Fergus of Galloway
Fergus of Galloway was a twelfth-century Lord of Galloway. Although his familial origins are unknown, it is possible. Fergus first appears on record in 1136, when he witnessed a charter of King of Scotland. There is considerable evidence indicating that Fergus was married to a bastard daughter of Henry I, King of England. Although the identity of this woman is unknown, it is possible that she was the mother of Fergus' three children. Fergus forged a marital alliance with Óláfr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles through the marriage of the latter to Fergus' daughter, Affraic; as a consequence of this union, the leading branch of the Crovan dynasty descended from Fergus. When Óláfr was assassinated by a rival branch of the dynasty, Galloway itself was attacked before Fergus' grandson, Guðrøðr Óláfsson, was able to seize control of Isles. Both Fergus and his grandson appear to have overseen military operations in Ireland, before the latter was overthrown by Somairle mac Gilla Brigte, Lord of Argyll; the fact that there is no record of Fergus lending Guðrøðr support against Somairle could be evidence of a slackening of Fergus' authority.
Contemporary sources report that Galloway was wracked by inter-dynastic strife during the decade. Fergus' fall from power came in 1160, after Malcolm IV, King of Scotland settled a dispute amongst his leading magnates and launched three military campaigns into Galloway; the reasons for the Scottish invasion are unknown. On one hand, it is possible that Fergus had precipitated events by preying upon Scottish territories. In the aftermath of the attack, the king came to terms with Somairle which could be evidence that he had either been allied with Fergus against the Scots or that he had aided in Fergus' destruction. Whatever the case, Fergus himself was driven from power, forced to retire to the abbey of Holyrood, he died the next year. The Lordship of Galloway appears to have been partitioned between his sons, Gilla Brigte and Uhtred, Scottish influence further penetrated into Galloway. Fergus' familial origins are unknown, he is not accorded a patronym in contemporary sources, his descendants are traced no further than him in their charters.
The fact that he tends to be styled "of Galloway" in contemporary sources suggests that he was the head of the most important family in the region. Such appears to have been the case with Fergus' contemporary Freskin, a significant settler in Moray, styled de Moravia. One source that may cast light on Fergus' familial origins is Roman de Fergus, a mediaeval Arthurian romance set in southern Scotland, which tells the tale of a knight who may represent Fergus himself; the name of the knight's father in this source is a form of the name borne by Fergus' neighbouring contemporary Somairle mac Gilla Brigte, Lord of Argyll, could be evidence that Fergus' father bore the same name. Conversely, the name of the knight's father could suggest that this character represents the historical Somairle himself, rather than the father of Fergus. Whatever the case, there is reason to suspect that the romance is a literary pastiche or parody of the compositions of Chrétien de Troyes. Despite the uncertainty surrounding his origins, it is possible that Fergus was of Norse-Gaelic and native Gallovdian ancestry.
Traditionally, the Gallovidians appear to have looked towards the Isles instead of Scotland, the core of his family's lands seems to have centred in valley of the river Dee and the coastal area around Whithorn, regions of substantial Scandinavian settlement. Whatever the case, the fact that Fergus died as an old man in 1161 suggests that he was born before 1100. Fergus first appears on record in about 1136×1141, when he and his son, witnessed the grant of the lands of Partick to the church of St Kentigern at Glasgow; the exact extent of the twelfth-century Lordship of Galloway is unclear. Surviving acta of Fergus and Uhtred reveal a concentration of endowments in central Galloway, between the rivers Urr and Fleet. Subsequent grants of lands by descendants of Fergus in the Dee valley could represent the expansion of territory from this original core. There is evidence indicating the Fergus' domain extended into western Galloway as well, his descendants were associated with the castle of Cruggleton and dealt with lands in the vicinity.
In 1140, during the return journey of Máel Máedoc Ua Morgair, Archbishop of Armagh from Clairvaux to Ulster, the latter made landfall at Cruggleton, as evidenced by Vita Sancti Malachiae, composed by Bernard of Clairvaux. Although this source associates the castle with the Scots, it seems unlikely that Scottish royal authority extended to the Gallovidian coast, the statement could therefore be a result of confusion with Máel Máedoc's previous stay at the castle of Carlisle controlled by David I, King of Scotland. In fact, Máel Máedoc's visit to Cruggleton may have involved the local lord of the region, conceivably Fergus himself; the mid twelfth-century lordship, seems to have been centred in the region of Wigtown Bay and the mouth of the river Dee. The fact that Gilla Brigte, who may well have been Fergus' eldest child appears to have drawn his power from west of the river Cree could be evidence that this man's mother was a member of a prominent family from this region; such an alliance could explain Fergus' apparent westward expansion.
Whatever the case, the fact that the Diocese of Whithorn was revived in about 1128 at the hands of Fergus himself, could indicate that he purposely established an episcopal
Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick
Donnchadh was a Gall-Gaidhil prince and Scottish magnate in what is now south-western Scotland, whose career stretched from the last quarter of the 12th century until his death in 1250. His father, Gille-Brighde of Galloway, his uncle, Uhtred of Galloway, were the two rival sons of Fergus, Prince or Lord of Galloway; as a result of Gille-Brighde's conflict with Uhtred and the Scottish monarch William the Lion, Donnchadh became a hostage of King Henry II of England. He remained in England for a decade before returning north on the death of his father. Although denied succession to all the lands of Galloway, he was granted lordship over Carrick in the north. Allied to John de Courcy, Donnchadh fought battles in Ireland and acquired land there that he subsequently lost. A patron of religious houses Melrose Abbey and North Berwick priory nunnery, he attempted to establish a monastery in his own territory, at Crossraguel, he married the daughter of Alan fitz Walter, a leading member of the family known as the House of Stewart—future monarchs of Scotland and England.
Donnchadh was the first mormaer or earl of Carrick, a region he ruled for more than six decades, making him one of the longest serving magnates in medieval Scotland. His descendants include the Bruce and Stewart Kings of Scotland, the Campbell Dukes of Argyll. Donnchadh's career is not well documented in the surviving sources. Charters provide a little information about some of his activities, but overall their usefulness is limited. Principally, the relevant charters record his acts of patronage towards religious houses, but incidental details mentioned in the body of these texts and the witness lists subscribed to them are useful for other matters; some English government records describe his activities in relation to Ireland, occasional chronicle entries from England and the English-speaking regions of what became south-eastern Scotland record other important details. Aside from the Chronicle of Melrose, the most significant of these sources are the works of Roger of Hoveden, the material preserved in the writings of John of Fordun and Walter Bower.
Roger of Hoveden wrote two important works: the Gesta Henrici II and the Chronica, the latter a re-worked and supplemented version of the former. These works are the most important and valuable sources for Scottish history in the late 12th century; the Gesta Henrici II covers the period from 1169 to April 1192, the Chronica covers events until 1201. Roger of Hoveden is important in relation to what is now south-western Scotland, the land of the Gall-Gaidhil, he served as an emissary in the region in 1174 on behalf of the English monarch, thus his account of, for example, the approach of Donnchadh's father Gille-Brighde towards the English king comes from a witness. Historians rely on Roger's writings for a number of important details about Donnchadh's life: that Gille-Brighde handed Donnchadh over as a hostage to Henry II under the care of Hugh de Morwic, Sheriff of Cumberland. Another important chronicle source is the material preserved in John of Fordun's Chronica gentis Scottorum and Walter Bower's Scotichronicon.
John of Fordun's work, which survives on its own, was incorporated in the following century into the work of Bower. Fordun's Chronica was written and compiled between 1384 and August 1387. Despite the late date, Scottish textual historian Dauvit Broun has shown that Fordun's work in fact consists of two earlier pieces, Gesta Annalia I and Gesta Annalia II, the former written before April 1285 and covering the period from King Máel Coluim mac Donnchada to 2 February 1285. Gesta Annalia I appears to have been based on an earlier text, about the descendants of Saint Margaret of Scotland, produced at Dunfermline Abbey, thus material from these works concerning the late 12th- and early 13th-century Gall-Gaidhil may represent, despite the apparent late date, reliable contemporary or near-contemporary accounts. Donnchadh's territory lay in what is now Scotland south of the River Forth, a multi-ethnic region during the late 12th century. North of the Forth was the Gaelic kingdom of Scotland, which under its Normanised kings exercised direct or indirect control over most of the region to the south as far as the borders of Northumberland and Cumberland.
Lothian and the Merse were the heartlands of the northern part of the old English Earldom of Northumbria, in the late 12th century the people of these regions, as well as the people of Lauderdale, Eskdale and most of Teviotdale and Annandale, were English in language and regarded themselves as English by ethnicity, despite having been under the control of the king of the Scots for at least a century. Clydesdale was the heartland of the old Kingdom of Strathclyde. Gaelic too had penetrated much of the old Northumbrian and Strathclyde territory, coming from the west, south-west and the north, a situation that led historian Alex Woolf to compare the re
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England. It lies on the River Nene, about 67 miles north-west of London and 54 miles south-east of Birmingham, it is one of the largest towns in the UK. Northampton had a population of 212,100 in the 2011 census. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods. During the Middle Ages, the town rose to national significance with the establishment of Northampton Castle, an occasional royal residence and hosted the Parliament of England. Medieval Northampton had many churches and the University of Northampton, which were all enclosed by the town walls, it was granted its first town charter by King Richard I in 1189 and its first mayor was appointed by King John in 1215. The town is the site of two medieval battles. Northampton's royal connection languished in the modern period; the town suffered the Great Fire of Northampton which destroyed most of the town. It was soon rebuilt and grew with the industrial development of the 18th century.
Northampton continued to grow following the creation of the Grand Union Canal and the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, becoming an industrial centre for footwear and leather manufacture. After the World Wars, Northampton's growth was limited until it was designated as a New Town in 1968, accelerating development in the town. Northampton unsuccessfully applied for unitary status in 1996 and city status in 2000. According to Centre for Cities data in 2015, Northampton had a population growth of 11% between the years 2004 and 2013, one of the ten highest in the UK; the earliest reference to Northampton in writing occurred in 914 under the name Ham tune meaning "home town". The prefix "North" was added to distinguish it from other towns called Hampton, most prominently Southampton; the Domesday Book records the town as Northantone, which evolved into Norhamptone by the 13th century and Northampton by the 17th century. Present-day Northampton is the latest in a series of settlements. Remains found in the Briar Hill district show evidence of a Neolithic encampment within a large circular earthwork where local farmers assembled for tribal ceremonies and seasonal events from 3500 BC to 2000 BC.
During the British Iron Age, people lived in protected hill forts. Present-day Hunsbury Hill is an example of this settlement. In the Roman period, a small rural settlement is thought to have existed in the present-day district of Duston. Following Danish invasion, the central area of the town was turned into a stronghold called a burh and became the base for one of the Danish armies in 850. A ditch was dug around the settlement and it was fortified with earth ramparts. Having conquered Mercia, the Danes turned the settlement into a centre for military and administrative purposes, part of the Danelaw. In the 9th century Regenhere of Northampton an East Anglian Saint with localised veneration was buried in Northampton. By 918, Northampton had an earl and an army dependent upon it, whose territory extended to the River Welland; the settlement was recovered by Edward the Elder the same year, turning it into the centre of one of the new shires, which prospered as a river port and trading centre. In 940, it resisted the invading forces of Danish opposition in Northumbria, but was burnt in 1010 by a Danish army, again in 1065 by the rebellious northern earls Edwin and Morcar.
Despite this, the Domesday Book records Northantone as possessing 316 houses with a population of 2000 people, ranking between Warwick and Leicester in size. With the Norman conquest of England, the town rose to national significance: its geographical location in the centre of England made Northampton a valuable strategical point for government and as a convenient meeting place for political, social and military events. Northampton Castle is thought to have been built by Simon de Senlis, who became the first Earl of Northampton, circa 1084, it was an earth and timber stockaded construction, rebuilt in stone. The castle became an occasional royal residence from the reign of King Henry I in 1130 until that of King Richard II. King John stayed at the castle and moved The Treasury there in 1205; some 32 Parliaments, were held there. The last Parliament at Northampton was held in 1380. Significant events in the castle's history include the trial of Thomas Becket in 1164, the publication of the Assize of Northampton in 1176, the declaration of peace with Scotland in the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, the passage of the Statute of Northampton in 1328 and the imposition of poll tax in 1380.
Royal tournaments and feasts were held at the castle. Simon de Senlis is thought to have built the medieval town walls, which enclosed about 245 acres and had four main gates. Though demolished now, the circular pattern of the main roads surrounding the town centre marks the original position of the walls. De Senlis founded the Cluniac Priory of St Andrew's—where St Andrew's Hospital now stands—and built The Church of the Holy Sepulchre—one of four remaining round churches in England—and All Hallows Church on the current site of All Saint's Church, his son
John, King of England
John known as John Lackland, was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century; the baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom. John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child, he was given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William and Geoffrey died young. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade.
Despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England, came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200. When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204. John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. John's judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute settled by the king in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines; when he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles.
Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France, it soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216. Contemporary chroniclers were critical of John's performance as king, his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general". Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as "distasteful dangerous personality traits", such as pettiness and cruelty; these negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture as a villain in films and stories depicting the Robin Hood legends.
John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166. Henry had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard—Anjou and England—and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. Henry married the powerful Eleanor of Aquitaine, who reigned over the Duchy of Aquitaine and had a tenuous claim to Toulouse and Auvergne in southern France, in addition to being the former wife of Louis VII of France; the result was the Angevin Empire, named after Henry's paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more its seat in Angers. The Empire, was inherently fragile: although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry, the disparate parts each had their own histories and governance structures; as one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henry's power in the provinces diminished scarcely resembling the modern concept of an empire at all. Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were dissolving over time, it was unclear.
Although the custom of primogeniture, under which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England. Most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the rival line of the House of Capet. Henry had allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship more challenging. Shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, sent John and his sister Joan north to Fontevrault Abbey; this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical career.
Eleanor spent the next few years conspiring against her husband Henry and neither parent played a
Glenluce Abbey, near to Glenluce, was a Cistercian monastery called Abbey of Luce or Vallis Lucis and founded around 1190 by Rolland or Lochlann, Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland. Following the Scottish Reformation in 1560, the abbey fell into disuse. On 23 January 1497, James IV erected "Ballinclach in Glenluce" into a burgh of barony in favour of the abbey, although there is no record of the burgh operating. Gilbert Kennedy, 4th Earl of Cassilis obtained control of Glenluce during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots; the Earl persuaded one of the monks of the abbey to counterfeit the necessary signatures to a deed conveying the lands of the abbey to him and his heirs. To ensure that the forgery was not discovered he employed a man to murder the monk and persuaded his uncle, the laird of Bargany to hang his paid assassin on a trumped up charge of theft; the success of these actions encouraged him to obtain the lands of Crossraguel Abbey through the torturing of Allan Stewart, the commendator at his castle of Dunure.
The ruins were consolidated and restored in 1898 by the Glasgow architect, Peter MacGregor Chalmers. They are a scheduled ancient monument. Abbot of Glenluce, for a list of abbots and commendators Scheduled monuments in Dumfries and Galloway Historic Environment Scotland: Visitor guide Undiscovered Scotland: Glenluce Abbey Abbey Portal The Gazetteer of Scotland by Robert Chambers. VOL. II
Alan of Galloway
Alan of Galloway known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate. As the hereditary Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland, he was one of the most influential men in the Kingdom of Scotland and Irish Sea zone. Alan first appears in courtly circles in about 1200, about the time he inherited his father's possessions and offices. After he secured his mother's inheritance two decades Alan became one of the most powerful magnates in the Scottish realm. Alan held lands in the Kingdom of England, was an advisor of John, King of England concerning Magna Carta. Alan played a considerable part in Alexander II of Scotland's northern English ambitions during the violent aftermath of John's repudiation of Magna Carta. Alan participated in the English colonisation of Ulster, receiving a massive grant in the region from the English king, aided the Scottish crown against rebel claimants in the western and northern peripheries of the Scottish realm. Alan entered into a vicious inter-dynastic struggle for control of the Kingdom of the Isles, supporting one of his kinsman against another.
Alan's involvement in the Isles, a region under nominal Norwegian authority, provoked a massive military response by Haakon IV of Norway, causing a severe crisis for the Scottish crown. As ruler of the semi-autonomous Lordship of Galloway, Alan was courted by the Scottish and English kings for his remarkable military might, was noted in Norse saga-accounts as one of the greatest warriors of his time. Like other members of his family, he was a generous religious patron. Alan died in February 1234. Although under the traditional Celtic custom of Galloway, Alan's illegitimate son could have succeeded to the Lordship of Galloway, under the feudal custom of the Scottish realm, Alan's nearest heirs were his surviving daughters. Using Alan's death as an opportunity to further integrate Galloway within his realm, Alexander forced the partition of the lordship amongst Alan's daughters. Alan was the last legitimate ruler of Galloway, descending from the native dynasty of Fergus, Lord of Galloway. Alan was born sometime before 1199.
He was the eldest son of Roland fitz Uhtred, Lord of Galloway, his wife, Helen de Morville. His parents were married before 1185 at some point in the 1170s, since Roland was compelled to hand over three sons as hostages to Henry II of England in 1186. Roland and Helen had three sons, two daughters; the name of one of Alan's brothers is unknown, suggesting. The other, became Earl of Atholl by right of his wife. One of Alan's sisters, married Walter Bisset, Lord of Aboyne; the other, married Nicholas de Stuteville, Lord of Liddel. Alan's mother was the sister and heir of William de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Cunningham, Constable of Scotland. Alan's father was Lord of Galloway, son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway; the familial origins of Fergus are unknown, he first appears on record in 1136. The mother of at least two of his children and Affraic, was an unknown daughter of Henry I of England, it was not long after Fergus' emergence into recorded history that he gave away Affraic in marriage to Amlaíb mac Gofraid, King of the Isles.
One after-effect of these early twelfth-century marital alliances was that Alan—Fergus' great-grandson—was a blood relative of the early thirteenth-century kings of England and the kings of the Isles—men who proved to be important players throughout Alan's career. Roland died in December 1200. Alan inherited the constableship of Scotland, a pre-eminent position which had passed to Roland from the Morvilles by right of Roland's wife, the only surviving heir of Richard de Morville; as constable, like the earls of the realm, was responsible for leading the king's royal forces. It is uncertain whether the constable of this period took precedence over the earls in command of the king's army, or if the constable had charge of the realm's numerous marischals, his attachment to the importance of his posisition as constable is evidenced by the fact that this title tends to have taken priority over his hereditary title as ruler of Galloway. Before Roland's death, Alan was active in courtly circles serving as his father's deputy.
Alan's first known important attestation occurs late in December 1199, when he witnessed a royal charter at Forfar. From this point in his career until 1209, Alan appears to have been most in the attendance of the Scottish king, witnessing several of the latter's royal charters. Alan's eminent standing in society is evidenced by the fact that, within these sources, his name tends to appear amongst the top four recorded names, is the first name of non-comital rank, his second marriage, in about 1209, to the king's niece, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon reveals Alan's significant social standing. From about 1210 to 1215, his activity in Scottish affairs dwindles whilst his activity in English affairs increases steadily. At some point in the first quarter of the thirteenth century, Alan was granted a vast swathe of territory in Ulster from King John of England; the transaction itself certainly took place in the aftermath of the John's expedition to Ireland in 1210. The exact date of the transaction, cannot be ascertained due to a gap in English charter records between the months of April 1209 and May 1212.
The brunt of John's nine-week Irish campaign appears to have been directed at wayward Anglo-Norman magnates—the troublesome Lacy family in particular. With his subsequent destruction of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster, the confiscation of the latter's Irish earldom, J
Carlisle is a historic city and the county town of Cumbria. In Cumberland, it is the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden and Petteril, 10 miles south of the Scottish border, it is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. Ten years at the 2011 census, the city's population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the wider city; the early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; the castle now houses the Duke of the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle.
The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, the priory became Carlisle Cathedral. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station. Nicknamed the Great Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural and industrial centre for north Cumbria, it is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974. What is known of the ancient history of Carlisle is derived from archaeological evidence and the works of the Roman historian Tacitus; the earliest recorded inhabitants were the Carvetii tribe of Britons who made up the main population of ancient Cumbria and North Lancashire.
According to Boethius and John of Fordun, Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British towns at the time. In the time of the emperor Nero, it was said to have burned down; the Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name, reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, " of Luguwalos", a masculine Celtic given name meaning "strength of Lugus". Excavations undertaken along Annetwell Street in the 1970s dated the Roman timber fort constructed at the site of present Carlisle Castle to the winter of AD 73, protecting a strategic location overlooking the confluence of the Caldew and Eden rivers; this walled civitas the only one in northwest Britain served as the tribal centre of the Carvetii on the model of other such sites in Roman Britain. In 79, the two Roman generals Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Quintus Petillius Cerialis advanced through Solway as they continued their campaign further north; as a result, it is that greater control was achieved at Carlisle over anti-imperial groups.
This is indicated from the reconstruction of the fort at Carlisle in 83 using oak timbers from further afield, rather than local alder. At this time the Roman fort was garrisoned by a 500-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Sebosiana. By the early 2nd century, Carlisle was established as a prominent stronghold. The'Stanegate' frontier, which consisted of Luguvalium and several other forts in a line east to Corbridge, was proving a more stable frontier against the Picts than those established deeper into Caledonia. In 122, the province was visited by Hadrian, who approved a plan to build a wall the length of the frontier. A new fort, was built at Carlisle in the Stanwix area of the city north of the river, it was the largest fort along the length of Hadrian's Wall and was completed in stone by around 130. Like Luguvalium, which lay within sight, Petriana housed a 1,000-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Petriana, the sole regiment of this size along the wall. Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius attempted to move further north.
It was not a success and, after 20 years, the garrisons returned to Hadrian's Wall. Until 400, the Roman occupation fluctuated in importance. At one time, it broke off from Rome, he was assassinated and suffered damnatio memoriae, but a surviving reference to him has been uncovered in Carlisle. Coins excavated in the area suggest that Romans remained in Carlisle until the reign of Emperor Valentinian II, from 375 to 392; the period of late antiquity after Roman rule saw Cumbria organised as the native British kingdom of Rheged. It is that the kingdom took its name from a major stronghold within it. King Urien and his son and successor Owain became the subjects of a great deal of Arthurian legend, their capital has been identified as the Cair Ligualid listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain, which developed into Caer-luel, whence the city's modern Welsh name Caerliwelydd. Rheged came under Northumbrian control before 730 by inheritance after Rienmelth, daughter of Royth and great-granddaughter of Urien, married Oswy, King of Northumbria.
For the rest of the first millennium, Carlisle was an important stronghold c