late 2010. Ask.com now reaches 100 million global users per month through its website with more than 2 million downloads of its flagship mobile app. The company has released additional apps spun out of its Q&A experience, including Ask Around in 2011 and PollRoll in 2012. In 2010, Ask.com abandoned the search industry, with the loss of 130 search engineering jobs, because it could not compete against more popular search engines such as Google.
Earlier in the year, Ask had launched a Q&A community for generating answers from real people as opposed to search algorithms combined this with its question-and–answer repository, utilizing its extensive history of archived query data to search sites that provide answers to questions people have. To avoid a situation in which no answers were available from its own resources, the company outsourced to an unnamed third-party search provider the comprehensive web search matches that it had gathered itself; the direct sales engine for Ask.com, Ask Sponsored Listings is no longer available, having merged with Sendori, an operating business of IAC, in 2011. Ask Jeeves, Inc. stock traded on the NASDAQ stock exchange from July 1999 to July 2005, under the ticker symbol ASKJ. In July 2005, the ASKJ ticker was retired upon the acquisition by IAC. In 2012 Ask.com made two acquisitions as part of a larger strategy to offer more content on the Ask.com website. On July 2, 2012, Ask.com purchased content discovery start-up nRelate, for an undisclosed amount.
That was followed by the company's acquisition of expert advice and information site About.com, which closed in September 2012. On August 14, 2014, Ask.com acquired popular social networking website ASKfm, where users can ask other users questions, with the option of anonymity. As of August 14, 2014, Ask.fm had 180 million monthly unique users in more than 150 countries around the world, with its largest user base in the United States. Available on the web and as a mobile app, ASKfm generates an estimated 20,000 questions per minute with 45 percent of its mobile monthly active users logging in daily. To date, the mobile app has been downloaded more than 40 million times; the Ask browser toolbar is an extension that can appear as an extra bar added to the browser's window and/or menu. In early versions, it was unintentionally installed during the installation of partner software, including Oracle Java, i.e. taking advantage of a user's lack of technical experience. As an operating business of IAC, Ask Partner Network had historically entered into partnerships with some software security vendors, whereby they distributed the toolbar alongside their software.
Installer packages for partner companies had an option to install the Ask toolbar and/or change the user's default browser home page to Ask.com. Ask.com and its parent company IAC have therefore been criticized for promoting a t
John Linwood Battelle is an entrepreneur and journalist. Best known for his work creating media properties, Battelle helped launch Wired in the 1990s and launched The Industry Standard during the dot-com boom. In 2005, he founded the online advertising network Federated Media Publishing. In January 2014, Battelle sold Federated Media Publishing's direct sales business to LIN Media and relaunched the company's programmatic advertising business from Lijit Networks to sovrn Holdings. Battelle is the Executive Chairman of Executive Chairman of NewCo. Board Director at LiveRamp and Board Director at Chute, his 2005 book, The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture, described the history and impact of search engines and the late emergence of Google from a field of competitors. Battelle co-founded the annual Web 2.0 Summit, co-hosted it during its lifetime from 2004 to 2011. Born in Pasadena, Battelle studied at Chandler School, Polytechnic School and the University of California, earning both a Bachelor of Arts in anthropology in 1987 and a master's degree in journalism in 1992.
He went on to become chairman and CEO of Standard Media International, which launched The Industry Standard and its website, TheStandard.com, was a co-founding editor of Wired magazine and its entrepreneurial arm, Wired Ventures. Battelle was a visiting professor of journalism 2001-2004 at the University of California, Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism where he chaired the Bloomberg Chair on Business Reporting and co-chaired the Magazine Publishing program, his projects included The Big Story, an online magazine examining how the media covers major events and China Digital Times, a bilingual news website aggregating news about China. In 2003, Battelle and publisher Tim O'Reilly founded the Web 2.0 Conference, renamed the Web 2.0 Summit. Battelle called "this grandfather of Internet conferences" among his "proudest editorial works". During its lifetime, he was the conference's executive producer and program chair, with O'Reilly, its co-moderator, he shut down the event after 2011. In 2005, Battelle began focusing on how popular blogs could earn steady advertising revenue for their work.
After testing his ideas with the BoingBoing technology blog, Battelle founded Federated Media Publishing, which sells advertising space in a network of online properties, keeping a percentage and giving the rest to the site owners. Battelle likened the company to a music label, "except we don't control their intellectual property and tell them what to sing"; the following year, an Ad Age reporter wrote that some 85 high-profile blogs, including BoingBoing and Digg, had become affiliated with the company, "giving up a slice of their ad dollars for the exposure to the bigger advertisers and better rates that a bit of scale gets them". In 2011, comScore ranked the company among the top 20 United States Web properties and the Wall Street Journal named Federated one of the top 50 venture-funded companies. Battelle sat on the board of the International Advertising Bureau and has become a spokesman for what he calls "the Independent Web": blogs and other semi-professional websites beyond Facebook and Google.
He has argued that marketers are themselves content creators, their marketing campaigns should be rooted in "their own domain, independent from any platform other than the Internet itself". Battelle's 2005 book The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture, chronicled the rise of search engines; the book was an international best seller and finalist for the Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award. The book has been translated into more than 25 languages. Battelle maintains Searchblog, an ongoing daily site which covers the intersection of media and culture, with archives dating back to October 2003. Battelle was named a “Global Leader for Tomorrow” by the World Economic Forum, was a finalist in Ernst & Young's “Entrepreneur of the Year” competition. Ad Age named him one of 10 best marketers in the business. In 2007, PC World listed Battelle as one of "The Most Important People on The Web”. In a brief biographical entry, Battelle summarized his personal life as: "Father of three.
Drums, mountain biking, drinking with friends, taking pictures, cursing at closed systems". He lives in New York City. Searchblog
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
Foursquare City Guide
Foursquare City Guide known as Foursquare, is a local search-and-discovery mobile app which provides search results for its users. The app provides personalized recommendations of places to go near a user's current location based on users' previous browsing history and check-in history; the service was created in late 2008 by Dennis Crowley and Naveen Selvadurai and launched in 2009. Crowley had founded the similar project Dodgeball as his graduate thesis project in the Interactive Telecommunications Program at New York University. Google shut it down in 2009, replacing it with Google Latitude. Dodgeball user interactions were based on SMS technology, rather than an application. Foursquare was the second iteration of that same idea, that people can use mobile devices to interact with their environment. Foursquare was Dodgeball reimagined to take advantage of new smartphones like the iPhone, which had built-in GPS to better detect a user's location; until late July 2014, Foursquare featured a social networking layer that enabled a user to share their location with friends, via the "check in" - a user would manually tell the application when they were at a particular location using a mobile website, text messaging, or a device-specific application by selecting from a list of venues the application locates nearby.
In May 2014, the company launched Swarm, a companion app to Foursquare City Guide, that reimagined the social networking and location sharing aspects of the service as a separate application. On August 7, 2014, the company launched Foursquare 8.0, the new version of the service which removed the check-in and location sharing to focus on local search. As of 2016, Foursquare had 50 million monthly active users; as of 2011, male and female users are represented and 50 percent of users are outside the US. Foursquare lets users search for restaurants, nightlife spots and other places of interest in their surrounding area, it is possible to search other areas by entering the name of a remote location. The app displays personalized recommendations based on the time of day, displaying breakfast places in the morning, dinner places in the evening etc. Recommendations are personalized based on factors that include a user's check-in history, their "Tastes" and their venue ratings. Foursquare eschews the traditional concept of letting users leave long-form reviews, instead encourages the writing of "Tips" - short messages about a location that let other users know what is good there.
Tips are limited to 200 characters in length, but can include a URL to link to an external site with more information, can include a photo. As a reward for leaving quality tips, a user can earn "expertise" in a particular location or category. Foursquare has a defined list of "tastes" in particular food items, styles of cuisine or environmental aspects, which users may add to their profiles to let the app know what they like; the app uses natural language processing to match a user's tastes with the tips at nearby venues that mention them. Foursquare uses Pilgrim, to detect a user's location; when users opt in to always-on location sharing, Pilgrim is able to understand a user's current location by comparing historical check-in data with the user‘s current GPS signal, cell tower triangulation, cellular signal strength and surrounding wifi signals. The app uses the location service to track a user's location in the background, enabling push notifications of things the user might find interesting in their vicinity.
It uses this ability to learn about the kinds of places a user likes, based on when and how they visit different venues. It uses this data to improve a user's recommendations and gauge the popularity of a venue. In addition to leaving Tips, Foursquare lets users rate venues by answering questions; the questions help Foursquare understand how people feel about a place, including whether or not a user likes the place, how trendy it is, its cleanliness, its noise level. It uses these questions to fill in missing venue information such as asking whether the venue takes credit cards, or whether it has outdoor seating. Foursquare gives each venue a numeric score between 0.1 and 10 to indicate its general popularity when compared to other venues. Scores are calculated automatically factoring in check-in data, explicit user ratings, tip sentiment, foot traffic behavior and other signals. Users can add venues to a personal "to do" list and curated lists to track neighborhood hot-spots or things to do while traveling.
The service provides ten levels of Superuser. Superuser status is awarded to users after they apply and perform a special test where users should meet quality and quantity criteria. Only Superusers have the ability to edit venue information. Superusers can attain different levels. In the past, Foursquare has allowed companies to create pages of tips and users to "follow" the company and receive tips from them when they check-in at certain locations. On July 25, 2012, Foursquare revealed Promoted Updates, an app update expected to create a new revenue generation stream for the company; the new program allowed companies to issue messages to Foursquare users about deals or available products. Foursquares underlying technology is used by apps such and Uber and Twitter for location information and that data is available to foursquare Earlier versions of Foursquare supported check-ins and location sharing, but as of Foursquare 8.0, these were moved to the service's sibling app, Foursquare Swarm. Foursquare 8.0 never shares a user's location with their followers.
In previous versions of Foursquare, if a user had checked into