Street art in Melbourne
Melbourne, the capital of Victoria and the second largest city in Australia, has gained international acclaim for its diverse range of street art and associated subcultures. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, much of the city's disaffected youth were influenced by the graffiti of New York City, which subsequently became popular in Melbourne's inner suburbs, along suburban railway and tram lines. Melbourne was a major city in which stencil art was embraced at an early stage, leading to the naming of Melbourne as "stencil capital of the world"; the first stencil festival in the world was held in Melbourne in 2004 and featured the work of many major international artists. Around the turn of the 21st century, forms of street art that began appearing in Melbourne included woodblocking, sticker art, poster art, graphs, various forms of street installations and reverse graffiti. A strong sense of community ownership and DIY ethic exists amongst street artists in Melbourne, many of whom act as activists through awareness.
Galleries in the City Centre and inner suburbs now exhibit street art. Prominent Melbourne street artists were featured in Space Invaders, a 2010 exhibition of street art held at the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra. Hosier Lane is Melbourne's most famous laneway for street art, however there are many other laneways in the inner city that exhibit street art. Prominent international street artists such as Banksy, ABOVE, Fafi, D*FACE, Logan Hicks, Blek le Rat, Shepard Fairey and Invader have contributed work to Melbourne's streets along with visitors from all over the world, most prominently Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Melbourne's street art scene was explored in the 2005 feature documentary RASH. While there are small areas throughout Greater Melbourne where various forms of street art can be seen, the primary areas in which street art is most densely located include: Abbotsford Brunswick and East Brunswick Carlton and Carlton North Collingwood Fitzroy and Fitzroy North Footscray Melbourne City Centre Northcote and Westgarth Prahran Richmond South Yarra St Kilda The proliferation of street art in Melbourne has attracted supporters and detractors from various levels of government and in the broader community.
In 2008 a tourism campaign at Florida's Disney World recreated a Melbourne laneway cityscape, decorated with street art. Victorian Premier John Brumby forced the tourism department to withdraw the display, calling graffiti a "blight on the city" and not something "we want to be displaying overseas." Marcus Westbury countered that street art was one of Melbourne's "biggest tourist attractions and one of its most significant cultural movements since the Heidelberg School". Some street artists and academics have criticized the State Government for having inconsistent and contradictory views on graffiti. In 2006, the State Government "proudly sponsored" The Melbourne Design Guide, a book which celebrates Melbourne graffiti from a design perspective; that same year, some of Melbourne's graffiti-covered laneways were featured in Tourism Victoria's Lose Yourself in Melbourne campaign. One year the State Government introduced tough anti-graffiti laws, with a maximum penalty of two years in prison. Possession of spray cans "without a lawful excuse", either on or around public transport, became illegal, police search powers were strengthened.
According to Melbourne University criminologist Alison Young, the "state is profiting from the work of artists doing it, but another arm of the state wants to prosecute and imprison people." Since laws were tightened, local councils have reported a "spike" in vandalism and greater incidences of tagging on commissioned murals and legal street art. Adrian Doyle, founder of the Blender Studios and manager of Melbourne Street Art Tours, believes that people who tag have become less considerate of where they put their tags for fear of being caught by police, are "paranoid so they are taking less time—tags are less detailed". In 2007, the City of Melbourne started the Do art not tags initiative—an education presentation aimed at teaching primary school students the differences between graffiti and street art; some local councils have accepted street art and have made efforts to preserve it. In early 2008, the Melbourne City Council installed a perspex screen to prevent a 2003 Banksy stencil art piece named Little Diver from being destroyed.
In December 2008, silver paint was poured behind the protective screen and tagged with the words: "Banksy woz ere". In April 2010, another stencil by Banksy painted in 2003, was destroyed—this time by council workers; the work depicted a parachuting rat and it was believed to be the last surviving Banksy stencil in Melbourne's laneways. Lord Mayor Robert Doyle said: "This was not the Mona Lisa, it is regrettable that we have lost it, but it was an honest mistake by our cleaners in removing tagging graffiti."The loss of these and other famous street artworks in Melbourne reignited a decade long debate over heritage protection for Melbourne's street art. Planning Minister Justin Madden announced government plans in 2010 involving Heritage Victoria and the National Trust of Australia to assess street art in key locations throughout Melbourne and for culturally significant works to receive recognition for the purpose of preservation. Examples of street art pieces that have been added to the Victorian Heritage Register include: the 1983 mural outside the Aborigines Advancement League building, a 1984 Keith Haring mural in Collingwood.
The Melbourne City Council acknowledged the difficulties that hinder the preservation of street art, with their gra
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
TEJN is a pseudonymous Danish artist, who began his artistic work as a street artist in 2007 and exhibits contemporary art in galleries. TEJNs gallery sculptures demands a more extended effort to interpret, than his street art sculptures, which he gives a layer of a more digestible nature, allowing it to communicate with an audience passing by on foot or bike; the symbolic works debate philosophy, politics or existentialism, suggesting a form of self-appraisal among the audience. Based in Copenhagen, TEJN's street art has made its mark on most bigger European cities, he is best known by his trademark: "Lock Ons" which are site-specific sculptures or statues welded in recycled iron and chained in the street without permission mounted to urban furniture with a bicycle lock. His second most preferred media is paintings on paper, pasted up with wheatpaste on a wall. TEJN makes installations, stencil-art, conceptual art. TEJN uses some of it in its original form; the rest is shaped and welded into figurative objects that express a narrative deadopen for interpretation.
The iron is "given back to the street" as street sculptures, in the same areas where he collected the material. TEJN places an unknown number of hidden time capsules in different Danish cities, containing original works commenting on the way we look at future and present; the time capsules were signed and buried or integrated in public areas or buildings without permission. Wheat pasted drawings appears in the streets, accompanied by messages playing with the Danish language and illustrating song titles and old sayings, such as "Time Heals all Wounds" transformed into "Time Stores all Wounds", etc. TEJN commented on growing racism by releasing numerous of different "ethnic" pair shaped characters in the streets of Copenhagen, all wearing a stenciled message saying "Pære Dansk" as a response to Danish right wing politicians who claimed that it requires certain lifestyles to be "pear-danish". First large roof top paste up One of Those Noah Didn't Get on the Boat – a wheat paste series of various non-existing animals "that Noah didn't manage to save", appears in Copenhagen and in small towns in the Christian west coast of Jutland Street sculptures appear in seaports showing variations of the same theme, such as a woman sitting on a whaling cannon loaded with an anchor "Project Re-Cycle" – Stolen, broken bikes were collected from corners, junk piles and train stations fixed and placed in front of schools in troubled areas, homeless accommodations and a refugee camp, with a note saying "Free Bike".
The project was criticized. Vultures Always Wins the War – Installation containing a wall showcasing spray-painted attacking bombers throwing exploding peace signs, undisturbed by a large iron vulture on top of the wall, observing the process; the Ego Coin Project – Conceptual work that questioned egocentric consumption of goods. The artist issued €500 worth of modified valid coins earmarked for non-profitable purposes; the coins were engraved with the word EGO and given away. The coins are supposed to be used to benefit new recipients other than the current owner. In a small city forest threatened by urban planners, a 200-pound revolver welded in iron was chained to one of the trees, carrying the stencil text: “My Ancestors Went Hunting in These Woods”. Omnivorous – Goat with its head stuck in a McDonald's bag, chained in front of the Danish government building. Victory – Character freeing itself by cutting its chain with a bolt cutter – placed in front of Frihedsmuseet, the Museum of Danish Resistance during WW2 Captain Queer Proud looking sailor with rainbow shoulder sleeve insignia and anchor on the chest is chained in Copenhagen's new square, "The Rainbow Square", as a tribute to diversity and the achievements the LGBT movement have reached so far.
Exhibition in Lunchmoney Gallery, Denmark Art exhibition "WAR" at The Manor of Hvidkilde, BLANK FOBI Gallery. Art exhibition at Helligåndshuset, art community MULT, Copenhagen. Lecture in Activist Art "Art Across", Copenhagen. Art exhibition "New Artworks in the collection" at art museum Køge. Week of Art, Faaborg. Art exhibition "Galore 2013" at Copenhagen. Art exhibition "Gaden gir..." at The Manor of BLANK FOBI Gallery. Art Exhibition "Urban Art Clash" at Berlin. Art exhibition at Art Herning in collaboration with Herning. Art exhibition "Best Before" in Lunchmoney Gallery, Denmark Street Art The New Generation, Brandts Museum of Art, Odense. Galore Underground Art Festival, Copenhagen Absence of a Leader, Cafe Morgenrot, Berlin Stroke Urban Art Fair, München, Praterinsel "Welded Attitudes" in Lunchmoney Gallery, Aarhus. Exhibition in Galleri Helvetikat, Copenhagen. Exhibition Galore 2011 i Valby kulturhus. Street Art Calendar, With Streetheart Cph. Street Art workshop for art teachers. Sculpture and painting sponsoreret to The Danish House in Palestine.
Exhibition in Gallery Levins Hus, Faaborg. Installation "Ymerbrønden Flyttes" i Faaborg. Exhibition Walk This Way at Museum of Modern Art, Køge, Denmark. Exhibition in Gallery Helvetikat, CPH. ExhibitionBN Post it up Italy. Exhibition in Gallery Helvetikat, Cph. Interactive multiethnic art- and cultureprojekt "Ungebazar" in Odense Bazar. Street art kalender by Cph. Grafisc street art calendar in tunnel under Østerbrogade by Helvetikat, Cph. "Ode til Kastanjen", illustration for book about Enghave Plads, Cph. "Street Art Calendar'11" release-fernisage at Gallery
Reverse graffiti known as clean tagging, dust tagging, grime writing, clean graffiti, green graffiti or clean advertising, is a method of creating temporary or semi-permanent images on walls or other surfaces by removing dirt from a surface. It can be done by removing dirt/dust with the fingertip from windows or other dirty surfaces, such as writing "wash me" on a dirty vehicle. Others, such as graffiti artist Moose, use a cloth or a high-power washer to remove dirt on a larger scale. Reverse graffiti has been used as a form of advertising, although this usage has been controversial, as its legality varies depending on jurisdiction. English artist Paul Curtis is one of the first street artists to make an art piece using the reverse graffiti technique, he discovered the technique at his dishwashing job, in 2004 used detergent and a wire brush to create designs in the dirt on pavements and walls in Leeds and Manchester. The first large-scale reverse graffiti art piece was made by Alexandre Orion in 2006.
The intervention was over 1000 feet long. The municipality of São Paulo washed it away on July 26; as with traditional graffiti, the technique is used commercially as a form of out-of-home advertising. In this context, marketers call it "clean advertising" or "clean graffiti". Reverse graffiti has been described by promoters as an environmentally friendly form of advertising, since it is temporary, can sometimes be done with innocuous or biodegradable materials. Companies such as Microsoft, Channel 4 and Smirnoff have advertised their products in this way. In response to Moose's use of the technique for advertising in Leeds, a city council representative described the work as "illegal advertising". Leeds council attempted a 12-month trial program allowing clean advertising in exchange for a percentage of fees; the program was criticised by local officials. In 2011, a Swindon, UK advertising firm was fined by the city's council for a reverse graffiti campaign. In the Netherlands one needs to have a permit for commercial advertisements in a public space if nothing is being destroyed.
In Hungary under the name "inverz graffiti" companies and brands like The Coca-Cola Company with "It's Rite" for Sprite, Deutsche Telekom's local arm Magyar Telekom, Ringier publishing house for launching its Népsport blogging platform, TUC advertised with this tool
Mark Jenkins (artist)
Mark Jenkins is an American artist who makes sculptural street installations. Jenkins' practice of street art is to use the "street as a stage" where his sculptures interact with the surrounding environment including passersby who unknowingly become actors, his installations draw the attention of the police. His work has been described as whimsical, macabre and situationist. Jenkins cites Juan Muñoz as his initial inspiration. In addition to creating art, he teaches his sculpture techniques and installation practices through workshops, he lives in Washington, DC. Jenkins was born in Alexandria, but first began experimenting with tape as a casting medium for creating sculpture in 2003 while living in Rio de Janeiro. Wrapping the tape in reverse and resealing it, he was able to make casts of objects including himself. One of his first street projects was a series of clear tape self casts that he installed on the streets of Rio de Janeiro. Jenkins became interested in the reactions of the people and considered his installation as much a social experiment as an art project.
In 2004 he moved back to Washington DC and in 2005 he began working with Sandra Fernandez on the Storker Project, a series in which clear casts of toy babies are installed in different cities to interact with their surrounding environment. Jenkins and Fernandez continued to create other installations using tape animals--dogs playing in litter, giraffes nibbling plastic bags from trees, ducks swimming in gutters. Other outdoor projects which explore culture jamming include Meterpops, Traffic-Go-Round, Signs of Spring. In 2006 Jenkins began the Embed Series; the tape casts were filled with newspaper and cement and dressed to create hyper realistic sculptural duplicates of himself and Fernandez. These new lifelike sculpture installations created confusion causing some passers-by to make calls to 911 which caused police and sometimes rescue units to arrive on his "stage". In 2008 Jenkins collaborated with Greenpeace on an awareness campaign, Plight of the Polar Bears, to draw attention to the melting Arctic ice caps.
Jenkins created realistic figures appearing to be homeless people but with plush polar bear heads. The installations resulted in bomb squads being deployed to destroy the works subsequently creating controversy over the regulation of public space in the post 9/11 era. Jenkins has participated in public art events Interferencia, BELEF, Dublin Contemporary 2011, Inside Out,Living Layers and Les Vraisemblables. Indoors Jenkins has exhibited internationally in galleries and museums as well as continuing his Embed Series in public settings such as cafeterias and building lobbies. Solo shows include Glazed Paradise at Diesel Gallery, Meaning is Overrated at Carmichael Gallery, Terrible Horrible at Ruttkowski. In 2018, he and Fernandez created Project84, in England; the work was designed to raise awareness of adult male suicide. Commercially, Jenkins collaborated with the fashion brand Balenciaga at stores including Colette and Selfridges; the Urban Theater: Mark Jenkins ISBN 3899553969 Hidden Track: How Visual Culture Is Going Places ISBN 3899550846 Tactile: High Touch Visuals ISBN 3939566292 Street World: Urban Art and Culture from Five Continents ISBN 0810994380 Outsiders: Art by People ISBN 1846055466 Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution ISBN 0810983206 Untitled II.
The Beautiful Renaissance: Street Art and Graffiti ISBN 0955912121 Modart No. 01: Forget Art: In Order to Feel It ISBN 1584233745 Urban Interventions: Personal Projects in Public Places ISBN 3899552911 Beyond the Street: The 100 Leading Figures in Urban Art ISBN 3899552903 The Art of Rebellion #3 ISBN 3939566292 Street Art Cookbook: A Guide to Techniques and Materials ISBN 918563946X Art & Agenda: Political Art and Activism ISBN 389955342X Walls & Frames: Fine Art from the Streets ISBN 3899553764 Trespass: A History Of Uncommissioned Urban Art ISBN 3836509644 Jenkins' website tapesculpture.org Mark Jenkins' tape sculpture tutorial Mark Jenkins: Tic Tac Toe Mark Jenkins: Holding Cell Mark Jenkins: Go Figure! Tape Man Reuters video feature Orange Houses and Tape Babies: Temporary and Nebulous Art in Urban Spaces
Padlocks are portable locks with a shackle that may be passed through an opening to prevent use, vandalism or harm. There are padlocks dating to the Roman Era, 500 BC – 300 AD, they were known in early times by merchants traveling the ancient trade routes to Asia, including China. Padlocks have been used in Europe since the middle La Tène period, subsequently spreading to the Roman world and the Przeworsk and Chernyakhov cultures. Roman padlocks had a long bent rod attached to the case, a shorter piece which could be inserted into the case. Przeworsk and Chernyakhov padlocks had a sleeve attached to the case, a long bent rod which could be inserted into the case and the sleeve. Padlocks have been used in China since the late Eastern Han Dynasty. According to Hong-Sen Yan, director of the National Science and Technology Museum, early Chinese padlocks were "key-operated locks with splitting springs, keyless letter combination locks". Padlocks were made from bronze, brass and other materials; the use of bronze was more prevalent for the early Chinese padlocks.
Padlocks with spring tine mechanisms have been found in York, England, at the Jorvik Viking settlement, dated 850 AD. During this period between 850 AD and the early 1000 AD was, it was contrived during this period to hold livestock within its quarters of the paddock, whereby the word pad was derived and applied to form the current word. Smokehouse locks, designed in England, were formed from wrought iron sheet and employed simple lever and ward mechanisms; these locks afforded little protection against surreptitious entry. Contemporary with the smokehouse padlocks and originating in the Slavic areas of Europe, "screw key" padlocks opened with a helical key, threaded into the keyhole; the key pulled the locking bolt open against a strong spring. Padlocks that offered more key variance were the demise of the screw lock. Improved manufacturing methods allowed the manufacture of better padlocks that put an end to the Smokehouse around 1910. Around the middle of the 19th century, "Scandinavian" style locks, or "Polhem locks", invented by the eponymous Swedish inventor Christopher Polhem, became a more secure alternative to the prevailing smokehouse and screw locks.
These locks had a cast iron body, loaded with a stack of rotating disks. Each disk had a central cutout to allow the key to pass through them and two notches cut out on the edge of the disc; when locked, the discs passed through cut-outs on the shackle. The key rotated each disk until the notches, placed along the edge of each tumbler in different places, lined up with the shackle, allowing the shackle to slide out of the body; the McWilliams company received a patent for these locks in 1871. The "Scandinavian" design was so successful that JHW Climax & Co. of Newark, New Jersey continued to make these padlocks until the 1950s. Today, other countries are still manufacturing this style of padlock. Contemporary with the Scandinavian padlock, were the "cast heart" locks, so called because of their shape. A stronger lock than the smokehouse and much more resistant to corrosion than the Scandinavian, the hearts had a lock body sand cast from brass or bronze and a more secure lever mechanism. Heart locks had two prominent characteristics: one was a spring-loaded cover that pivoted over the keyhole to keep dirt and insects out of the lock, called a "drop".
The other was a point formed at the bottom of the lock so a chain could be attached to the lock body to prevent the lock from getting lost or stolen. Cast heart locks were popular with railroads for locking switches and cars because of their economical cost and excellent ability to open reliably in dirty and frozen environments. Around the 1870s, lock makers realized they could package the same locking mechanism found in cast heart locks into a more economical steel or brass shell instead of having to cast a thick metal body; these lock shells were stamped out of flat metal stock, filled with lever tumblers, riveted together. Although more fragile than the cast hearts, these locks were attractive. In 1908, Adams & Westlake patented a stamped & riveted switch lock, so economical that many railroads stopped using the popular cast hearts and went with this new stamped shell lock body design. Many lock manufacturers made this popular style of lock. In 1877 Yale & Towne was granted a patent for a padlock that housed a stack of levers and had a shackle that swung away when unlocked.
It was a notable design because the levers were sub-assembled into a "cartridge" that could be slid into a cast brass body shell. The assembly would remain together by means of two taper pins passed through the shell and cartridge; this design gave the commercial padlock market a rekeyable padlock. About twenty years Yale made another "cartridge" style padlock that employed their famous pin tumbler mechanism and a shackle that slid out of the body instead of swinging away. Although machining metal was a method, available to lock makers since the early 19th century, it was not economically feasible to do so until the early 20th century when electrical generation and distribution became widespread; some of the earliest padlocks that were made from a machined block of cast or extruded metal resemble today's modern padlock. Corbin and Eagle were one of the first lock makers to machine a solid block of metal and insert a new pin tumbler mechanism and a sliding shackle into the holes machined into the body.
This style of padlock was both easy to manufacture. Many machined body padlocks were designed to be disassembled so that locksmiths could f
Street poster art
Street poster art is a kind of graffiti, more categorized as "street art". Posters are handmade or printed graphics on thin paper, it can be understood as an art piece, installed on the streets as opposed to in a gallery or museum, but by some it is not comprehended as a form of contemporary art. E Pluribus Venom by Shepard Fairey Gingko Press. Philosophy of Obey: The Formative Years, edited by Sarah Jaye Williams, Nerve Books UK. Obey: Supply & Demand, The Art of Shepard Fairey by Shepard Fairey, Gingko Press. Popaganda: The Art and Crimes of Ron English by Ron English Last Gasp RE/Search: Pranks 2 by V Vale RE/Search Publications