Edwards Air Force Base
Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about 22 miles northeast of Lancaster and 15 miles east of Rosamond. It is the home of the Air Force Test Center, Air Force Test Pilot School, NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center, it is the Air Force Materiel Command center for conducting and supporting research and development of flight, as well as testing and evaluating aerospace systems from concept to combat. It hosts many test activities conducted by America's commercial aerospace industry. Known as Muroc Air Force Base, Edwards AFB is named in honor of Captain Glen Edwards. During World War II, he flew A-20 Havoc light attack bombers in the North African campaign on 50 hazardous, low-level missions against German tanks, troops, bridges and other tactical targets. Edwards became a test pilot in 1943 and spent much of his time at Muroc Army Air Field, on California's high desert, testing wide varieties of experimental prototype aircraft.
He died in the crash of a Northrop YB-49 flying wing near Muroc AFB on 5 June 1948. The base is next to Rogers Dry Lake, an endorheic desert salt pan whose hard dry lake surface provides a natural extension to Edwards' runways; this large landing area, combined with excellent year-round weather, makes the base good for flight testing. The lake is a National Historic Landmark; the base has helped develop every aircraft purchased by the Air Force since World War II. Every United States military aircraft since the 1950s has been at least tested at Edwards, it has been the site of many aviation breakthroughs. Notable occurrences at Edwards include Chuck Yeager's flight that broke the sound barrier in the Bell X-1, test flights of the North American X-15, the first landings of the Space Shuttle, the 1986 around-the-world flight of the Rutan Voyager; the 412th Test Wing plans, conducts and reports on all flight and ground testing of aircraft, weapons and components as well as modeling and simulation for the U.
S. Air Force; the Wing oversees the base's day-to-day operations and provides support for military, federal civilian, contract personnel assigned to Edwards AFB. Planes assigned to the 412th carry the tail code: ED. U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School: Part of the 412th Test Wing, USAF TPS is where the Air Force's top pilots and engineers learn how to conduct flight tests and generate the data needed to carry out test missions; the comprehensive curriculum of Test Pilot School is fundamental to the success of flight test and evaluation. 412th Operations Group: The 412th OG flies an average of 90 aircraft with upwards of 30 aircraft designs. It performs an annual average including more than 1,900 test missions, its squadrons include: 411th Flight Test Squadron: 416th Flight Test Squadron: 419th Flight Test Squadron: 445th Flight Test Squadron: 461st Flight Test Squadron: 412th Flight Test Squadron: 418th Flight Test Squadron: 452d Flight Test Squadron: 412th Test Management Division 412th Test Management Group 412th Electronic Warfare Group 412th Engineering DivisionThe Engineering Division and the Electronic Warfare Group provide the central components in conducting the Test and Evaluation mission of the 412 TW.
They provide the tools and equipment for the core disciplines of aircraft structures, propulsion and electronic warfare evaluation of the latest weapon system technologies. They host the core facilities that enable flight test and ground test—the Range Division, Benefield Anechoic Facility, Integrated Flight Avionics Systems Test Facility and the Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator; the Project and Resource Management Divisions provide the foundation for the successful program management of test missions. 412th Civil Engineer Division 412th Maintenance Group 412th Medical Group 412th Mission Support Group There are a vast array of organizations at Edwards that do not fall under the 412th Test Wing. They are known as Associate Units; these units do everything from providing an on-base grocery store to testing state-of-the-art rockets. The 31st Test and Evaluation Squadron provides Air Combat Command personnel to support combined test and evaluation on Air Force weapons systems. Established in 1917, it is one of the oldest units of the United States Air Force.
The "Desert Pirates" are part of the 53d Test and Evaluation Group, Nellis AFB, Nevada and the 53d Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida. It provides the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, with test team members who have an operational perspective to perform test and evaluation on Combat Air Force systems; the 31st is staffed with a mixture of operations and engineering experts who plan and conduct tests, evaluate effectiveness and suitability, influence system design. The squadron's personnel are integrated into the B-1, B-2, B-52, Global Hawk, MQ-9 and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter programs, their results and conclusions support Department of Defense acquisition and employment decisions. An Air Force Materiel Command named unit assigned to Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, AFOTEC Detachment 1 is responsible for accomplishing Block 2 and 3 Initial Operational Test and Evaluation of the F-35 Lightning II for the US Air Force, United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, United Kingdom Ministry of Defense, the Royal Netherlands Air Force.
Armstrong Flight Research Center
The NASA Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center is an aeronautical research center operated by NASA, its primary campus is located inside Edwards Air Force Base in California and is considered NASA's premier site for aeronautical research. AFRC operates some of the most advanced aircraft in the world and is known for many aviation firsts, including critical support for the first manned airplane to exceed the speed of sound in level flight with the Bell X-1, highest speed recorded by a manned, powered aircraft, the first pure digital fly-by-wire aircraft, many others. AFRC operates a second site in Palmdale, Ca. known as Building 703, once the former Rockwell International/North American Aircraft production facility, at Air Force Plant 42. There, AFRC houses and operates several of NASA's Science Mission Directorate aircraft including SOFIA, a DC-8 Flying Laboratory, a Gulfstream C-20A UAVSAR and ER-2 High Altitude Platform. David McBride is the center's director. On March 1, 2014, the facility was renamed in honor of Neil Armstrong, a former test pilot at the center and the first human being to walk on the surface of the moon.
The center was known as the Dryden Flight Research Center from March 26, 1976, in honor of Hugh L. Dryden, a prominent aeronautical engineer who at the time of his death in 1965 was NASA's deputy administrator, it has previously been known as the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Muroc Flight Test Unit, the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, the NACA High-Speed Flight Station, the NASA High-Speed Flight Station and the NASA Flight Research Center. AFRC was the home of the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified Boeing 747 designed to carry a Space Shuttle orbiter back to Kennedy Space Center if one landed at Edwards; until 2004, Armstrong Flight Research Center operated the oldest B-52 Stratofortress bomber, a B-52B model, converted to drop test aircraft, dubbed'Balls 8.' It dropped a large number of supersonic test vehicles, ranging from the X-15 to its last research program, the hypersonic X-43A, powered by a Pegasus rocket. The aircraft was retired and is on display near the North Gate of Edwards.
Though Armstrong Flight Research Center has always been located on the shore of Rogers Dry Lake Bed, its precise location has changed over the years. It resides on the North Western Edge of the lakebed, just south of Edwards Air Force Bases' North Gate. Visitation to the center requires obtaining access to both Edwards AFB and NASA AFRC. Rogers dry lake bed offers a unique landscape, well suited for flight research. Dry conditions, few rainy days per year, large, open spaces in which emergency landings can be performed. At times, Rodgers dry lake bed can host a runway length of over 40,000 feet, is home to a 2000' diameter compass rose, in which aircraft can land into the wind in any direction. X-56 X-57 X-59 QueSST Dream Chaser UAS in the NAS TGALS NASA's predecessor, NACA, operated the Douglas Skyrocket. A successor to the Air Force's Bell X-1, the D-558-II could operate under jet power, it conducted extensive tests into aircraft stability in the transsonic range, optimal supersonic wing configurations, rocket plume effects, high-speed flight dynamics.
On November 20, 1953, the Douglas Skyrocket became the first aircraft to fly at over twice the speed of sound when it attained a speed of Mach 2.005. Like the X-1, the D-558-II could be air-launched using a B-29 Superfortress. Unlike the X-1, the Skyrocket could takeoff from a runway with the help of JATO units; the Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint project with the Federal Aviation Administration to research a new jet fuel that would decrease the damage due to fire in the crash of a large airliner. On December 1, 1984, a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft was flown into specially built wing openers which tore the wings open, fuel spraying everywhere. Despite the new fuel additive, the resulting fire ball was huge. Though the fuel additive did not prevent a fire, the research was not a complete failure; the additive still prevented the combustion of some fuel which flowed over the fuselage of the aircraft, served to cool it, similar to how a conventional rocket engine cools its nozzle.
Instrumented crash test dummies were in the airplane for the impact, provided valuable research into other aspects of crash survivability for the occupants. LASRE was a NASA experiment in cooperation with Lockheed Martin to study a reusable launch vehicle design based on a linear aerospike rocket engine; the experiment's goal was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools they developed to design the craft. LASRE was a half-span model of a lifting body with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine; the experiment, mounted on the back of an SR-71 Blackbird aircraft, operated like a kind of "flying wind tunnel." The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine plume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting body shape at specific altitudes and speeds reaching 750 miles per hour. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle or LLRV was an Apollo Project era program to build a simulator for the Moon landing.
The LLRVs, humorously referred to as "Flying Bedsteads", were used by the FRC, now known as the Armstrong Flight Research Center, at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. to study and analyze piloting techniques needed to fly and land the Apo
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Museum of Flight
The Museum of Flight is a private non-profit air and space museum in the northwest United States. It is located at the southern end of King County International Airport, in the city of Tukwila, just south of Seattle, it was established in 1965 and is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. As the largest private air and space museum in the world, it hosts the largest K-12 educational programs in the world; the museum attracts over 500,000 visitors every year. The museum serves more than 140,000 students yearly through both its onsite programs: a Challenger Learning Center, an Aviation Learning Center, a summer camp, as well as outreach programs that travel throughout Washington and Oregon; the Museum of Flight can trace its roots back to the Pacific Northwest Aviation Historical Foundation, founded in 1965 to recover and restore a 1929 Boeing 80A-1, discovered in Anchorage, Alaska. The restoration took place over a 16-year period, after completion, was put on display as a centerpiece for the museum.
In 1968, the name "Museum of Flight" first appeared in use in a 10,000-square-foot facility, rented at the Seattle Center. Planning began at this time for a more permanent structure, preliminary concepts were drafted. In 1975, The William E. Boeing Red Barn was acquired for one dollar from the Port of Seattle, which had taken possession of it after Boeing abandoned it during World War II; the 1909 all-wooden Red Barn, the original home of the company, was barged two miles up the Duwamish River to its current location at the southwestern end of Boeing Field. Fundraising was slow in the late 1970s, after restoration, the two-story Red Barn was opened to the public in 1983; that year a funding campaign was launched, so capital could be raised for construction of the T. A. Wilson Great Gallery. In 1987, Vice President George Bush, joined by four Mercury astronauts, cut the ribbon to open the facility on July 10, with an expansive volume of 3,000,000 cubic feet; the gallery's structure is built in a space frame lattice structure and holds more than 20 hanging aircraft, including a Douglas DC-3 weighing more than nine tons.
The museum's education programs grew with the building of a Challenger Learning Center in 1992. This interactive exhibit allows students to experience a Space Shuttle mission, it includes a mock-up NASA mission control, experiments from all areas of space research. Completed in 1994, the 132-seat Wings Cafe and the 250-seat Skyline multipurpose banquet and meeting room increased the museum's footprint to 185,000 square feet. At the same time, one of the museum's most recognized and popular artifacts, the Lockheed M-21, a modified Lockheed A-12 Oxcart designed to carry the Lockheed D-21 reconnaissance drones, was placed on the floor at the center of the Great Gallery, after being restored; the first jet-powered Air Force One, a Boeing VC-137B, was flown to Boeing Field in 1996. Retired from active service earlier that year, it is on loan from the Air Force Museum. Parked on the east side of the museum, it was driven across East Marginal Way and now resides in the museum's Airpark, where it is open to public walkthroughs.
In 1997, the museum opened interactive Air Traffic Control tower exhibit. The tower overlooks the Boeing Field runways, home to one of the thirty busiest airports in the country; the exhibit offers a glimpse into. The next major expansion was opened in 2004, with the addition of the J. Elroy McCaw Personal Courage Wing. North of the Red Barn, the wing has 88,000 square feet of exhibit space on two floors, with more than 25 World War I and World War II aircraft, it has large collection of model aircraft, including every plane from both wars. Many of these aircraft were from the collection of the Champlin Fighter Museum in Mesa, which closed in 2003; the wing opened on the sixtieth anniversary of D-Day. In June 2010, the museum broke ground on a $12 million new building to house a Space Shuttle it hoped to receive from NASA, named the Charles Simonyi Space Gallery; the new building includes multisensory exhibits that emphasize stories from the visionaries, designers and crews of the Space Shuttle and other space related missions.
The gallery opened to the public in November 2012. Though the museum did not receive one of the four remaining Shuttles, it did receive the Full Fuselage Trainer, a Shuttle mockup, used to train all Space Shuttle astronauts; because it is a trainer and not an actual Shuttle, small group guided tours of the interior are available, for an extra charge. The FFT began arriving in various pieces beginning in 2012; the cockpit and two sections of the payload bay arrived via NASA's Super Guppy. The Museum of Flight has more than 150 aircraft in its collection, including: Lockheed Model 10-E Electra faithfully restored by pilot Linda Finch to match the aircraft Amelia Earhart was piloting when she disappeared over the Pacific Ocean Boeing 747 the first flight-worthy B747, City of Everett, its registration number is N7470, it was named after the city of Everett, Washington. Its first flight was on February 9, 1969, was retired in 1990. Boeing VC-137B SAM 970 the first presidential jet, which served in the presidential fleet from 1959 to 1996 Concorde 214, registration G-BOAG.
This is one of only four Concordes on display outside Europe, with the other three being near Washington, in New York, in Barbados. Caproni Ca.20 the world's fir
Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft, operated by the United States Air Force. It was developed as a black project from the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft in the 1960s by Lockheed and its Skunk Works division. American aerospace engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson was responsible for many of the design's innovative concepts. During aerial reconnaissance missions, the SR-71 operated at high speeds and altitudes to allow it to outrace threats. If a surface-to-air missile launch were detected, the standard evasive action was to accelerate and outfly the missile; the shape of the SR-71 was based on the A-12, one of the first aircraft to be designed with a reduced radar cross-section. The SR-71 served with the U. S. Air Force from 1964 to 1998. A total of 32 aircraft were built; the SR-71 has been given several nicknames, including "Blackbird" and "Habu". Since 1976, it has held the world record for the fastest air-breathing manned aircraft, a record held by the related Lockheed YF-12.
Lockheed's previous reconnaissance aircraft was the slow U-2, designed for the Central Intelligence Agency. In late 1957, the CIA approached the defense contractor Lockheed to build an undetectable spy plane; the project, named Archangel, was led by Kelly Johnson, head of Lockheed's Skunk Works unit in Burbank, California. The work on project Archangel began in the second quarter of 1958, with aim of flying higher and faster than the U-2. Of 11 successive designs drafted in a span of 10 months, "A-10" was the frontrunner. Despite this, its shape made it vulnerable to radar detection. After a meeting with the CIA in March 1959, the design was modified to have a 90% reduction in radar cross-section; the CIA approved a US$96 million contract for Skunk Works to build a dozen spy planes, named "A-12" on 11 February 1960. The 1960 downing of Francis Gary Powers's U-2 underscored its vulnerability and the need for faster reconnaissance aircraft such as the A-12; the A-12 first flew at Groom Lake, Nevada, on 25 April 1962.
Thirteen were built. The aircraft was meant to be powered by the Pratt & Whitney J58 engine, but development ran over schedule, it was equipped instead with the less powerful Pratt & Whitney J75 initially; the J58s were retrofitted as they became available, became the standard powerplant for all subsequent aircraft in the series, as well as the SR-71. The A-12 flew missions over Vietnam and North Korea before its retirement in 1968; the program's cancellation was announced on 28 December 1966, due both to budget concerns and because of the forthcoming SR-71, a derivative of the A-12. The SR-71 designation is a continuation of the pre-1962 bomber series. However, a bomber variant of the Blackbird was given the B-71 designator, retained when the type was changed to SR-71. During the stages of its testing, the B-70 was proposed for a reconnaissance/strike role, with an "RS-70" designation; when the A-12 performance potential was found to be much greater, the Air Force ordered a variant of the A-12 in December 1962.
Named R-12 by Lockheed, the Air Force version was longer and heavier than the A-12, with a longer fuselage to hold more fuel, two seats in the cockpit, reshaped chines. Reconnaissance equipment included signals intelligence sensors, a side-looking airborne radar, a photo camera; the CIA's A-12 was a better photo-reconnaissance platform than the Air Force's R-12, since the A-12 flew somewhat higher and faster, with only one pilot, it had room to carry a superior camera and more instruments. During the 1964 campaign, Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater criticized President Lyndon B. Johnson and his administration for falling behind the Soviet Union in developing new weapons. Johnson decided to counter this criticism by revealing the existence of the YF-12A Air Force interceptor, which served as cover for the still-secret A-12 and the Air Force reconnaissance model since July 1964. Air Force Chief of Staff General Curtis LeMay preferred the SR designation and wanted the RS-71 to be named SR-71.
Before the July speech, LeMay lobbied to modify Johnson's speech to read SR-71 instead of RS-71. The media transcript given to the press at the time still had the earlier RS-71 designation in places, creating the story that the president had misread the aircraft's designation. Johnson only referred to the A-11 to conceal the A-12, while revealing that there was a high speed, high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. In 1968, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara cancelled the F-12 interceptor program. Production of the SR-71 totaled 32 aircraft with 29 SR-71As, two SR-71Bs, the single SR-71C; the SR-71 was designed for flight at over Mach 3 with a flight crew of two in tandem cockpits, with the pilot in the forward cockpit and the reconnaissance systems officer operating the surveillance systems and equipment from the rear cockpit, directing navigation on the mission flight path. The SR-71 was designed to minimize an early attempt at stealth design. Finished aircraft were painted a dark blue black, to increase the emission of internal heat and to act as camouflage against the night sky.
The dark color led to the aircraft's nickname "Blackbird". While the SR-71 carried radar countermeasures to evade interception efforts, its greatest protection was its combination of hig
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position. In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45° angle; this form of periscope, with the addition of two simple lenses, served for observation purposes in the trenches during World War I. Military personnel use periscopes in some gun turrets and in armoured vehicles. More complex periscopes using prisms or advanced fiber optics instead of mirrors and providing magnification operate on submarines and in various fields of science; the overall design of the classical submarine periscope is simple: two telescopes pointed into each other. If the two telescopes have different individual magnification, the difference between them causes an overall magnification or reduction. Johannes Gutenberg, known for his contribution to printing technology, marketed a kind of periscope in the 1430s to enable pilgrims to see over the heads of the crowd at the vigintennial religious festival at Aachen.
Johannes Hevelius described an early periscope with lenses in 1647 in his work Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio. Hevelius saw military applications for his invention. In 1854, Hippolyte Marié-Davy invented the first naval periscope, consisting of a vertical tube with two small mirrors fixed at each end at 45°. Simon Lake used periscopes in his submarines in 1902. Sir Howard Grubb perfected the device in World War I. Morgan Robertson claimed to have tried to patent the periscope: he described a submarine using a periscope in his fictional works. Periscopes, in some cases fixed to rifles, served in World War I to enable soldiers to see over the tops of trenches, thus avoiding exposure to enemy fire; the periscope rifle saw use during the war - this was an infantry rifle sighted by means of a periscope, so the shooter could aim fire the weapon from a safe position below the trench parapet. During World War II, artillery observers and officers used specifically-manufactured periscope binoculars with different mountings.
Some of them allowed estimating the distance to a target, as they were designed as stereoscopic rangefinders. Tanks and armoured vehicles use periscopes: they enable drivers, tank commanders, other vehicle occupants to inspect their situation through the vehicle roof. Prior to periscopes, direct vision slits were cut in the armour for occupants to see out. Periscopes permit view outside of the vehicle without needing to cut these weaker vision openings in the front and side armour, better protecting the vehicle and occupants. A protectoscope is a related periscopic vision device designed to provide a window in armoured plate, similar to a direct vision slit. A compact periscope inside the protectoscope allows the vision slit to be blanked off with spaced armoured plate; this prevents a potential ingress point for small arms fire, with only a small difference in vision height, but still requires the armour to be cut. In the context of armoured fighting vehicles, such as tanks, a periscopic vision device may be referred to as an episcope.
In this context a periscope refers to a device that can rotate to provide a wider field of view, while an episcope is fixed into position. Periscopes may be referred to by slang, e.g. "shufti-scope". An important development, the Gundlach rotary periscope, incorporated a rotating top with a selectable additional prism which reversed the view; this allowed a tank commander to obtain a 360-degree field of view without moving his seat, including rear vision by engaging the extra prism. This design, patented by Rudolf Gundlach in 1936, first saw use in the Polish 7-TP light tank; as a part of Polish–British pre-World War II military cooperation, the patent was sold to Vickers-Armstrong where it saw further development for use in British tanks, including the Crusader, Churchill and Cromwell models as the Vickers Tank Periscope MK. IV; the Gundlach-Vickers technology was shared with the American Army for use in its tanks including the Sherman, built to meet joint British and US requirements. This saw post-war controversy through legal action: "After the Second World War and a long court battle, in 1947 he, received a large payment for his periscope patent from some of its producers."The USSR copied the design and used it extensively in its tanks (including the T-34 and T-70.
The copies were based on Lend-Lease British vehicles, many parts remain interchangeable. Germany made and used copies. Periscopic sights were introduced during the Second World War. In British use, the Vickers periscope was provided with sighting lines, enabling front and rear prisms to be directly aligned to gain an accurate direction. On tanks such as the Churchill and Cromwell, a marked episcope provided a backup sighting mechanism aligned with a vane sight on the turret roof. US-built Sherman tanks and British Centurion and Charioteer tanks replaced the main telescopic sight with a true periscopic sight in the primary role; the periscopic sight was linked to the gun itself. The sights formed part of the overall periscope, providing the gunner with greater overall vision than possible with the telescopic sight. In modern use, specialised periscopes can provide night vision; the Embedded Image Periscope designed and patented by Kent Periscopes provides standard unity vision periscope functionality for normal daytime viewing of the vehicle surroundings plus
Sunnyvale is a city located in Santa Clara County, California. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 140,095. Sunnyvale is the seventh most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area and one of the major cities comprising Silicon Valley, it is bordered by portions of San Jose to the north, Moffett Federal Airfield to the northwest, Mountain View to the northwest, Los Altos to the southwest, Cupertino to the south, Santa Clara to the east. It lies along the historic El Camino Real and Highway 101; as part of California's high-tech area known as Silicon Valley, Sunnyvale is the headquarters location of many technology companies and is a major operating center for many more. It is home to several aerospace/defense companies. Sunnyvale was the home to Onizuka Air Force Station referred to as "the Blue Cube" due to the color and shape of its windowless main building; the facility known as Sunnyvale Air Force Station, was named for the deceased Space Shuttle Challenger astronaut Ellison Onizuka.
It served as an artificial satellite control facility of the U. S. has since been decommissioned and demolished. Sunnyvale is one of the few U. S. cities to have a single unified Department of Public Safety, where all personnel are trained as firefighters, police officers, EMTs, so they can respond to an emergency in any of the three roles. Library services for the city are provided by the Sunnyvale Public Library, located at the Sunnyvale Civic Center; when the Spanish first arrived in the 1770s at the Santa Clara Valley, it was populated by the Ohlone Native Americans. However early on with the arrival of the Spaniards, smallpox and other new diseases reduced the Ohlone population. In 1777, Mission Santa Clara was founded by Franciscan missionary Padre Junipero Serra and was located in San Jose. In 1842, Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was granted to his wife Inez Castro. Portions of the land given in this grant developed into the cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale. Two years in 1844, another land grant was provided to Lupe Yñigo, one of the few Native Americans to hold land grants.
His land grant was first called Rancho Posolmi, named in honor of a village of the Ohlone that once stood in the area. Rancho Posolmi was known as Rancho Ynigo. Martin Murphy Jr. came to California with his father as part of the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party in 1844. In 1850, Martin Murphy Jr. bought a piece of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas for $12,500. Murphy established a wheat ranch named Bay View. Murphy had the first wood frame house in Santa Clara County; the house was demolished in 1961 but was reconstructed in 2008 as the Sunnyvale Heritage Park Museum. When he died in 1884, his land was divided among his heirs. In 1860, The San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road was allowed to lay tracks on Bay View and established Murphy Station. Lawrence Station was established on the southern edge of Bay View. In the 1870s, small fruit orchards replaced many large wheat farms, because wheat farming turned uneconomical due to county and property tax laws and soil degradation. In 1871, Dr. James M. Dawson and his wife Eloise established the first fruit cannery in the county.
Fruit agriculture for canning soon became a major industry in the county. The invention of the refrigerated rail car further increased the viability of an economy based upon fruit; the fruit orchards became so prevalent that in 1886, the San Jose Board of Trade called Santa Clara County the "Garden of the World". In the 1880s, Chinese workers made up one third of the farm labor in Santa Clara County; this percentage reduced over time. In the following decade, the 1890s, many immigrants from Italy, the Azores and Japan arrived to work in the orchards. In 1897, Walter Everett Crossman began selling real estate, he advertised the area as "Beautiful Murphy" and in the 1900s, as "the City of Destiny". In 1897, Encina School opened as the first school in Murphy. Children in the town had to travel to Mountain View for school. In 1901, the residents of Murphy were informed they could not use the names Encinal or Murphy for their post office. Sunnyvale was given its current name on March 24, 1901, it was named Sunnyvale as it is located in a sunny region adjacent to areas with more fog.
Sunnyvale in 1904, dried fruit production began. Two years Libby, McNeill & Libby, a Chicago meat-packing company, decided to open its first fruit-packing factory in Sunnyvale. Today, a water tower painted to resemble the first Libby's fruit cocktail can label identifies the former site of the factory. In 1906, the Joshua Hendy Iron Works relocated from San Francisco to Sunnyvale after the company's building was destroyed by fire after the 1906 earthquake; the ironworks was the first non-agricultural industry in the town. The company switched from producing mining equipment to other products such as marine steam engines. In 1912, the residents of Sunnyvale voted to incorporate, Sunnyvale became an official city. Fremont High School first opened in 1923. In 1924, Edwina Benner was elected to her first term as mayor of Sunnyvale, she was the second female mayor in the history of the state of California. In 1930, Congress decided to place the West Coast dirigible base in Sunnyvale after "buying" the 1,000-acre parcel of farmland bordering the San Francisco Bay from the city for $1.
This naval airfield was renamed Moffett Naval Air Station and Moffett Federal Airfield and is called Moffet