Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori
Escape from New York
Escape from New York is a 1981 American post-apocalyptic science-fiction action film co-written, co-scored and directed by John Carpenter. The film is set in what was the near-future year of 1997, in a crime-ridden United States that has converted Manhattan Island in New York City into the country's maximum security prison; when Air Force One is hijacked by terrorists and crashes into New York City, ex-soldier and federal prisoner Snake Plissken is given 24 hours to rescue the President of the United States. Carpenter wrote the film in the mid-1970s in reaction to the Watergate scandal. After the success of Halloween, he had enough influence to begin production and filmed it in St. Louis, Missouri on an estimated budget of $6 million. Debra Hill and Larry J. Franco served as the producers; the film was co-written by Nick Castle, who had collaborated with Carpenter by portraying Michael Myers in Halloween. Escape from New York was released in the United States on July 10, 1981; the film received positive reviews from critics and was a commercial success, grossing over $25 million at the box office.
The film was nominated for four Saturn Awards, including Best Science Fiction Film and Best Direction. The film became a cult classic and was followed by a sequel, Escape from L. A., directed and written by Carpenter and starred Russell but was much less favorably received. In 1988, following a 400% increase in crime, the United States government has turned Manhattan into a giant maximum-security prison. A 50-foot containment wall surrounds the island, routes out of Manhattan have been dismantled or mined, while armed helicopters patrol the rivers, all prisoners there are sentenced to life, with no means of leaving. In 1997, NATO is engaged in an escalating war with the Soviet Union across much of Europe, which threatens to imminently become a global nuclear holocaust. While traveling to a peace summit between the United States and the Soviet Union, Air Force One is hijacked by a domestic terrorist posing as a stewardess; the President is given a tracking bracelet and his briefcase handcuffed to his wrist — a move which could defuse hostilities and bring peace between the Superpowers.
He makes it to an escape pod, lands in Manhattan just before Air Force One crashes, killing everyone else aboard. Police are dispatched to rescue the President. However, the right-hand man of the Duke of New York warns them that the Duke has taken the President hostage, that he will be killed if any further rescue attempts are mounted. Commissioner Bob Hauk offers a deal to Snake Plissken, a former Special Forces soldier convicted of attempting to rob the Federal Reserve in Denver, Colorado: if Snake rescues the President and retrieves the cassette tape, Hauk will arrange a presidential pardon. To ensure his compliance, Hauk has Plissken injected with micro-explosives that will rupture Snake's carotid arteries within 22 hours. Snake is sent into Manhattan in a stealth glider. Snake tracks the President's life-monitor bracelet to a vaudeville theater, only to find it on the wrist of an insane old man. Convinced that the President has been killed, he radios Hauk, only to be told that he will be shot down if he tries to come back out empty-handed.
Soon afterwards he meets "Cabbie," a long-serving New York taxi-driver, driving the streets of Manhattan for 30 years and somehow managed to remain in the city after its conversion to an open prison. Cabbie takes Snake in his armored taxi cab to Harold "Brain" Hellman, an adviser to the Duke and a former associate of Snake's, a brilliant engineer and has established a base in New York Central Library with an oil-pumping engine and a small refinery, which keeps the remainder of the city's cars and machinery running. Hellman betrayed Snake during a long-ago robbery plot and Snake is tempted to shoot him, but Brain tells Snake that the Duke plans to unify the gangs in a mass exodus across the guarded Queensboro Bridge, using the President as a human shield and a map Brain has created to avoid the landmines. Snake backs off, but forces Brain and his girlfriend Maggie to lead him to the Duke's compound at Grand Central Terminal, he is captured by the Duke's men. While Snake is forced to fight in a deathmatch with Slag, a prisoner and Maggie kill Romero and flee with the President.
As Snake kills Slag, the Duke rallies his gang to chase them. Snake, Brain and the President race to the World Trade Center in an attempt to use Snake's glider to escape from Manhattan. After a group of crazies destroy it, the group returns to the street and encounters Cabbie, who offers to take them across the bridge; when Cabbie reveals that he has the secret tape, the President demands it. The Duke pursues the group onto the bridge in his customized Cadillac, setting off mines as he tries to catch up. With Brain navigating through the minefield, Snake manages to avoid most of the explosives, but the cab hits a mine and is blown in half, killing Cabbie; as the group flees on foot, Brain is killed. Maggie refuses to leave him, she stands in the middle of the road, shooting at the Duke's car until he runs her down, killing her. Snake and the President reach the perimeter wall, the guards raise the President on a rope; the Duke opens fire on the wall, killing the guards and forcing Snake to dive for cover, but the President shoots the Duke dead with one of th
Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a reactive nonmetal, an oxidizing agent that forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up half of the Earth's crust. Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells and bone. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms. Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form of oxygen, ozone absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. However, ozone present at the surface is a byproduct of thus a pollutant. Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774. Priority is given for Priestley because his work was published first. Priestley, called oxygen "dephlogisticated air", did not recognize it as a chemical element; the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and characterized the role it plays in combustion. Common uses of oxygen include production of steel and textiles, brazing and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, life support systems in aircraft, submarines and diving.
One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel's neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck. Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved. English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus. In one experiment, he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air's volume before extinguishing the subjects.
From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both combustion. Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it, he thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract "De respiratione". Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element; this may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731, phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts.
One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. Combustible materials that leave little residue, such as wood or coal, were thought to be made of phlogiston. Air did not play a role in phlogiston theory, nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea. Polish alchemist and physician Michael Sendivogius in his work De Lapide Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromti described a substance contained in air, referring to it as'cibus vitae', this substance is identical with oxygen. Sendivogius, during his experiments performed between 1598 and 1604, properly recognized that the substance is equivalent to the gaseous byproduct released by the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate. In Bugaj’s view, the isolation of oxygen and the proper association of the substance to that part of air, required for life, lends sufficient weight to the discovery of oxygen by Sendivogius.
CinemaScore is a market research firm based in Las Vegas. It surveys film audiences to rate their viewing experiences with letter grades, reports the results, forecasts box office receipts based on the data. Ed Mintz founded CinemaScore in 1979 after disliking The Cheap Detective despite being a fan of Neil Simon, hearing another disappointed attendee wanting to hear the opinions of ordinary people instead of critics. A Yom Kippur donation card with tabs inspired the survey cards given to audience members; the company conducts surveys to audiences who have seen a film in theaters, asking them to rate the film and specifying what drew them to the film. Its results are published in Entertainment Weekly. CinemaScore conducts surveys to determine audience interest in renting films on video, breaking the demographic down by age and sex and passing along information to video companies such as Fox Video Corporation. CinemaScore pollster Dede Gilmore reported the trend in 1993, "Most movies get a B-plus.
I think. They have high expectations. They're more lenient with their grades, but as do it more and more, they get to be stronger critics". In 1993, films that were graded with an A included Scent of a Woman, A Few Good Men and Falling Down. Films graded with a B included Untamed Heart. A C-grade film for the year was Body of Evidence. CinemaScore at first reported its findings to consumers, including a newspaper column and a radio show. After 20th Century Fox approached the company in 1989, it began selling the data to studios instead. A website was launched by CinemaScore in 1999, after three years' delay in which the president sought sponsorship from magazines and video companies. Brad Peppard was president of CinemaScore Online from 1999 to 2002; the website included a database of the audiences' reactions to them. Prior to the launch, CinemaScore results had been published in Las Vegas Review-Journal and Reno Gazette-Journal. CinemaScore's expansion to the Internet included a weekly email subscription for cinephiles to keep up with reports of audience reactions.
In 1999, CinemaScore was rating 140 films a year, including 98–99% of major studio releases. For each film, employees polled 400–500 moviegoers in three of CinemaScore's 15 sites, which included the cities Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Atlanta, Tampa and Coral Springs. In the summer of 2002, CinemaScore reported that the season had the biggest collective grade since 1995. In the summer of 2000, 25 out of 32 films received either an B grade. Twenty-six of the summer of 2001's 30 films got similar grades, while 32 of the summer of 2002's 34 films got similar grades, the latter being the highest ratio in a decade. Since July 2014, CinemaScore reports its results on Twitter, from January 16, 2016, it began with Collateral Beauty to use for each of them an image with the movie poster on the left and the grade obtained on the right. Only films that open in more than 1,500 screens are polled and reported on CinemaScore's website and social media; the distributor of a film that opens in fewer screens can optionally contract with CinemaScore for a private survey, whose result would be disclosed only to the client.
CinemaScore describes itself as "the industry leader in measuring movie appeal". Thirty-five to 45 teams of CinemaScore representatives are present in 25 large cities across North America; each Friday, representatives in five randomly chosen cities give opening-day audiences a small survey card. The card asks for age, gender, a grade for the film, whether they would rent or buy the film on DVD or Blu-ray, why they chose the film. CinemaScore receives about 400 cards per film. An overall grade of A+ and F is calculated as the average of the grades given by responders. In this case, grades other than F are qualified with minus or neither; the ratings are divided by age groups. Film studios and other subscribers receive the data at about 11 p.m. Pacific Time. CinemaScore publishes letter grades to the public on social media and, although the detailed data is proprietary, the grades become shared in the media and the industry. Subsequent advertisements for ranked films cite their CinemaScore grades.
As opening-night audiences are more enthusiastic about a film than ordinary patrons, a C grade from them is - according to the Los Angeles Times - "bad news, the equivalent of a failing grade". According to Ed Mintz, "A’s are good, B’s are shaky, C’s are terrible. D’s and F’s, they shouldn’t have made the movie, or they promoted it funny and the absolute wrong crowd got into it". Horror films score lower. CinemaScore's Harold Mintz said that "An F in a horror film is equivalent to a B- in a comedy". An A+ grade from CinemaScore for a film predicts a successful box office. From 1982 to August 2011, only 52 films received the top grade, including seven Academy Award for Best Picture winners. From 2000 to February 2018, there were 44 movies with A+; as of April 5, 2018, 77 films have received A+. From 2004 to 2014, those rated A+ and A had multiples of 4.8 and 3.6 while C-rated films' total revenue was 2.5 times their opening weekend. Ed Mintz cited Leonardo DiCaprio and Tom Cruise as the "two stars, it doesn’t matter how bad the film is, they can pull up".
(DiCaprio's Shutter Island had a 3.1 revenue multiple despite a C+ grade, Cruise's Vanilla Sky had a 4 multiple with a
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios. Many large budget silent films were storyboarded, but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970s and 1980s. Special effects pioneer Georges Méliès is known to have been among the first filmmakers to use storyboards and pre-production art to visualize planned effects. However, storyboarding in the form known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. In the biography of her father, The Story of Walt Disney, Diane Disney Miller explains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short Three Little Pigs.
According to John Canemaker, in Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards, the first storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazy and Steamboat Willie, within a few years the idea spread to other studios. According to Christopher Finch in The Art of Walt Disney, Disney credited animator Webb Smith with creating the idea of drawing scenes on separate sheets of paper and pinning them up on a bulletin board to tell a story in sequence, thus creating the first storyboard. Furthermore, it was Disney who first recognized the necessity for studios to maintain a separate "story department" with specialized storyboard artists, as he had realized that audiences would not watch a film unless its story gave them a reason to care about the characters; the second studio to switch from "story sketches" to storyboards was Walter Lantz Productions in early 1935. By 1937 or 1938, all American animation studios were using storyboards.
Gone with the Wind was one of the first live action films to be storyboarded. William Cameron Menzies, the film's production designer, was hired by producer David O. Selznick to design every shot of the film. Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s and grew into a standard medium for previsualization of films. Pace Gallery curator Annette Micheloson, writing of the exhibition Drawing into Film: Director's Drawings, considered the 1940s to 1990s to be the period in which "production design was characterized by adoption of the storyboard". Storyboards are now an essential part of the creative process. A film storyboard known as a shooting board, is a series of frames, with drawings of the sequence of events in a film, similar to a comic book of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand, it helps film directors and television commercial advertising clients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Besides this, storyboards help estimate the cost of the overall production and saves time.
Storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement. For fast-paced action scenes, monochrome line art might suffice. For slower-paced dramatic films with emphasis on lighting, color impressionist style art might be necessary. In creating a motion picture with any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens, and in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture or in additional text. A common misconception is. Directors and playwrights use storyboards as special tools to understand the layout of the scene; the great Russian theatre practitioner Stanislavski developed storyboards in his detailed production plans for his Moscow Art Theatre performances. The German director and dramatist Bertolt Brecht developed detailed storyboards as part of his dramaturgical method of "fabels."
In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how a scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a sequence of still images displayed in sync with rough dialogue and/or rough soundtrack providing a simplified overview of how various visual and auditory elements will work in conjunction to one another; this allows the animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list, timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, a new animatic may be created and reviewed by the production staff until the storyboard is finalized. Editing at the animatic stage can help a production avoid wasting time and resources on animation of scenes that would otherwise be edited out of the film at a stage. A few minutes of screen time in traditional animation equates to months of work for a team of traditional animators, who must painstakingly draw and paint countless frames, meaning that all that labor will have to be written off if the final scene does not work in the f
EuropaCorp is a French motion picture company headquartered in Saint-Denis, a northern suburb of Paris, one of a few full service independent studios that both produces and distributes feature films, as well as the one of the major companies in Europe. It specializes in production, home entertainment, VOD, sales and licenses, recording and exhibition. EuropaCorp's integrated financial model generates revenues from a wide range of sources, with films from many genres and a strong presence in the international markets. Over 14 years, EuropaCorp has produced and co-produced over 80 films and is now distributing over 500 titles after the integration of the RoissyFilms Catalogue; the studio is known for its expertise in the production of English-language films with strong earning potential in the international marketplace. The company produced the successful Taken trilogy and the Transporter series; the company began producing TV series in 2010 through EuropaCorp Television which has adapted EuropaCorp's popular Taxii film franchise.
Luc Besson began directing features with Le Dernier Combat. In 1985 he worked with Pierre-Ange Le Pogam for the first time on the movie Subway. Le Pogam was Distribution Director at Gaumont. Subsequently all the films that Besson made with Gaumont between 1985 and 1999 topped the three-million ticket mark at the box office Meanwhile, Le Pogam developed innovative promotional techniques at Gaumont, which he applied for the first time for Besson’s The Fifth Element; this film was France’s biggest export success of all time until Taken 2 was released in 2012, which established a new record. In 1997 Pierre-Ange Le Pogam became Deputy Chief Executive Officer of Gaumont. In September 2000 Besson and Le Pogam founded Europacorp; this superseded Besson's earlier production company known as Films du Dauphin. In July 2007 EuropaCorp managed its IPO on Euronext Paris. In May 2008, the CSA, French authority for media regulation, selected the EuropaCorp TV project in its invitation to apply for a mobile TV channel in France.
In 2013 Lisa Ellzey, hitherto producer for Lionsgate and 20th Century Fox, was appointed as executive vice president of U. S. Motion Picture Production of EuropaCorp. In 2018, Besson was accused of rape by an actress. EuropaCorp stocks dropped 17% to just €2.31 after the rape allegation. Today EuropaCorp is owned at 62% by Luc Besson through his company Frontline and at 8.06% by Pierre-Ange Le Pogam. Besson is the Chairman of EuropaCorp's Board of Directors. Jean-Julien Baronnet was the Chief Executive Officer of EuropaCorp until November 2008. Christophe Lambert was CEO from 2010 to 2016. Marc Shmuger was appointed as CEO in 2016. Digital Factory is related to EuropaCorp via Luc Besson. EuropaCorp films, post-production of sound for EuropaCorp films is performed chiefly at its Normandy site, while the image editing is done in Paris. In September 2016 it was announced that Chinese film company Fundamental Films had acquired a stake of 27.9% in EuropaCorp, becoming the second-largest shareholder in the company.
In June 2017, EuropaCorp signed a music publishing deal with Sony/ATV Music Publishing. And that month, the studio posted a loss of 120 million euros. EuropaCorp has produced the world box-office hits Taken and the Invisibles, Transporter 3 and Hitman. Two EuropaCorp productions have been topping the US box-office: Transporter 2 by summer 2005 and Taken at spring 2009. Many international film stars have appeared in EuropaCorp productions: Jim Carrey, Penélope Cruz, Robert De Niro, David Duchovny, Morgan Freeman, Salma Hayek, Tommy Lee Jones, Jet Li, John Malkovich, Jason Statham, Brittany Murphy, Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Lou Reed, others; the films are shot in English. EuropaCorp Japan, a subsidiary of EuropaCorp based in Tokyo, has for core business the distribution of feature films in Japan, it is a joint-venture with three Japanese companies: Sumitomo Corporation and Kadokawa. In 2012, EuropaCorp struck a three-year output deal with Chinese film distributor Fundamental Films for 15 feature films.
Fundamental Films agreed to co-produce three of these films. In May 2015, the company announced an output deal with Polish film distributor Kino Swiat. EuropaCorp relocated to the Cité du Cinéma in 2012; this movie studio complex, located in Saint-Denis in the close outskirts of Paris, at build out will have a total of 9 film stages, with another 12,000 square metres of space devoted to technical units and 2200 square metres for screening and reception rooms. The cinema school Louis-Lumière National Higher School is to be relocated to the complex. EuropaCorp signed a lease with the Nef Lumière, owner of the tertiary complex, for space for its permanent staff and the film crews, with extra space for potential new activities; this tertiary complex is financed by both Vinci. EuropaCorp is a minority shareholder in the company operating the studios, joining Euro Media Group, Quinta Communications and Frontline; the Euro Media Group, which owns several film studios throughout Europe, will provide management of daily operations of these studios of Paris.
No Limit Transporter: The Series Nom de code: Rose XIII: The Series Flight of the Storks Taxi Brooklyn Taken 2009: In the Beginning directed by Xavier Giannoli competed as France's Official Selection in the Cannes Film Festival. 2009: I Love You Phillip Morris, in whic
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A