Orange County Museum of Art
The Orange County Museum of Art is a contemporary art museum presently operating in a temporary space at South Coast Plaza Village in Santa Ana, California. The museum's collection comprises more than 3,500 objects, with a concentration on the art of California and the Pacific Rim from the early 20th century to present. Exhibits include traditional paintings and photography, as well as new media in the form of video and installation art; the museum was founded in 1962 as the Balboa Pavilion Gallery by 13 women who rented space in the Balboa Pavilion building in order to exhibit modern and contemporary art. By 1968 the institution became known as the Newport Harbor Art Museum, in 1972 moved to a nearby, larger location. In 1977 the museum opened its doors in Newport Beach on San Clemente Drive in Fashion Island. In 1997, the museum was renamed the Orange County Museum of Art. On May 31, 2018, Craig Wells, President of the Board of Trustees, Todd D. Smith, Director & CEO, of the Orange County Museum of Art, unveiled the design for the museum’s new building at Segerstrom Center for the Arts in Costa Mesa, CA, created by Morphosis, the global architecture and design firm led by Pritzker Prize-winner Thom Mayne.
Groundbreaking for the new building is scheduled to take place in 2019, with a projected opening in 2021. With nearly 25,000 square feet of exhibition galleries—approximately 50 percent more than in the current location—the new 52,000-square-foot museum will allow OCMA to organize major special exhibitions alongside spacious installations from its collection, it will feature an additional 10,000 square feet for education programs and public gatherings, will include administrative offices, a gift shop, a café. The sale of the Newport Beach site was announced on May 15, 2018. OCMA opened its temporary space at South Coast Village on October 3, 2018 which will serve as its interim home while it constructs its new building at Segerstrom Center. Known as OCMAEXPAND-SANTA ANA, the museum will feature five seasons of six months each in duration; these seasons will continue through March 2021. The Orange County Museum of Art has organized exhibitions of contemporary art, including the first surveys of Vija Celmins, Chris Burden, Tony Cragg, as well as major exhibitions of work by Lari Pittman, Gunther Forg, Charles Ray, Guillermo Kuitca, Bill Viola, Inigo Manglano-Ovalle, Catherine Opie, Mary Heilmann, Jack Goldstein.
Thematic exhibitions of contemporary art have ranged from Objectives: The New Sculpture which presented the work of Grenville Davey, Katharina Fritsch, Robert Gober, Jeff Koons, Annette Lemieus, Juan Munoz, Julian Opie, Haim Steinbach. The museum has organized and hosted exhibitions of modern art and design such as Edvard Munch: Expressionist Paintings, 1900-1940, The Interpretive Link: Abstract Surrealism into Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper, 1938-1948, The Figurative Fifties: New York Figurative Expressionism, American Modern, 1925-1940: Design for a New Age, Picasso to Pollock: Modern Masterpieces from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Villa America: American Moderns 1900-1950, Birth of the Cool: Art and Culture at Midcentury, Illumination: The Paintings of Georgia O’Keeffe, Agnes Pelton, Agnes Martin, Florence Miller Pierce. In 1984 the Museum launched the California Biennial. In 2013, that program evolved into the California-Pacific Triennial, the first on-going exhibition in the Western Hemisphere devoted to contemporary art from around the Pacific Rim.
The museum has co-organized exhibitions with the Renaissance Society, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Grey Art Gallery, its exhibitions have traveled to more than 30 museums throughout the United States and in Europe. These projects include Kutlug Ataman: Paradise; the museum’s major holdings are California-based, highlighting such movements as Early and Mid-Century Modernism, Bay Area Figuration, California Light and Space, Pop Art and Installation Art. Prominently featured are works by John Baldessari, Elmer Bischoff, Jessica Bronson, Chris Burden, Jija Celmins, Bruce Conner, Richard Diebenkorn, Robert Irwin, Helen Lundeberg, Stanton Macdonald-Wright, John McCracken, John McLaughlin, Catherine Opie, Alan Rath, Charles Ray, Edward Ruscha, Bill Viola; the Museum’s international holdings are a growing area of the collection, featuring work by Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Lee Bul, Katy Grannan, Joseph Grigely, Glenn Ligon, Christian Marclay, Inigo Manglano-Ovalle, Marjetica Potrc, David Reed, Daniela Rossell, Lorna Simpson.
A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms.
In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion—enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung and Huawei, smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For feature phones as of 2016, the largest were Samsung and Alcatel. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from trains; the race to create portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, were expensive. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms; the first commercial automated cellular network analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s; these first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard; this sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media; the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera. 5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R.
New standards beyond 4G are being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation. Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features; the International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions. In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony. Feature phone is a term used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone, only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface.
By contrast, smartphones use a mobile operating system that shares common traits across devices. There are Orthodox Jewish religious re
Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, in San Diego, California, US, is an art museum focused on the collection, preservation and interpretation of works of art from 1950 to the present. Founded in 1941 in La Jolla as The Art Center in La Jolla, a community art center, through the 1950s and 1960s the organization operated as the La Jolla Art Museum; the museum was the 1915 residence of newspaper heiress and philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps, designed by the noted architect Irving Gill. In the early 1970s, the name changed to the La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, focusing the purview on the period from 1950 to the present. In 1990, the Museum changed its name to San Diego Museum of Contemporary Art, only to change it to Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, after confusion developed between its name and the San Diego Museum of Art; the new name acknowledged the larger geographic context and the population base of nearly 3 million in San Diego County, opened a $1.2-million satellite facility downtown in 1993, further embracing the region.
In 1996, a major $9.2 million renovation and expansion of MCASD La Jolla took place, designed by Robert Venturi of the firm Venturi Scott Brown & Associates. Venturi's 30,000 square feet addition included four more galleries, doubling the museum's exhibition space to 10,000 square feet, it expanded the museum's educational space, storage space, bookstore library and restaurant. It transformed the garden into an outdoor exhibition space for sculpture. In 2007, a $25-million downtown location of the Museum was opened, designed by architect Richard Gluckman of Gluckman Mayner Architects, New York; the expansion added 30,000 square feet of space to the downtown site and increases its exhibition space from about 6,000 square feet to 16,500 square feet. At the north end of the building is a three-story structure of corrugated textured glass, it houses curatorial offices, art-handling and storage facilities, an art education classroom, a lecture hall that opens onto a terrace and a boardroom with a view of the harbor.
The renovated baggage building is named for Irwin M. Jacobs, founder of the technology company Qualcomm, his wife, Joan; the three-story Modernist structure bears the name of philanthropist and newspaper publisher David C. Copley. In 2014, the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego chose architect Annabelle Selldorf to head a $30 million expansion, expected to triple the size of the museum's location in La Jolla; the project will create more gallery space to exhibit the museum's permanent collection, as well as additional space for education. The museum’s footprint will be expanded to include properties on both sides of the institution, the space that now houses Sherwood Auditorium will be reconfigured as a gallery with potential exhibit space of 8,000 square feet; the Museum of Contemporary Art has a nearly 5,000-object collection of post-World War II art that includes key pieces by color field painter Ellsworth Kelly, minimalist sculptor Donald Judd and renowned California installation artist Robert Irwin.
In 2012, museum received 30 contemporary pieces from the 1950s to 1980s, with artworks from Piero Manzoni, Ad Dekkers, Jules Olitski and Franz Kline, as well as California artists Craig Kauffman and Ron Davis, from the collection of Vance E. Kondon and his wife Elisabeth Giesberger; the Copley Building is outfitted with two specially commissioned permanent installations. Roman De Salvo made light fixtures of industrial materials for walls of the stairwell. Outside the building, Jenny Holzer created a parade of her trademark truisms to be spelled out vertically in light-emitting diodes; the words run through clear plastic tubes. MCASD has a permanent endowment fund of over $40 million, an annual operating budget of $6 million. Annual support comes from a balanced mix of individuals, foundations, government agencies, interest earned from the endowment, the majority of which came from a transformational 1999 bequest from Rea and Jackie Axline of more than $30 million. From 1983 to 2016, Hugh Davies steered the museum as director.
From October 2016, Kathryn Kanjo will become the museum's director and CEO. San Diego Museum of Art Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
Japanese mobile phone culture
In Japan, mobile phones have become ubiquitous. In Japanese, mobile phones are called keitai denwa "portable telephones," and are known as keitai. Much of the Japanese population own cellular phones, most of which are equipped with enhancements such as video and camera capabilities; as of May 2008, 31.3% of elementary school students, 57.6% of middle school students own a cell phone, with many of them accessing the Internet through them. This pervasiveness and the particularities of their usage has led to the development of a mobile phone culture, or "keitai culture." Japan was a leader in mobile phone technology. The first camera phone J-Phone was released in November 2000, not only included a camera but the function to send photographs via messaging or E-mail, which made the phone popular at the time. Technologies like 3G Mobile Broadband were common in Japan before any other country; some of the main features of a mobile in Japan include: In recent years, some cellular phones have been updated to be used as debit or credit cards and can be swiped through most tills to buy products as varied as mascara and jet planes, as more and more companies offer catalogs for cell phones.
These functionalities include: E-money service and various certification functions through Untouched IC card Various services with NTT DoCoMo’s ‘Osaifu-Keitai ’ E-money service e.g. ‘Edy’ ‘Mobile Suica,’ allows the phone to be used as a rail ticket Cmode: vending machines which can be used with QR Codes ‘Osaifu-Keitai’ NTT DoCoMo's service by GPSSome newer models allow the user to watch movies and/or television. Most phones can be connected to the Internet through services such as i-mode. Japan was the first to launch 3G services on a large scale. Users can browse text-only Internet sites, many Japanese sites have sub-sites designed for cellular phone users. One of the most popular services allows users to check train schedules and plan trips on public transit; the wide variety of features, many original to or limited to Japan, lead to the term "Galápagos syndrome", as these resulting phones were dominant in the island nation of Japan, but unsuccessful abroad. This has since led to the term Gala-phone to refer to Japanese feature phones, by contrast with newer smart phones.
As of 2013, the Japanese mobile phone market is broadly divided into a high-end, consisting of smart phones, mid-range, consisting of feature phones, a low-end, consisting of Personal Handy-phone System. There is some overlap of market segments between low-end smart phones and high-end feature phones, many shared features. PHS, developed as a cheaper alternative to 2G networks such as CDMA and GSM, was deployed in 1995, but is now only offered by one carrier, Y! Mobile; as elsewhere in the world, smart phones have been growing quickly. The use of mobile phones to make calls on public transport is frowned upon, messages asking passengers not to make calls and to switch their phones to silent mode are played frequently. This, combined with the low per-message price and ample allowed length per message, has increased the use of text messaging as an alternative to calls. Abbreviations are widespread.'\' may be attached at the end of a sentence to show that they are not happy about the event described.
A sentence like "I have a test today\" might mean that he or she didn't study enough, or that the test itself is depressing. Some of these usages disappeared as suitable icons were made but these newly made icons acquired a usage not intended. One example deals with the astrological symbol for Libra, it resembles a cooked and puffed mochi, is sometimes used in a happy new year's message as mochi are eaten then. The symbol for Aquarius resembles waves, so this would be used to mean'sea'; the number of icons increased and they are now coloured on most cell phones, to make them more distinct. ASCII art is used and many of them are faces with expression. One distinct form of writing is called'gyaru-moji. For example, lt wouldn't correspond to the Latin characters'L' and't' but instead it would correspond to the hiragana, け. Notice that it looks similar when written. Many hiragana and kanji are taken apart and reassembled using different characters including alphabet characters, it is unclear. Some believe that this started as a way of making secret messages that a quick peek wouldn't reveal, while others claim that it was just for fun.
This can be related to the way the English language hacking culture uses 1337 language to hide the meaning of the words typed. It is possibly due to different character limits when different languages are used, e.g. 160 Latin characters and 70 Unicode. By splitting the characters into alpha-numeric characters, it extends the possible over-all length of the message. Mobile phone novels are popular with the same audience. In the early 2000s, mobile games gained mainstream popularity in Japan, years before the United States and Europe. By 2003, a wide variety of mobile games were available on Japanese phones, ranging from puzzle games and virtual pet titles that utilize cam
Second Life is an online virtual world and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003. By 2013, Second Life had one million regular users. In many ways, Second Life is similar to massively multiplayer online role-playing games; the virtual world can be accessed via Linden Lab's own client programs or via alternative third-party viewers. Second Life users called residents, create virtual representations of themselves, called avatars, are able to interact with places and other avatars, they can explore the world, meet other residents, participate in both individual and group activities, create and trade virtual property and services with one another. The platform principally features 3D-based user-generated content. Second Life has its own virtual currency, the Linden Dollar, exchangeable with real world currency. Second Life is intended for people aged 16 and over, with the exception of 13–15-year-old users, who are restricted to the Second Life region of a sponsoring institution.
Built into the software is a 3D modeling tool based on simple geometric shapes that allows residents to build virtual objects. There is a procedural scripting language, Linden Scripting Language, which can be used to add interactivity to objects. Sculpted prims, textures for clothing or other objects and gestures can be created using external software and imported; the Second Life terms of service provide that users retain copyright for any content they create, the server and client provide simple digital rights management functions. However, Linden Lab changed their terms of service in August 2013 to be able to use user-generated content for any purpose; the new terms of service prevent users from using textures from third-party texture services, as some of them pointed out explicitly. In 1999, Philip Rosedale formed Linden Lab with the intention of developing computer hardware to allow people to become immersed in a virtual world. In its earliest form, the company struggled to produce a commercial version of the hardware, known as "The Rig", which in prototype form was seen as a clunky steel contraption with computer monitors worn on shoulders.
That vision changed into the software application Linden World, in which people participated in task-based games and socializing in a three-dimensional online environment. That effort transformed into the better known, user-centered Second Life. Although he was familiar with the metaverse of Neal Stephenson's novel Snow Crash, Rosedale has said that his vision of virtual worlds predates that book, that he conducted early virtual world experiments during his college years at the University of California, San Diego, where he studied physics. In 2005 and 2006, Second Life began to receive significant media attention, including a cover story in BusinessWeek magazine featuring the virtual world and Second Life avatar Anshe Chung. By that time, Anshe Chung had become Second Life's poster child and symbol for the economic opportunities that the virtual world offers to its residents. At the same time, the service saw a period of exponential growth of its user base. On December 11, 2007, Cory Ondrejka, who helped program Second Life, was forced to resign as chief technology officer.
In January 2008, residents spent a total of 28,274,505 hours "inworld" and on average 38,000 residents were logged in at any moment. The maximum concurrency recorded is 88,200 in the first quarter of 2009On March 14, 2008, Rosedale announced plans to step down from his position as Linden Lab CEO and to become chairman of Linden Lab's board of directors. Rosedale announced Mark Kingdon as the new CEO effective May 15, 2008. In 2010, Kingdon was replaced by Rosedale, who took over as Interim CEO. After four months, Rosedale abruptly stepped down from the Interim CEO position, it was announced in October 2010 that Bob Komin, Linden Lab's chief financial officer and chief operating officer, would take over the CEO job for the immediate future. In 2008, Second Life was honored at the 59th Annual Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards for advancing the development of online sites with user-generated content. Rosedale accepted the award. In May 2009, concurrent users averaged about 62,000; as of May 2010, concurrent users averaged about 54,000.
According to Tateru Nino of Engadget, the decline was due to new policies implemented by Linden Lab reducing the number of bots and campers. In June 2010, Linden Lab announced layoffs of 30% of its workforce. In November 2010, 21.3 million accounts were registered, although the company has not made public any statistics regarding actual long-term consistent usage. However, Wagner James Au, who blogs and writes about Second Life, said in April 2013 that he had it on "good authority" that "Second Life's actual active userbase is about 600,000". In 2015 alone, Second Life users had cashed out $60,000,000 and Second Life had an estimated GDP of $500,000,000, higher than some small countries. During a 2001 meeting with investors, Rosedale noticed that the participants were responsive to the collaborative, creative potential of Second Life; as a result, the initial objective-driven, gaming focus of Second Life was shifted to a more user-created, community-driven experience. Second Life's status as a virtual world, a computer game, or a talker, is debated.
Unlike a traditional computer game, Second Life does not have a designated objective, nor traditional game
Electronic Disturbance Theater
The Electronic Disturbance Theater, established in 1997 by performance artist and writer Ricardo Dominguez, is an electronic company of cyber activists, critical theorists, performance artists who engage in the development of both the theory and practice of non-violent acts of defiance across and between digital and non-digital spaces. Ricardo Dominguez, Brett Stalbaum, Stefan Wray, Carmin Karasic collectively form EDT. Taking the idea of the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, the EDT members have always used their real names; as a collective group they organize and program computer software to show their views against anti-propagandist and military actions, begin mobilizing micronetworks to act in solidarity by staging virtual sit-ins online and allowing the emergence of a collective presence in direct digital actions. The EDT created; this was a form of hacktivism which would help create the simulation of a sit-in protest over the Internet known as a virtual sit-in demonstration to disrupt Zapatista oppressors' websites, by overloading their computer networks and servers.
The Electronic Disturbance Theater group believe that the Internet should not be used purely as a means for communication and data exchange. Current active members of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, who refer to themselves as Electronic Disturbance Theater 2.0, include Brett Stalbaum, Amy Sara Carroll, Elle Mehrmand, Micha Cárdenas, Ricardo Dominguez. The group has received a storm of media attention for their 2007 project, the Transborder Immigrant Tool, which sends experimental poetry to users in addition to helping them find water and safe routes when crossing the Mexican-American border. EDT have described this project as the next step of electronic civil disobedience, or ECD 2.0. The Transborder Immigrant Tool was shown in numerous museums and galleries in 2010, including the California Biennial at the Orange County Museum of Art, the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, the Galería de la Raza in San Francisco; the project is maintained by California Institute for Information Technology.
Electronic Disturbance Theater is under investigation for their virtual sit-in in support of the 2010 March 4 strikes and occupations in support of public education. The group's objective was, with the use of digital media and internet based technology, to demonstrate nonviolent resistance in support of the Zapatista rebels residing in the state of Chiapas in Mexico. EDT uses both e-mail and the Internet to promote their work around the world, encouraging fellow supporters to download and run a tool based on HTML and Java applet called FloodNet. FloodNet is a computer-based program, created by members of the Electronic Disturbance theater company Carmin Karasic and Brett Stalbaum; the FloodNet program would reload a URL for short several times slowing the website and network server down, if a high number of protesters were to join in the sit-in at one time. The EDT would first execute the FloodNet software in what would be for them a dress rehearsal before attacking their main targets on April 10, 1998, a month on both Mexican and American government websites, representing both the Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo and American President Bill Clinton.
FloodNet would work on this basic idea taken from street theater practices and political rallies and protest, but instead present it on a much larger and international stage, with the facilitation of macro-networks and non-digital forms of action. The EDT's mission was to allow the voices of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation to be heard, after the attack on the small remote village of Acteal in Chiapas, Mexico; the Paramilitary, a government-funded military squad, surrounded a Catholic church during a Tsotsil Mayan. For the next several hours the Paramilitary shot everyone to death, those inside the church and any who tried to escape, resulting in the death of fifteen children, nine men, twenty-one women, four of whom were pregnant, on December 22, 1997; this event became known as the Acteal Massacre. Those who were convicted of this crime were released in the Supreme Court to the outrage of many, after ignoring eyewitness reports and allowing those who confessed to this crime on humanity.
Instead, the Supreme Court focused on the mismanagement of the investigation and the fabrication of evidence. The Electronic Disturbance Theater took notice of these actions when others did not and arranged their first act of electronic civil disobedience against the Mexican Government. In a subsequent version of FloodNet, those who had downloaded the FloodNet program in support of the Zapatistas were asked to input the names of those that had lost their lives at the hands of the Mexican Army in military attacks; this would target the servers to return an error message each time these URLs would be requested. This data request would be stored in a server's error log and in the eyes of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation and the Electronic Disturbance Theater group, a symbolic list of those 45 Acteal civilians who had died straight to their murderers. If enough people used the FloodNet applet, this would cause the computer server running the website to overload, so that when a regular visitor or someone working within the site tried to access the website or send company based emails and files, the pages would either load slowly or not at all.
This worked on the same basis of a real
William Ford Gibson is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk. Beginning his writing career in the late 1970s, his early works were noir, near-future stories that explored the effects of technology and computer networks on humans—a "combination of lowlife and high tech"—and helped to create an iconography for the information age before the ubiquity of the Internet in the 1990s. Gibson notably coined the term "cyberspace" in his short story "Burning Chrome" and popularized the concept in his acclaimed debut novel Neuromancer; these early works have been credited with "renovating" science fiction literature. After expanding on Neuromancer with two more novels to complete the dystopic Sprawl trilogy, Gibson collaborated with Bruce Sterling on the alternate history novel The Difference Engine, which became an important work of the science fiction subgenre steampunk. In the 1990s, Gibson composed the Bridge trilogy of novels, which explored the sociological developments of near-future urban environments, postindustrial society, late capitalism.
Following the turn of the century and the events of 9/11, Gibson emerged with a string of realist novels—Pattern Recognition, Spook Country, Zero History —set in a contemporary world. These works saw, his more recent novel, The Peripheral, returned to a more overt engagement with technology and recognizable science fiction concerns. In 1999, The Guardian described Gibson as "probably the most important novelist of the past two decades," while the Sydney Morning Herald called him the "noir prophet" of cyberpunk. Throughout his career, Gibson has written more than 20 short stories and 10 critically acclaimed novels, contributed articles to several major publications, collaborated extensively with performance artists and musicians, his work has been cited as an influence across a variety of disciplines spanning academia, film, music and technology. William Ford Gibson was born in the coastal city of Conway, South Carolina, he spent most of his childhood in Wytheville, Virginia, a small town in the Appalachians where his parents had been born and raised.
His family moved during Gibson's youth owing to his father's position as manager of a large construction company. In Norfolk, Gibson attended Pines Elementary School, where the teachers' lack of encouragement for him to read was a cause of dismay for his parents. While Gibson was still a young child, a little over a year into his stay at Pines Elementary, his father choked to death in a restaurant while on a business trip, his mother, unable to tell William the bad news, had someone else inform him of the death. Tom Maddox has commented that Gibson "grew up in an America as disturbing and surreal as anything J. G. Ballard dreamed". A few days after the death, Gibson's mother returned them from their home in Norfolk to Wytheville. Gibson described Wytheville as "a place where modernity had arrived to some extent but was distrusted" and credits the beginnings of his relationship with science fiction, his "native literary culture", with the subsequent feeling of abrupt exile. At the age of 12, Gibson "wanted nothing more than to be a science fiction writer".
He spent a few unproductive years at basketball-obsessed George Wythe High School, a time spent in his room listening to records and reading books. At 13, unbeknownst to his mother, he purchased an anthology of Beat generation writing, thereby gaining exposure to the writings of Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs. A shy, ungainly teenager, Gibson grew up in a monoculture he found "highly problematic", consciously rejected religion and took refuge in reading science fiction as well as writers such as Burroughs and Henry Miller. Becoming frustrated with his poor academic performance, Gibson's mother threatened to send him to a boarding school. Unable to afford his preferred choice of Southern California, his "chronically anxious and depressive" mother, who had remained in Wytheville since the death of her husband, sent him to Southern Arizona School for Boys in Tucson, he resented the structure of the private boarding school but was in retrospect grateful for its forcing him to engage socially.
On the SAT exams, he scored 148 out of 150 in the written section but 5 out of 150 in mathematics, to the consternation of his teachers. After his mother's death when he was 18, Gibson left school without graduating and became isolated for a long time, traveling to California and Europe, immersing himself in the counterculture. In 1967, he elected to move to Canada in order "to avoid the Vietnam war draft". At his draft hearing, he informed interviewers that his intention in life was to sample every mind-altering substance in existence. Gibson has observed that he "did not evade the draft, as they never bothered drafting me". In the biographical documentary No Maps for These Territories, Gibson said that his decision was motivated less by conscientious objection than by a desire to "sleep with hippie chicks" and indulge in hashish, he elaborated on the topic in a 2008 interview: When I started out as a writer I took credit for draft evasion where I shouldn't have. I washed up in Canada with some vague