GOES-16 known as GOES-R before reaching geostationary orbit, is the first of the GOES-R series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite operated by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. GOES-16 serves as the operational geostationary weather satellite in the GOES East position at 75.2°W, providing a view centered on the Americas. GOES-16 provides high spatial and temporal resolution imagery of the Earth through 16 spectral bands at visible and infrared wavelengths using its Advanced Baseline Imager. GOES-16's Geostationary Lightning Mapper is the first operational lightning mapper flown in geostationary orbit; the spacecraft includes four other scientific instruments for monitoring space weather and the Sun. GOES-16's design and instrumentation began in 1999 and was intended to fill key NOAA satellite requirements published that year. Following nearly a decade of instrument planning, spacecraft fabrication was contracted to Lockheed Martin Space Systems in 2008.
After several launch delays, GOES-16 launched from Cape Canaveral on 19 November 2016 aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V. The spacecraft reached an initial geostationary orbit several days beginning a yearlong non-operational checkout and validation phase. In November 2017, GOES-16 began a drift to its operational GOES East position, was declared as operational on 18 December 2017; the satellite is expected to have an operational lifespan of ten years, with five additional years as a backup for successive GOES spacecraft. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite program began as a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1975 to develop geostationary weather satellites following the success of the Applications Technology Satellite and Synchronous Meteorological Satellite programs beginning in 1966. In the 1999 Operational Requirements Document for the Evolution of Future NOAA Operational Geostationary Satellites, NOAA listed instrument requirements for the next generation of GOES imager and sounder.
Top priorities included continuous observation capabilities, the ability to observe weather phenomena at all spatial scales, improved spatial and temporal resolution for both the imager and sounder. These specifications laid the conceptual foundations for the instruments that would be included with GOES-16. More concrete development of GOES-16 began with the initial designs of an Advanced Baseline Imager, which started in June 1999 under the direction of Tim Schmitt of the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service. At its inception, ten spectral bands were considered for inclusion in the new ABI, derived from six instruments on other satellites. In September 1999, the NOAA Research and Development Council endorsed the continued development of the instrument with the suggested bandwidths and frequencies; as the instrument became further realized, the number of potential spectral bands increased from the initial ten, to twelve by October 1999. Alongside the ABI, development began on the Advanced Baseline Sounder, which would form a part of a Hyperspectral Environmental Suite of instruments on the next generation GOES satellites.
Like the ABI, the HES was to mark significant improvements in resolution and spatial coverage. Initial forecasts were for the ABI to be included as part of GOES beginning with the projected launch of GOES-Q in 2008. In 2001, NOAA planned for the GOES-R generation of GOES satellites to commence with the expected launch of GOES-R in 2012, with the ABI and ABS as expected instrumentation. GOES-R and its sister satellites were to lead to substantial improvements in forecast accuracy and detail by providing new operational products for users. Four years the number of proposed spectral bands on the ABI instrument increased to 16, covering a swath of visible and infrared wavelengths. In September 2006, NOAA dropped plans to include the HES aboard GOES-R, citing a lack of sufficient testing and major cost overruns in the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System. Although the GOES-R series was expected to cost US$6.2 billion in total, increased instrument complexity, revised inflation assumptions, program reserves led to the Government Accountability Office estimating a much higher US$11.4 billion cost for the program in 2006.
In December 2008, NASA and NOAA selected Lockheed Martin Space Systems as the contractor for the fabrication of the first two satellites of the GOES-R generation, including GOES-R, for an estimated value of contract at US$1.09 billion. Preliminary design review was completed just over two years with critical design review being completed in May 2012. Construction of the satellite bus was contracted out to Alliant Techsystems and work began shortly thereafter, with the core structure becoming test-ready in January 2013; the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors became the first installation-ready instruments for GOES-R in May 2013, while the ABI became integration-ready in February 2014. The satellite was transferred to Kennedy Space Center on 22 August 2016 to undergo additional tests and ready the spacecraft for launch. GOES-16 and other satellites of the GOES-R generation are based around a derivative of Lockheed Martin's A2100 spacecraft bus capable of supporting up
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process, it is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, or 109 times that of Earth, its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. Three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen; the Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf, it formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System; the central mass became so hot and dense that it initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that all stars form by this process.
The Sun is middle-aged. It fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result; this energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. In about 5 billion years, when hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand to become a red giant, it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, render Earth uninhabitable. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion; the enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity.
The synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, one of, the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun may be related to south. Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunne, Old Saxon sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, modern Dutch zon, Old High German sunna, modern German Sonne, Old Norse sunna, Gothic sunnō. All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn; the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not used in everyday English. Sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars; the related word solar is the usual adjectival term used for the Sun, in terms such as solar day, solar eclipse, Solar System. A mean Earth solar day is 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.244 seconds. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, itself a translation of the Greek ἡμέρα ἡλίου.
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83, estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs. The Sun is heavy-element-rich, star; the formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from more nearby supernovae. This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II, heavy-element-poor, stars; the heavy elements could most plausibly have been produced by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption within a massive second-generation star. The Sun is by far the brightest object in the Earth's sky, with an apparent magnitude of −26.74. This is about 13 billion times brighter than the next brightest star, which has an apparent magnitude of −1.46. The mean distance of the Sun's center to Earth's center is 1 astronomical unit, though the distance varies as Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.
At this average distance, light travels from the Sun's horizon to Earth's horizon in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds, while light from the closest points of the Sun and Earth takes about two seconds less. The energy of this sunlight supports all life on Earth by photosynthesis, drives Earth's climate and weather; the Sun does not have a definite boundary, but its density decreases exponentially with increasing height above the photosphere. For the purpose of measurement, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun. By this measure, the Sun is a near-perfect sphere with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 kilometres; the tidal effect of the planets is weak and does not affect the shape of the Sun. The Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles; this differential rotation is caused by convective motion
Solar Maximum Mission
The Solar Maximum Mission satellite was designed to investigate Solar phenomena solar flares. It was launched on February 14, 1980; the SMM was the first satellite based on the Multimission Modular Spacecraft bus manufactured by Fairchild Industries, a platform, used for Landsats 4 and 5 as well as the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. After an attitude control failure in Nov 1980 it was put in standby mode until April 1984 when it was repaired by a Shuttle mission; the Solar Maximum Mission ended on December 2, 1989, when the spacecraft re-entered the atmosphere and burned up over the Indian Ocean. The white-light coronagraph/polarimeter took coronal images for about six months from March 1980 before suffering an electronics failure in September that prevented operation. In November 1980, the second of four fuses in SMM's attitude control system failed, causing it to rely on its magnetorquers in order to maintain attitude. In this mode, only three of the seven instruments on board were usable, as the others required the satellite to be pointed at the Sun.
The use of the satellite's magnetorquers prevented the satellite from being used in a stable position and caused it to "wobble" around its nominally sun-pointed attitude. SMM was left in standby mode for 3 years; the first orbiting, unmanned satellite to be repaired in space, SMM was notable in that its useful life compared with similar spacecraft was increased by the direct intervention of a manned space mission. During STS-41-C in April 1984, the Space Shuttle Challenger rendezvoused with the SMM, astronauts James van Hoften and George Nelson attempted to use the Manned Maneuvering Unit to capture the satellite and to bring it into the orbiter's payload bay for repairs and servicing; the plan was to use an astronaut-piloted Maneuvering Unit to grapple the satellite with the Trunion Pin Attachment Device mounted between the hand controllers of the Maneuvering Unit, null its rotation rates, allow the Shuttle to bring it into the Shuttle's payload bay for stowage. Three attempts to grapple the satellite using the TPAD failed.
The TPAD jaws could not lock onto Solar Max because of an obstructing grommet on the satellite not included in its blueprints. This led to an improvised plan; the improvisation had the astronaut use his hands to grab hold of a solar array and null the rotation by a push from the Maneuvering Unit's thrusters. Instead, this attempt induced higher rates and in multiple axes. SMM Operations Control Center engineers shut down all non-essential satellite subsystems and with a bit of luck were able to recover the satellite minutes before total failure; the ground support engineers stabilized the satellite and nulled its rotation rates for capture with the Shuttle's robotic arm. This proved to be a much better plan; the satellite had been fitted with one of the arm's grapple fixtures so that the robotic arm was able to capture and maneuver it into the shuttle's payload bay for repairs. During the mission, the SMM's entire attitude control system module and the electronics module for the coronagraph/polarimeter instrument were replaced, a gas cover was installed over the X-ray polychromator.
Their successful work added five more years to the lifespan of the satellite. The mission was depicted in the 1985 IMAX movie The Dream Is Alive; the SMM's ACRIM instrument package showed that contrary to expectations, the Sun is brighter during the sunspot cycle maximum. This is because sunspots are surrounded by bright features called faculae, which more than cancel the darkening effect of the sunspot; the major scientific findings from the SMM are presented in several review articles in a monograph. The SMM discovered ten sungrazing comets between 1987 and 1989. SMM's orbit decayed due to atmospheric drag taking it down into denser regions; the March 1989 geomagnetic storm was reported to have led to SMM dropping half a kilometre at the start of the storm and 3 miles over the whole period. SMM lost attitude control on November 17, 1989, re-entry and burn-up occurred on 2 December 1989 over the Indian Ocean. Advanced Composition Explorer Charles Hyder Parker Solar Probe Solar and Heliospheric Observatory WIND HEASARC, SMM Marshall Space Flight Center, SMM SMM C/P Coronal Mass Ejections Total Solar Irradiance ACRIM
Orbiting Solar Observatory
The Orbiting Solar Observatory Program was the name of a series of American space telescopes intended to study the Sun, though they included important non-solar experiments. Eight were launched into Low Earth orbit by NASA between 1962 and 1975 using Delta rockets, their primary mission was to observe an 11-year sun spot cycle in X-ray spectra. The initial seven were built by Ball Aerospace known as Ball Brothers Research Corporation, in Boulder Colorado. OSO 8 was built by Communications Company, in Culver City, California; the basic design of the entire series featured a rotating section, the "Wheel," to provide gyroscopic stability. A second section, the "Sail," was driven electrically against the Wheel's rotation, stabilized to point at the Sun; the Sail carried pointed solar instruments, the array of solar photovoltaic cells which powered the spacecraft. The critical bearing between the Wheel and the Sail was a major feature of the design, as it had to operate smoothly for months in the hard vacuum of space without normal lubrication.
It carried both the power from the Sail and the data from the pointed solar instruments to the Wheel, where most of the spacecraft functions were located. Additional science instruments could be located in the Wheel looking out on a rotating radius vector which scanned the sky, across the Sun, every few seconds. OSO B suffered an incident during integration and checkout activities on 14 April 1964; the satellite was inside the Spin Test Facility at Cape Canaveral attached to the third stage of its Delta C booster when a technician accidentally ignited the booster through static electricity. The third-stage motor activated, launched itself and the satellite into the roof, ricocheted into a corner of the facility until burning out. Three technicians were burned to death; the satellite, although damaged, was able to be repaired using a combination of prototype parts, spare flight parts and new components. It was launched ten months on 3 February 1965 and was designated OSO 2 on orbit. OSO C never made it to orbit.
Liftoff took place on 25 August 1965 and all went well through the second stage burn. During the coasting phase prior to third stage separation, its rocket motor ignited prematurely; this registered on ground readouts as an attitude disturbance followed by loss of second stage telemetry, although the third stage managed to separate itself, it suffered from an 18% drop in thrust. The OSO spacecraft could not attain orbital velocity and instead fell back into the atmosphere and burned up; the failure was suspected to have been caused by a modification to the igniter mechanism in the third stage after some minor technical difficulties experienced on the previous Delta C launch. The Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory program was developed in the mid 1960s as a more advanced version of the OSO series. Conceived as a polar-orbiting satellite system, these spacecraft would continuously monitor the Sun and surrounding environment with detectors and electronic imaging ranging from x-rays to visual light.
Due to budget constraints, the AOSO program was cancelled in 1965. Instead, it was replaced by the OSO-J and OSO-K satellites. Only OSO-I, which became OSO 8, was launched. Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes OSO 1 experiments record at National Space Science Data Center OSO 1 at NASA's Imagine the Universe
The Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation is an American aircraft manufacturer based in Stratford, Connecticut. It was established by Igor Sikorsky in 1923 and was among the first companies to manufacture helicopters for civilian and military use. Owned by United Technologies Corporation, in November 2015 Sikorsky was sold to Lockheed Martin. On May 23, 1923, the "Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation" was founded near Roosevelt Field by Igor Sikorsky, an immigrant to the United States, born in Kiev. In 1925 the company name was changed to "Sikorsky Manufacturing Company". In 1929 the company moved to Stratford, it became a part of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation in July of that year. In the United States, Igor Sikorsky concentrated on the development of multi-engined landplanes and amphibious aircraft. In the late 1930s, sales declined and United Aircraft merged his division with Vought Aircraft, he began work on developing a practical helicopter. After first flying the VS-300 he developed the Sikorsky R-4, the first stable, single-rotor controllable helicopter to enter full-scale production in 1942, upon which most subsequent helicopters were based.
Sikorsky Aircraft remains a leading helicopter manufacturer, producing such well-known models as the UH-60 Black Hawk and SH-60 Seahawk, experimental types like the Sikorsky S-72. Sikorsky has supplied the Presidential helicopter since 1957. Sikorsky's VH-3 and VH-60 perform this role now; the company acquired Helicopter Support Inc. in 1998. HSI handles non-U. S. government after-market support for parts and repair for the Sikorsky product lines. United Technologies Corporation acquired Schweizer Aircraft Corp. in 2004, which now operates as a subsidiary of Sikorsky. The product lines of the two firms are complementary, have little overlap, as Sikorsky concentrates on medium and large helicopters, while Schweizer produces small helicopters, UAVs, light planes; the Schweizer deal was signed on August 26, 2004 one week after the death of Paul Schweizer, the company's founder and majority owner. In late 2005, Sikorsky completed the purchase of Keystone Helicopter Corporation, located in Coatesville, Pennsylvania.
Keystone had been completing Sikorsky S-76 and S-92 helicopters prior to the sale. In 2007, Sikorsky opened the Hawk Works, a Rapid Prototyping and Military Derivatives Completion Center located west of the Elmira-Corning Regional Airport in Big Flats, New York; that same year Sikorsky purchased the PZL Mielec plant in Poland. The plant is assembling the S-70i for international customers. In February 2009, Sikorsky Global Helicopters was created as a business unit of Sikorsky Aircraft to focus on the construction and marketing of commercial helicopters; the business unit combines the main civil helicopters that were produced by Sikorsky Aircraft and the helicopter business of Schweizer Aircraft that Sikorsky has acquired in 2004. It is based at Pennsylvania. In 2011, Sikorsky laid off 400 workers at the Hawk Works plant, in 2012 the remaining 570 workers and closed all Sikorsky facilities in Chemung County; the commercial products had been moved to their Coatesville, Pennsylvania facility. Sikorsky's main plant and administrative offices are located in Connecticut.
Other Sikorsky facilities are in Trumbull and Bridgeport, Connecticut. Other Sikorsky-owned subsidiaries are in Pennsylvania. In 2015, UTC considered Sikorsky to be less profitable than its other subsidiaries, analyzed a possible spin-off rather than a tax-heavy sale. On July 20, 2015, Lockheed Martin announced an agreement to purchase Sikorsky from UTC for $9.0 billion. Final approval came in November 2015; the sale was completed on November 6, 2015. In 1980, the American Helicopter Society International offered a prize of US$10,000 for the first human-powered helicopter flight and soon increased prize money to US$25,000. In 2010, Sikorsky Aircraft pledged to increase the prize sponsorship to US$250,000; the Canadian engineers Dr. Todd Reichert and Cameron Robertson developed the world's largest human powered helicopter with a team from the University of Toronto; the first flight of AeroVelo Atlas was achieved in August 2012, the 64-second, 3.3-m-flight that won the prize on June 13, 2013. Sikorsky designates nearly all of its models with S-numbers.
Models helicopters, received multiple designations by the military services using them depending on purpose if the physical craft had only minor variations in equipment. In some cases, the aircraft were returned to Sikorsky or to another manufacturer and additionally modified, resulting in still further variants on the same basic model number. Sikorsky S-29-A: twin-engine cargo biplane. First Sikorsky built in the U. S. Sikorsky S-30: twin-engine, never built. Sikorsky S-31: single-engine biplane Sikorsky S-32: single-engine two-passenger biplane Sikorsky S-33: "Messenger" single-engine biplane Sikorsky S-34: twin-engine flying boat prototype. Sikorsky S-35: three-engine biplane prototype Sikorsky S-36: eight-seat two-engine flying boat "Amphibion" Sikorsky S-37: "Guardian" eight-seat two-engine biplane Sikorsky S-38: eight-seat two-engine boat f
Transition Region and Coronal Explorer was a NASA heliophysics and solar observatory designed to investigate the connections between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated plasma structures on the Sun by providing high resolution images and observation of the solar photosphere, the transition region, the corona. A main focus of the TRACE instrument is the fine structure of coronal loops low in the solar atmosphere. TRACE is the fourth spacecraft in the Small Explorer program, launched on April 2, 1998, obtained its last science image in 2010; the satellite was built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Its telescope was constructed by a consortium led by Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center; the optics were designed and built to a state-of-the-art surface finish by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The telescope has a 30 cm aperture and 1024×1024 CCD detector giving an 8.5 arc minute field of view. The telescope is designed to take correlated images in a range of wavelengths from visible light through the Lyman alpha line to far ultraviolet.
The different wavelength passbands correspond to plasma emission temperatures from 4,000 to 4,000,000 K. The optics use a special multilayer technique to focus the difficult-to-reflect EUV light. Media related to TRACE at Wikimedia Commons TRACE website by Lockheed Martin TRACE Data Center by Lockheed Martin TRACE website by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Palo Alto, California
Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Palo Alto means tall stick in Spanish; the city was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son, Leland Stanford Jr. Palo Alto includes portions of Stanford University and shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Portola Valley, Menlo Park; as of the 2010 census, the city's total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the five most expensive cities in the United States to live in and its residents are among the highest educated in the country. Palo Alto is headquarters to a number of high-technology companies, including Hewlett-Packard, Space Systems/Loral, VMware, Ford Research and Innovation Center, PARC, IDEO, Palantir Technologies and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center. Palo Alto has served as an incubator and as headquarters to several other prominent high-technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Intuit and PayPal.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Ohlone lived on the San Francisco peninsula. The area of modern Palo Alto was first recorded by the 1769 party of Gaspar de Portolà, a 63-man, 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey; the group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, ascended Sweeney Ridge and saw the San Francisco Bay. Portolà descended from Sweeney Ridge southeast down San Andreas Creek to Laguna Creek and the Filoli estate, thence to the San Francisquito Creek watershed camping from November 6–11, 1769 by a tall redwood to be known as El Palo Alto. Thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never became aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. In 1777, Father Junipero Serra established the Mission Santa Clara de Asis, whose northern boundary was San Francisquito Creek and whose lands included modern Palo Alto; the area was under the control of the viceroy of Mexico and under the control of Spain. On November 29, 1777, Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe was established by order of the viceroy despite the displeasure of the local mission.
The Mexican War of Independence ending in 1821 led to Mexico becoming an independent country, though San Jose did not recognize rule by the new Mexico until May 10, 1825. Mexico proceeded to grant much of the mission land. During the Mexican–American War, the United States seized Alta California in 1846. Mexican citizens in the area could choose to become United States citizens, their land grants were to be recognized if they chose to do so; the land grant, Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito, of about 2,230-acre on the lower reaches of San Francisquito Creek was given to Maria Antonia Mesa in 1841. She and her husband Rafael Soto had settled in 1835 near present day Newell and Middlefield roads and sold supplies. In 1839, their daughter María Luisa Soto married John Coppinger, to be, in 1841, the grantee of Rancho Cañada de Raymundo. Upon Coppinger's death in 1847, Maria inherited it and married a visiting boat captain, John Greer. Greer owned a home on the site, now Town & Country Village on Embarcadero and El Camino Real.
Greer Avenue and Court are named for him. To the south of the Sotos, the brothers Secundino and Teodoro Robles in 1849 bought Rancho Rincon de San Francisquito from José Peña, the 1841 grantee; the grant covered the area south of Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito to more or less present day Mountain View. The grant was bounded on the south by Mariano Castro's Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas grant across San Antonio Road; this became the Robles Rancho, which constitutes about 80% of Palo Alto and Stanford University today. In 1863, it was whittled down in the courts to 6,981 acres. Stories say the grand hacienda was built on the former meager adobe of José Peña near Ferne off San Antonio Road, midway between Middlefield and Alma Street, their hacienda hosted fiestas and bull fights. It was ruined in the 1906 earthquake and its lumber was used to build a large barn nearby, said to have lingered until the early 1950s. On April 10, 1853, 250 acres, comprising the present day Barron Park, Matadero Creek and Stanford Business Park, was sold for $2,000 to Elisha Oscar Crosby, who called his new property Mayfield Farm.
The name of Mayfield was attached to the community that started nearby. On September 23, 1856, the Crosby land was transferred to Sarah Wallis to satisfy a debt he owed her. In 1880, Secundino Robles, father to twenty-nine children, still lived just south of Palo Alto, near the location of the present-day San Antonio Shopping Center in Mountain View. Many of the Spanish names in the Palo Alto area represent the local heritage, descriptive terms and former residents. Pena Court, Miranda Avenue, Foothill Expwy, was the married name of Juana Briones and the name occurs in Courts and Avenues and other street names in Palo Alto and Mountain View in the quadrant where she owned vast areas between Stanford University, Grant Road in Mountain View and west of El Camino Real. Yerba Buena was to her credit. Rinconada wa