International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Skinningrove is a village in North Yorkshire, England. Its name is thought to mean skinners' grove or pit; the village had an agricultural and fishing economy until the opening of local ironstone workings in 1848 initiated an industrialisation boom. A railway was built by 1865, iron smelting began in 1874. A jetty on the coast built in 1880 allowed seagoing vessels to carry heavy cargoes from the area. Mining continued until primary iron production until the 1970s; the Cleveland Ironstone Mining Museum describes the village's mining heritage, providing a unique underground experience and an insight into how 6.2 million tons of ironstone was extracted from Skinningrove. The village has a large natural sand beach used for recreational fishing and a beck, which floods, notably in 2000, it has the Riverside Building Community Centre, on the site of a former school. There is a Methodist chapel which has services on a Sunday at 18:00. There is a fish and chip shop, a community centre and general dealers and post office.
Every year Skinningrove hosts a bonfire and fireworks display which attracts hundreds of people from around North Yorkshire. Each year the bonfire is based on a different theme; the Cleveland Way runs through the village. On 17 February 2003, a seen oarfish was caught by angler Val Fletcher, using a fishing rod baited with squid; the fish weighed 140 lb. Graham Hill, the science officer at the Deep, an aquarium in Hull, said that he had never heard of another oarfish being caught off the coast of Britain; the Natural History Museum in London said that it would have been interested in preserving the fish in its permanent collection. Skinningrove Bonfire Skinningrove at Curlie
Eston is a town in North Yorkshire, England. The local council, a unitary authority, is Cleveland. Eston is next to Normanby and Teesville, indeed several institutions in Teesville and Normanby have Eston in their name, such as Eston Sports Academy and Eston Cemetery, it is included in the Cleveland redevelopment initiative named Greater Eston. As with the rest of Greater Eston, it forms part of the Middlesbrough sub-division of the Teesside built-up area; the land around Eston has been occupied since 2400 BC. The 1841 discovery of ironstone in Eston Hills by industrialists from Middlesbrough saw Eston develop from two cottages in 1850 to a thriving mining town. Miners' cottages, although altered, can still be seen in parts of Eston; the mining history of Eston was the subject of A Century in Stone, which describes how the mines were responsible for making Teesside the iron and steel capital of the world. The film, by Craig Hornby of Pancrack Films, sold out across Australia; the Teesside steel industry, started from these mines produced the steel that built the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
The mines have been closed after 100 years of production. Teesside steel became part of the nationalised British Steel Corporation, which in turn became the Corus Group; the Middlesbrough area became the world's leading iron and steel producing capital due to the output of the Eston mines. Eston is part of Redcar constituency and is represented by Labour Party MP Anna Turley in the House of Commons, it is part of the North East England European Parliament constituency, where it is represented by two Labour MEPs and one UKIP MEP. In the 2015 local elections, the following members were returned to Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council: Eston Square, the shopping area on the main road passing through Eston, forms more of a triangle than a square; the square has a war memorial as its centrepiece – The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier – that shows the statue of a soldier atop a plinth. The plinth lists the names of local people. Two sides the square are lined with traditional terraced shops, while the third side has the 1960s-built Eston Precinct parade of shops.
Eston Square provides an important retail facility for a much wider area than just Eston itself. While some of the shops are well maintained businesses, others, in the words of Redcar and Cleveland Council, "are in need of a facelift"; as part of Redcar and Cleveland Council's Greater Eston Regeneration, improvements are planned, including the part-demolition of the Precinct Shopping Centre and the building of a new supermarket. For such a small town, there is a high number of popular public houses that serve people both from within Eston and from neighbouring towns like Normanby, South Bank, Whale Hill and Grangetown; these establishments contribute to a number of local sports leagues, with darts and pool having the most participants. The square has been entered into the regional Northumbria in Bloom competition, with regular work being carried out by members of the Eston Residents Association. Eston has two on the High Street and one in Whale Hill. Christ Church, the Church of England church in Eston, is the partner church to St. George's Church in Teesville.
Christ Church is a traditionally designed church built in red brick. It features sixteen stained-glass windows in dressed sandstone settings that bring warm colourful light into the main body of the building. St. Anne's Church, the Catholic church in Eston, is part of a larger parish, which includes the churches of St. Peter's, South Bank, St. Andrew's, Teesville and St. Mary's, Grangetown; the joint parish is served from, carries the name of, St. Andrew's Parish. St. Anne's Church was built in 1970, although the Catholic community had existed as a distinct group for many years before that. Before the church was built a mass took place each Sunday at the Grangetown Royal British Legion Social Club; the town of Eston lies at the foot of Eston Hills, a ridge 200 metres above sea level, a part of the Cleveland Hills. The same hills that overshadow Eston were used to warn of attack in the Napoleonic Era by a beacon, the remains of which can still be seen at Eston Nab. Eston Nab is home to Bauer Teesside and aerials and transmitters.
At only 243 metres above sea level at its highest point, Eston Hills are classed as lowland heath. Wildlife includes lapwing, green woodpecker and linnet. There are various dragonflies; the hills overlooking Eston are managed for their wildlife and amenity. Many people use the hills for walking and horse riding. There are several self-guided walk leaflets; these are available at the Flatts Lane Woodland Country Park Visitor Centre, Normanby and Cleveland. The Eston Hills provide access to the wider countryside via the public right of way network; the land owned or managed by the Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council is bordered by farmland. Eston Nab commands an excellent view of the nearby Roseberry Topping, which stands higher at 320 metres. Still in active use, Eston Cemetery it was established in 1863 and built as an extension to the church of St Helen, which has since been dismantled and rebuilt at Beamish Museum. Names on the gravestones tell the story of the families whose daily lives created the history of the wider area throughout the twentieth century until the present.
The cemetery contains the war graves of 55 Commonwealth service personnel of World War I and 43 of World War II, including one unidentified Royal Navy sailor. Eston includes the area of Whale Hill, bui
North East England
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham and Wear, the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire; the region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside and Tyneside, the last of, the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000. Other large towns include Darlington, Hartlepool, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees and Washington; the region is hilly and sparsely populated in the North and West, urban and arable in the East and South. The highest point in the region is The Cheviot, in the Cheviot Hills, at 815 metres; the region contains the urban centres of Tyneside and Teesside, is noted for the rich natural beauty of its coastline, Northumberland National Park, the section of the Pennines that includes Teesdale and Weardale.
The regions historic importance is displayed by Northumberland's ancient castles, the two World Heritage Sites of Durham Cathedral and Durham Castle, Hadrian's Wall one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In fact, Roman archaeology can be found across the region and a special exhibition based around the Roman Fort of Segedunum at Wallsend and the other forts along Hadrian's Wall are complemented by the numerous artifacts that are displayed in the Great North Museum Hancock in Newcastle. St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth, Sunderland and St. Pauls in Jarrow hold significant historical value and have a joint bid to become a World Heritage Site; the area has a strong religious past, as can be seen in works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The work of the 7th-century Cuthbert and Hilda of Whitby were hugely influential in the early church, are still venerated by some today; these saints are associated with the monasteries on the island of Lindisfarne, Wearmouth – Jarrow, the Abbey at Whitby, though they are associated with many other religious sites in the region.
Bede is regarded as the greatest Anglo-Saxon scholar. He worked at the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, translating some forty books on all areas of knowledge, including nature, astronomy and theological matters such as the lives of the saints, his best known work is "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People". One of the most famous pieces of art and literature created in the region is the Lindisfarne Gospels, are thought to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698; this body of work is thought to have been created in honour of Cuthbert, around 710–720. On 6 June 793 the Vikings arrived on the shores of north-east England with a raiding party from Norway who attacked the monastic settlement on Lindisfarne; the monks fled or were slaughtered, Bishop Higbald sought refuge on the mainland. A chronicler recorded: "On the 8th June, the harrying of the heathen miserably destroyed God's church by rapine and slaughter." There were three hundred years of Viking raids and settlement until William the Conqueror defeated King Harold at Hastings in 1066.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes the change from raiding to settlement when it records that in 876 the Vikings "Shared out the land of the Northumbrians and they proceeded to plough and support themselves" The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria extended from the Scottish borders at the Firth of Forth to the north, to the south of York, its capital, down to the Humber. The last independent Northumbrian king from 947–8 was Eric Bloodaxe, who died at the Battle of Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954. After Eric Bloodaxe's death, all England was ruled by the grandson of Alfred the Great. Today the Viking legacy can still be found in the language and place names of north-east England and in the DNA of its people; the name Newcastle comes from the castle built shortly after the conquest in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. North East England has an oceanic climate with narrower temperature ranges than the south of England. Summers and winters are mild rather than hot or cold, due to the strong maritime influence of the North Atlantic Current of the Gulf Stream.
The Met Office operates several weather stations in the region and are able they show the regional variations in temperature and its relation to the distance from the North Sea. The warmest summers in the region are found in Stockton-on-Tees and the Middlesbrough area, with a 1981-2010 July average high of 20.4 °C. Precipitation is low by English standards, in spite of the low levels of sunshine, with Stockton-on-Tees averaging only 574.2 millimetres annually, with the seaside town of Tynemouth recording 597.2 millimetres annually. The summers on the northern coastlines are cooler than in the southern and central inland areas: Tynemouth is only just above 18 °C in July. Further inland, frosts during winter are more common, due to the higher elevations and distance from the sea. After more than 2,000 years of industrial activity as a result of abundant minerals such as salt and coal the chemical industry of the Northeast England is today spread across the whole of the region with pharmaceuticals being produced in the north of the region and fine chemicals spread across the middle of the region and commodity chemicals and petrochemicals on Teessi
Grangetown, North Yorkshire
Grangetown is a township in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Grangetown is situated on the eastern outskirts of the borough of Middlesbrough, beyond South Bank between the town and west of the industrial chemical complex at ICI Wilton, it is 3 miles east of Middlesbrough centre and 4 miles from Redcar. Although outside of the Middlesbrough authority, it forms part of the Middlesbrough settlement defined by the ONS as the Middlesbrough built-up area sub-division, it was part of the ancient wapentake of Langbaurgh West, which along with Langbaurgh East formed the Cleveland area of North Yorkshire the parish and urban district of Eston. Grangetown was brought into Teesside County Borough in 1968, it has a population of 8,000 residents. The impetus for the development of Grangetown was the discovery of ironstone in the Eston Hills in 1840, the subsequent development of the iron and steel industry along the riverbanks by Messrs. Bolckow and Vaughan.
By 1914, it was community of 5,500 people with the majority of the houses lying between Bolckow Road and the steel works. There was a market square, shopping centre, boarding school, three pubs, six places of worship, a police station and public bathhouse. Though the inhabitants came from many parts of the country, the community had built up a strong identity and local pride; the majority of men worked in the steel works, but a wide range of skills was represented within the town and a whole cross-section of society lived together in the town. Grangetown underwent a period of quite rapid expansion between 1914 and 1939. Both the steel companies and the local council built estates from Bolckow Road to and across the new A1085 Trunk Road; the population in 1939 was 9,000. After the war, council house building in the 1950s reached Fabian Road; the modern town has long since moved from its original location. Victorian terraced houses, nestled against the heavy industry along the River Tees have been replaced with the warehouses and depots of lighter industry.
Some new houses have been built over the years, but Grangetown has lost the popularity of its heyday of the earlier part of the 20th century. The local authority and Cleveland Council have embarked on the regeneration project named Greater Eston. Grangetown is part of Redcar constituency and is represented by Labour Member Anna Turley in the House of Commons, it is part of the North East England European Parliament constituency, where it is represented by two Labour MEPs and a UKIP MEP. In the 2015 local elections, the following members were returned to Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council: Eddie Latheron, Blackburn Rovers and England footballer William Henry Short V. C. footballer and Battle of the Somme VC recipient Horace King, Baron Maybray-King, former Labour Party MP and Speaker of the British House of Commons Wally K. Daly and radio writer Alan Keen, former Labour Party MP Roy'Chubby' Brown stand up comedian Eston Normanby Teesville Grangetown in Past Times Genuki - History of Eston parish & District Descriptions from Bulmer's History and Directory of North Yorkshire, retrieved 8 February 2006
Stanghow is a village in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The place name Stanghow is thought to derive from the Old Norse meaning Stong-how meaning pole hill. How or Howe, deriving from the Old Norse word haugr meaning a hill, is a common element in Yorkshire place name, it has won Britain in Bloom twice, in 2010 and 2012. Media related to Stanghow at Wikimedia Commons