Location identifier

A location identifier is a symbolic representation for the name and the location of an airport, navigation aid, or weather station, is used for manned air traffic control facilities in air traffic control, telecommunications, computer programming, weather reports, related services. The International Civil Aviation Organization establishes sets of 4-letter location indicators which are published in ICAO Publication 7910; these are used by air traffic control agencies to identify airports and by weather agencies to produce METAR weather reports. The first letter indicates the region. Examples of ICAO location indicators are RPLL for Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport and KCEF for Westover Joint Air Reserve Base; the International Air Transport Association uses sets of 3-letter IATA identifiers which are used for airline operations, baggage routing, ticketing. There is no specific organization scheme to IATA identifiers. In the United States, the IATA identifier equals the FAA identifier, but this is not always the case.

A prominent example is Sawyer International Airport, which uses the FAA identifier SAW and the IATA identifier MQT. The Federal Aviation Administration location identifier is a three- to five-character alphanumeric code identifying aviation related facilities inside the United States, though some codes are reserved for, are managed by other entities. For nearly all major airports, the assigned identifiers are alphabetic three-letter codes, such as ORD for Chicago O’Hare International Airport. Minor airfields are assigned a mix of alphanumeric characters, such as 8N2 for Skydive Chicago Airport and 0B5 for Turners Falls Airport. Private airfields are assigned a four-character identifier, such as 1CA9 for Los Angeles County Fire Department Heliport; the location identifiers are coordinated with the Transport Canada Identifiers described below. In general, the FAA has authority to assign all three-letter identifiers, all three and four character alphanumeric identifiers, five-letter identifiers for the United States and its jurisdictions.

The Department of the Navy assigns three-letter identifiers beginning with the letter N for the exclusive use of that Department. Transport Canada assigns three character identifiers beginning with Y; the block beginning with letter Q is under international telecommunications jurisdiction, but is used internally by FAA Technical Operations to identify National Airspace equipment not covered by any other identifying code system. The block beginning with Z identifies United States Air Route Traffic Control Centers. In practice, the assigned identifiers are not always consistent with the current "encoding" rules adopted by the FAA, nor are all the assigned identifiers unique between the United States and Canada; the coding system has evolved over time, to ensure safety and reduce ambiguity, many "legacy" codes have remained intact though they violate the ordered rules. For this reason, the FAA publishes detailed listings of all codes it administers In general, three-letter identifiers are assigned as radio call signs to aeronautical navigation aids.

Some of these identifiers are assigned to certain aviation weather reporting stations. Most one-number, two-letter identifiers have been assigned to aviation weather reporting and observation stations and special-use locations; some of these identifiers may be assigned to public-use landing facilities within the United States and its jurisdictions, which do not meet the requirements for identifiers in the three-letter series. In this identifier series, the number is always in the first position of the three-character combination. Most one-letter, two-number identifiers are assigned to public-use landing facilities within the United States and its jurisdictions, which do not meet the requirements for identifiers in the three-letter series; some of these identifiers are assigned to aviation weather reporting stations. One-letter, two-number identifiers are keyed by the alphabetical letter; the letter may appear in the middle or last position in the combination of three characters. When the letter signifies an Air Traffic Control Center's area, the assignment will not change if the Center's boundaries are realigned.

Identifiers in this series which could conflict with the Victor, Jet or colored airway numbers are not assigned. Two-letter, two-number identifiers are assigned to private-use landing facilities in the United States and its jurisdictions which do not meet the requirements for three-character assignments, they are keyed by the two-letter Post Office or supplemental abbreviation of the state with which they are associated. The two letter code appears in the first two, middle, or last two positions of the four character code; the use of the FAA identifier system in meteorology ended in 1996 when airways reporting code was replaced by METAR code. The METAR code is dependent wholly on the ICAO identifier system. Transport Canada assigns two and four character identifiers, including three letter identifiers beginning with letters Y and Z, for its areas of jurisdiction; these identifiers are designed to mesh with the FAA Identifier system described above, though a few conflicts exist (such as WMC for both Winnemucca NV and Maple Creek

2011 Women's World Floorball Championships

The 2011 Women's World Floorball Championships were the eighth world championships in women's floorball. The tournament was held from 4 December to 11 December 2011 in St. Gallen, Switzerland; the matches took place in Athletik Kreuzbleichhalle. Sweden won the tournament defeating 4-2, in the final-game. Under the IFF's new qualification system, the 23 countries registered for the world championships had to qualify for 16 spots. 8 of these spots had been pre-determined, with the top 7 teams from the 2009 Women's World Floorball Championships A-Division and the top team from the B-Division automatically qualifying: The remaining 8 spots were determined from continental qualifying tournaments: Goalkeeper: Jana Christianová Defense: Emelie Wibron, Tia Ukkonen Forward: Emelie Lindström, Corin Rüttimann, Sara Kristoffersson ASICS Golden Floorball Shoe MVP Trophy: Sara Kristoffersson Official 2011 Rankings according to the IFF Official website Official Standings

Quality Comics

Quality Comics was an American comic book publishing company which operated from 1937 to 1956 and was a creative, influential force in what historians and fans call the Golden Age of Comic Books. Notable, long-running titles published by Quality include Blackhawk, Feature Comics, G. I. Combat, Heart Throbs, Military Comics, Modern Comics, Plastic Man, Police Comics, Smash Comics, The Spirit. While most of their titles were published by a company named Comic Magazines, from 1940 onwards all publications bore a logo that included the word "Quality". Notable creators associated with the company included Jack Cole, Reed Crandall, Will Eisner, Lou Fine, Gill Fox, Paul Gustavson, Bob Powell, Wally Wood. Quality Comics was founded by Everett M. "Busy" Arnold, a printer who saw the rising popularity of the comic book medium in the late 1930s. Deducing that Depression-era audiences wanted established quality and familiar comic strips for their hard-earned dimes, in 1937 the enterprising Arnold, formed the suitably titled Comic Favorites, Inc..

Comic Favorites, Inc.'s first publication was Feature Funnies, which began with color reprints of hit strips from all three co-owning syndicates alongside a small number of original features. The original material came from various sources, including the company's in-house staff and/or freelancers and the Eisner & Iger shop. A frequent point of confusion is whether and how comic packaging shop Harry "A" Chesler was involved with the company's early days. Several sources list Chesler as the publisher of Feature Funnies, but the only primary source to mention Chesler is an interview with Arnold in which he describes purchasing content from the shop for Military Comics and Police Comics, neither of which began until 1941. An interview with Will Eisner quoted in The Quality Companion indicates that Arnold was not always an owner of Comic Favorites, Inc. but the authors of that reference were unable to find any corroborating evidence amidst a large volume of evidence to the contrary. In 1939, Arnold and the owners of the Register & Tribune Syndicate's parent company, brothers John Cowles, Sr. and Gardner Cowles, Jr. bought out the McNaught and Markey interests.

Arnold became 50% owner of the newly formed Comic Magazines, Inc. the corporate entity that would publish the Quality Comics line. That year Quality released Smash Comics #1, the company's first comic book with new material. Buying features from Eisner & Iger, a prominent "packager" that produced comics on demand for publishers entering the new medium, Quality introduced such superheroes as Plastic Man and Kid Eternity, non-superhero characters including the aviator hero Blackhawk. Quality published comic-book reprints of Will Eisner's "The Spirit", the seven-page lead feature in a weekly 16-page, tabloid-sized, newsprint comic book, known colloquially as "The Spirit Section", distributed through Sunday newspapers; the name Quality Comics debuted on the cover of Crack Comics #5. "Seemingly never an official publishing title," the Connecticut Historical Society noted, "the Quality Comics Group is a trademarked name encompassing Comic Favorites Inc. E. M. Arnold Publications, Smash Comics, any other imprints owned by Arnold".

A 1954 federal document noted that the Quality Romance Group, owned by Everett M. and Claire C. Arnold, with an office at 347 Madison Avenue, in New York City, published two titles as Arnold Publications, Inc. two titles as Comic Favorites, Inc. and 14 titles as Comic Magazines, Inc. By the mid-1950s, with television and paperback books drawing readers away from comic books in general and superheroes in particular, interest in Quality's characters had declined considerably. After a foray into other genres such as war, humor and horror, the company ceased operations with comics cover-dated December 1956. Many of Quality's character and title trademarks were sold to National Comics Publications, which chose to keep only four series running: Blackhawk, G. I. Combat, Heart Throbs and Robin Hood Tales. There has been much confusion over whether the original Quality Comics and/or the characters they published are in public domain; the original copyrights for Quality's publications have never been renewed by either Arnold or DC, leaving those original stories in the public domain.

However, the trademarks to the characters, to the titles of the various comic book series, were sold to DC, which has periodically published stories with them in order to keep their claims alive. Over the decades, DC revived other Quality characters. Plastic Man has starred in several short-lived series starting in 1966, as well as a Saturday morning cartoon from 1979–1981, he went on to become a member of the Justice League in the 1990s. According to DC canon, the Quality characters, before the 1985-1986 DC revamping event called Crisis on Infinite Earths, existed on two separate realities in the DC Multiverse: Earth-Quality and Earth-X. While Earth-Quality followed much the same history as the main Earths, Earth-X was radically different from most Earths, in that World War II continued there until 1973, enabling the Freedom Fighters to continue their fight against the Nazis. Crisis on Infinite Earths #11 established a new "Post-Crisis" continuity in which the Quality and other DC characters have instead always lived on the single, unified