West Yorkshire Metro
Metro is the passenger information brand used by the West Yorkshire Combined Authority in England. It was formed on 1 April 1974 as the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive at the same time as the metropolitan county of West Yorkshire; the Metro brand has been used from the outset, since the formal abolition of the WYPTE on 1 April 2014, it has been the public facing name of the organisation. The transport authority of West Yorkshire, responsible for setting transport policy, is the West Yorkshire Combined Authority; the WYCA is responsible for delivery of transport policies. Metro is a public transport brand of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority which is, through its transport committee, the transport authority for West Yorkshire, it replaced the West Yorkshire Integrated Transport Authority on 1 April 2014. The West Yorkshire County Council was the transport authority from 1 April 1974 until 1 April 1986, it was replaced by the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Authority, made up of elected councillors from the districts of West Yorkshire.
The West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Authority was renamed the West Yorkshire Integrated Transport Authority following the Local Transport Act 2008. The Metro brand was adopted in 1988. Buses are operated by private companies, with early morning, late evening and rural services supported by Metro. There is a special rural bus section, which promotes a combination of minor local links and major long distance routes. On 1 April 1974, the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive was created by merging the municipal bus fleets of Bradford City Transport, Leeds City Transport, Huddersfield Joint Omnibus Committee and Halifax Joint Omnibus Committee, which earlier in the 1970s swallowed up Todmorden Joint Omnibus Committee; the operation was divided into four districts and a new livery of cream and verona green replaced the Bradford light blue & cream, Huddersfield red & cream, Leeds two-tone green and Halifax & Calderdale orange, green & cream. Created following the Local Government Act 1972, the Executive had to operate within the policy guidelines of the County Council Public Transport Committee, coordinating the operation of all public transport in the county.
The Executive inherited 1,500 buses along with 6,000 staff and the associated garages and street furniture. The Executive relinquished ownership of local buses following the Transport Act 1985, creating arms-length operating companies, it continued to coordinate public transport as the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Authority when the metropolitan county was abolished in 1986. New buses were purchased in large numbers at the outset. In 1976 Baddeley Brothers of Holmfirth was purchased providing the PTE with additional coaching and stage-carriage duties. In 1980 the Baddeley Brothers business was disposed of, although the Metrocoach operation was retained. In 1976 modifications were made to the livery. There were three stripes at the sides of the destination box, which wrapped round to the sides and swept down; this took time to apply, a trial was made with one thin line. In 1977 the lines were removed and the green area at the skirting of was raised up, so there was more green; the other change was the fleet name to MetroBus in 1976, removing the district names.
On 25 April 1977, the PTE acquired the old-established Kinsley based United Services from WR & P Bingley. As well as providing the PTE with more coaching operations, this took it into an area of West Yorkshire where it had had no presence. United Services was maintained as a separate subsidiary and retained its distinctive blue livery, whilst a new livery of red & ivory was adopted for the PTE's coaches, which operated under the "Metrocoach" banner, with brown added for "Metrocoach Executive". Bingley's depot received double-deckers transferred from the Leeds District. In early 1981 a reorganisation of operating districts was implemented with the East District becoming responsible for the Leeds depots and United Services, whilst the West District took control of Bradford, Halifax and Huddersfield. Three new Leyland National 2s were acquired in blue livery. In July 1981, MetroBus and the National Bus Company formed a new integrated transport system known as the "Metro-National Transport Company Limited".
All PTE and NBC buses began to appear with a new emblem, which consisted of the MetroBus WY's in one box and the NBC "double N" or "N-blem" appearing in another to the right of the PTE emblem, lower. The boxes were linked to show the integration, they appeared with MetroBus fleetnames with "The easy way from here to there in West Yorkshire". The new "Metrobus" fleetname being applied not only to PTE owned vehicles on which WYPTE lettering was carried beneath the fleet name, but buses of NBC subsidiaries West Yorkshire Road Car Company, West Riding Automobile Company, Yorkshire Woollen Transport Company and Yorkshire Traction, carrying "West Yorkshire", "West Riding", "Yorkshire" and "Yorkshire Traction" names below the Metrobus name; some years some of those buses were repainted into the PTEs verona cream and buttermilk livery so as to present a corporate image. From this date the "WY" logo on the front of buses was replaced by the "Metro-National" emblem in mid-1983, to celebrate 100 years of public transport in Huddersfield, MetroBus paint two vehicles in old liveries: Leyland Atlanteans carried Huddersfield Corporation red livery and Huddersfield Corporation Tramways livery.
They became "Building on a Great Tradition" vehicles and were in those liveries until the late 1990s. Deregulation occurred on 2
Lockwood is an area of Huddersfield, in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England. It is 0.9 miles to the west of the River Holme. Lockwood was called North Crosland and part of the Crosland family estate. However, it was taken over by the Lockwood family after a series of disputes between the dynasties. Parts of the area are still known as North Crosland. Lockwood railway station is on the Penistone Line between Sheffield, it is situated in Swan Lane, just before the Grade II-listed, 32-arched Lockwood viaduct, which spans the valley and connects the line to Berry Brow. Prior to the mid-1970s it had its own extensive goods yard, coal yard and station master's house; the goods yards were used to service and supply raw materials to the former engineering works of David Brown Ltd. This particular division of David Brown's produced gearboxes for industrial machinery and hydraulic drives and some military armoured vehicles; the gear box that turns the top of the Post Office Tower in London was designed and built there, whilst the electric motors that drives the gearing were manufactured by Brook Motors, based in Brockholes.
A branch line from the station, just before the railway viaduct, went via Armitage Bridge and Netherton to Meltham. This passed Meltham Mills; the former station master's house is now a private residence and the goods yards are part of a timber merchant's. Lockwood is the manufacturing base of locally renowned Dixon's Milk Ices, housed in the former Lockwood Town Hall; the Huddersfield Rugby Union Football Club, at Lockwood Park, is situated below and to both sides of the railway viaduct, in the former'Bentley & Shaws' Brewery. Timothy Bentley, founder of'Bentley & Shaws' Lockwood Brewery, is recognised as the inventor of the Stone Square system of brewing beer; this method allowed high levels of carbon dioxide to remain in the beer during fermentation, helping to give it a unique flavour and smoothness when served. The stone used in the brewery came from stone quarries in Elland; the brewery was taken over by Bass Charrington. Virtual Huddersfield - Lockwood Huddersfield Rugby Union Club Picture of David Browns Works - Geograph.org
Bradley railway station
Bradley railway station served the district of Bradley, West Yorkshire, England until closure in 1950. Bradley station was opened in 1847 along with Huddersfield railway station, as the first section completed of the new Huddersfield and Manchester Railway. Huddersfield had been by-passed by the existing east-west route, the Manchester and Leeds Railway which had opened in 1839; that line instead had followed the gradients of the River Calder, which left Huddersfield to be served with a station at Cooper Bridge about four miles distant. The new line ran through the town itself, with Bradley station to the east of it, where the line divided to meet the existing Manchester and Leeds route in a triangular junction, allowing trains to continue on eastwards via Mirfield towards Dewsbury and Leeds, or westwards via Brighouse up the Calder valley; the Manchester and Leeds Railway had been involved with the Huddersfield and Manchester Railway. The LNWR still had to work together with the L&Y, however, as the LNWR depended on running powers over L&Y rails from Manchester Victoria to Stalybridge and between Bradley and Dewsbury, over the former Manchester and Leeds section of track.
The L&Y, in turn, used the LNWR track through Bradley to run trains onwards via Huddersfield onto a new line it constructed via Penistone, where it met the MS&LR line south via Barnsley to Sheffield. Additional nearby destinations opened up when the L&Y opened its Pickle Bridge Line in 1881 to Bradford via Clifton Road; these routes survived the 1923 amalgamation, when all became part of the London and Scottish Railway. However, under British Railways both were subsequently closed in the 1950s, Bradley station itself closed in 1950. However, the track through it remains an important link in the Huddersfield Line, since the year 2000 the Caldervale Line; this real station should not be confused with the fictional station featured in the TV series How We Used To Live, which served the fictional town of Bradley and was depicted as part of the LMS. Photo of Bradley station
Cooper Bridge railway station
Cooper Bridge was a railway station built by the Manchester and Leeds Railway to serve the town of Huddersfield in West Yorkshire, England. Opened by the Manchester and Leeds Railway in 1840 to serve Huddersfield, 4 miles away, which at that time did not have a station of its own; the station was said to have been built for and by, the owner of Kirklees Hall the Armytage family. Cooper Bridge station on navigable 1947 O. S. map
Kirklees is a local government district of West Yorkshire, governed by Kirklees Council with the status of a metropolitan borough. The largest town and administrative centre of Kirklees is Huddersfield, the district includes Batley, Cleckheaton, Denby Dale, Heckmondwike, Kirkburton, Meltham and Slaithwaite. Kirklees had a population of 422,500 in 2011 and is therefore the most populous borough in England, not a city; the borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972 as part of a reform of local government in England. Eleven former local government districts were merged: the county boroughs of Huddersfield and Dewsbury, the municipal boroughs of Batley and Spenborough and the urban districts of Colne Valley, Denby Dale, Holme Valley, Kirkburton and Mirfield; the name Kirklees was chosen by the merging councils from more than fifty suggestions, including Upper Agbrigg and Wooldale. It was named after Kirklees Priory, legendary burial place of Robin Hood, situated midway between Huddersfield and Dewsbury.
The priory was located within the present-day Kirklees Park estate, most of which lies in the neighbouring borough of Calderdale. The name Kirklees is made up of Lees meaning Meadows. Under the original draft of the Act, the district would have included Ossett, part of the Dewsbury Parliamentary constituency at that time, it was decided that Ossett was too remote to be governed from Huddersfield and the town was included within the Wakefield district instead. The principal settlements of Kirklees are mill towns in the Colne Valley, Holme Valley, Calder Valley and Spen Valley; those areas of the district with a more urban character bound Calderdale to the west, Bradford to the northwest, Leeds to the northeast and Wakefield to the east. The district includes several rural villages, with the largest rural area extending from the south of Huddersfield; the Pennine countryside to the southwest of Meltham and Holme lies within the Peak District National Park. This moorland area bounds Saddleworth, a traditional part of Yorkshire but now locally governed from Oldham, Greater Manchester.
There is a short border with the High Peak district of Derbyshire running across the summit of Black Hill, the main border to the south of Kirklees is with Barnsley. The inclusion of two county boroughs resulted in a district without an obvious centre. Over the years there have been suggestions of splitting the district into two, administered from Huddersfield and Dewsbury. Graham Riddick, as MP for Colne Valley, campaigned for a split in the early 1990s. A similar ambition was mentioned by Elizabeth Peacock, MP for Batley and Spen in 1991; the boundaries of metropolitan boroughs were outside the remit of the Banham Commission appointed to review local government structures in 1992 or its successors, only minor boundary changes were made with neighbouring districts in 1994. The district includes parts of three postcode areas. Huddersfield and the rural areas to the south have HD postcodes, Birkenshaw and Gomersal have BD postcodes, the rest of the Heavy Woollen area has WF postcodes; the district is split between several telephone dialling codes, with most residents in the 01484, 01274 and 01924 codes.
A small number of residents in Birchencliffe and Birkenshaw villages fall within the 01422 and 0113 codes respectively. The stated religion of the population of Kirklees, as recorded at the 2001 census of population was as follows: Christian 261,128 No religion 54,445 Muslim 39,312 Religion not stated 28,394 Sikh 2,726 Hindu 1,222 Other Religions 772 Buddhist 397 Jewish 171 Public transport information is provided by Metro, as is the case across West Yorkshire. Kirklees lies along the core Huddersfield Line of the TransPennine Express network, with services calling at Huddersfield and Dewsbury. Direct Grand Central services to London King's Cross call at Mirfield. Other railway stations in the district on these routes and on the Penistone Line have local Northern services; some towns in Kirklees have not been served by rail transport since the Beeching cuts. Most bus services in the Huddersfield area are operated by Yorkshire Tiger and First, most bus services in the Heavy Woollen area are operated by Arriva.
The urban areas of Kirklees are served by the M1 motorways. Parts of the local road network are considered to require improvement, such as the main route from Huddersfield to the southbound M1 which narrows as it passes through Flockton. Kirklees Council has developed a number of traffic-free cycle paths called Greenways in partnership with Sustrans. Tourism in Kirklees is based around the area's countryside and industrial heritage: Bagshaw Museum Castle Hill Colne Valley Museum Holmfirth, setting of long-running sitcom Last of the Summer Wine Kirklees Light Railway Kirklees Way, 72 miles circular walking route Marsden Moor Estate Oakwell Hall Standedge Tunnels and Visitor Centre Tolson MuseumKirklees Council closed Dewsbury Museum and Red House Museum at the end of 2016, claiming it could not afford to continue running them following cuts to its budget. Tourist information in Kirklees can be obtained from major libraries. Huddersfield Town play football in the Premier League as of the 2017-18 season.
They were the first English club to win three successive league titles. The birthplace of rugby league was at the George Huddersfield.
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase