United Kingdom enterprise law
United Kingdom enterprise law concerns the ownership and regulation of organisations producing goods and services in the UK, European and international economy. Private enterprises are incorporated under the Companies Act 2006, regulated by competition law and insolvency law, while one third of the workforce and half of the UK economy is in enterprises subject to special regulation. Enterprise law mediates the rights and duties of investors, workers and the public to ensure efficient production, deliver services that UK and international law sees as universal human rights. Labour, Company and insolvency law create a general rights for stakeholders, set a basic framework for enterprise governance, but rules of governance and insolvency are altered in specific enterprises to uphold the public interest, as well as civil and social rights. Universities and schools have traditionally been publicly established, regulated, to ensure universal education; the National Health Service was set up in 1946 to provide everyone free health care, regardless of class or income, paid for by progressive taxation.
The UK government controls monetary policy and regulates private banking through the publicly owned Bank of England, to complement its fiscal policy. Taxation and spending composes nearly half of total economic activity, but this has diminished since 1979. Since 1980, a large segment of UK enterprise was privatised, reducing public and citizen voice in their services among utilities. Since the Climate Change Act 2008, the modern UK economy has been powered by renewable energy, but still depends disproportionately on oil and coal. Energy governance is framed by statutes including the Petroleum Act 1998 and the Electricity Act 1989, which enable government to use its licensing powers to shift to a zero-carbon economy, phase out fossil fuels. Energy ratepayers have rights to adequate standards of supply, the right to participate in how their services are provided, overseen by the Oil and Gas Authority and Ofgem; the Water Industry Act 1991 regulates sewerage infrastructure, overseen by Ofwat. The Railways Act 1993, the Transport Act 1985 or the Road Traffic Act 1988, under the Office of Rail and Road, govern the majority of land transport.
Rail and bus passengers are entitled to adequate services, have limited rights to voice in management. A growing number of bus and water enterprises have been put back into public hands, while in London and Scotland, railways may be wholly publicly run. While, post and television were the major channels for communication and media in the 20th century, 21st century communications networks have converged on the internet. In social media networks, this has presented problems in ensuring standards of safety and fairness in online information and discourse. Like securities and other marketplaces, online networks dominated by multinational corporations, have received increased attention from regulators and legislators as they have become associated with political crisis. Early enterpriseAristotle, Roman law and the societas Otto von Gierke Magna Carta and Lex Mercatoria Sidney Webb House of Medici, Medici Bank, Pope Leo X, Pope Clement VII, Pope Leo XI Sir Thomas More and John Locke Bank of England South Sea CompanyIndustrial revolutionA Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Bk I, ch 8, Bk V, ch 1 §§69-129 JS Mill, Principles of Political Economy Book IV, ch VI and Book V, ch XI, §11 K Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy vol I, chs 13, 32 and 33 and vol III, ch 27 S Webb and B Webb, Industrial Democracy Part III, ch 2 and ch 4 S Webb and B Webb, The History of Trade Unionism Appendix VIII Port of London Act 1908 National Insurance Act 1911 Railways Act 1921Social democracyK Kautsky, The Labour Revolution ch III, VIII E Frankel, ‘The Status of “Socialization” in Germany’ 32 Journal of Political Economy 68 FD Roosevelt, Campaign Address on Progressive Government WA Robson, ‘The Public Corporation in Britain Today’ 63 Harvard Law Review 1321 Bank of England Act 1946 National Health Service Act 1946 Transport Act 1947 Electricity Act 1947 AA Berle, ‘Property and Revolution’ 65 Columbia Law Review 1-20Privatisation to todayGas Act 1986 AW Bradley and KD Ewing and Administrative Law ch 14 T Prosser, ‘Public Service Law: Privatization’s Unexpected Offspring’ 63 Law & Cont Probs 63 JR Commons, ‘The Webbs’ Constitution for the Socialist Commonwealth’ 11 Am Econ Rev 82 S Merlin, ‘Trends in German Economic Control since 1933’ 57 Quarterly Journal of Econ 169 H Hovenkamp and American Law, 1836-1937 B Black, R Kraakman and A Tarassova, ‘Russian Privatization and Corporate Governance: What Went Wrong?’ 52 Stanford Law Review 1731 M Florio, The great divestiture: evaluating the welfare impact of the British privatizations, 1979-1997 ch 1 While the 20th century had seen swings from nationalisation and re-privatisation, a general law of enterprise developed where private ownership and markets were thought to work by themselves.
On top of ordinary principles of commercial law, based on contract, property and trusts, five main fields of law settled the rights and duties of enterprise stakeholders. First, UK company law determines the constitution and finance of major corporations. Much of the Companies Act 2006 concerns the duties of company directors, the rights of members, who are registered as holding s
History of the automobile
Amit The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Periods were defined by trends in exterior styling and utility preferences. In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot. In 1808, François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen. In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine; the car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with a clutch and a brake; the four-stroke petrol internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto.
The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838; the battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859. In 1885, Karl Benz developed a gasoline powered automobile; this is considered to be the first "production" vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single cylinder four-stroke engine. In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles; the early history of the automobile was concentrated on the search for a reliable portable power unit to propel the vehicle. Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built a steam-powered vehicle around 1672 as a toy for the Chinese Emperor.
It was small-scale and could not carry a driver but it was, quite the first working steam-powered vehicle. Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to transport people and cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrated his fardier à vapeur, an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor, in 1770 and 1771; as Cugnot's design proved to be impractical, his invention was not developed in his native France. The center of innovation shifted to Great Britain. By 1784, William Murdoch had built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth and in 1801 Richard Trevithick was running a full-sized vehicle on the roads in Camborne; the first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789. During the 19th century attempts were made to introduce practical steam powered vehicles. Innovations such as hand brakes, multi-speed transmissions and better steering developed; some commercially successful vehicles provided mass transit until a backlash against these large vehicles resulted in the passage of legislation such as the United Kingdom Locomotive Act, which required many self-propelled vehicles on public roads to be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag and blowing a horn.
This halted road auto development in the UK for most of the rest of the 19th century. The law was not repealed until 1896, although the need for the red flag was removed in 1878. In 1816, a professor at Prague Polytechnic, Josef Bozek, built an oil-fired steam car. Walter Hancock and operator of London steam buses, in 1838 built a 2 seated car phaeton. In 1867, Canadian jeweller Henry Seth Taylor demonstrated his 4-wheeled "steam buggy" at the Stanstead Fair in Stanstead and again the following year; the basis of the buggy, which he began building in 1865, was a high-wheeled carriage with bracing to support a two-cylinder steam engine mounted on the floor. One of the first "real" automobiles was produced by Frenchman Amédée Bollée in 1873, who built self-propelled steam road vehicles to transport groups of passengers; the first carriage-sized automobile suitable for use on existing wagon roads in the United States was a steam-powered vehicle invented in 1871 by Dr. J. W. Carhart, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in Racine, Wisconsin.
It induced the State of Wisconsin in 1875 to offer a $10,000 award to the first to produce a practical substitute for the use of horses and other animals. They stipulated that the vehicle would have to maintain an average speed of more than 5 miles per hour over a 200-mile course; the offer led to the first city to city automobile race in the United States, starting on 16 July 1878 in Green Bay and ending in Madison, via Appleton, Waupun, Fort Atkinson, Janesville. While seven vehicles were registered, only two started to compete: the entries from Green Bay and Oshkosh; the vehicle from Green Bay broke down before completing the race. The Oshkosh finished the 201-mile course in 33 hours and 27 minutes, posted an average speed of six miles per hour. In 1879, the legislature awarded half the prize. Pre WWII Steam-powered road vehicles, both cars and wagons, reached the peak of their development in the early 1930s with fast-steaming lightweight boilers and efficient engine designs. Internal combustion engines developed during WWI, becoming simpler to operate and more reliable.
The development of the high-speed die
Bill of Rights 1689
The Bill of Rights known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that sets out certain basic civil rights and clarifies who would be next to inherit the Crown. It received the Royal Assent on 16 December 1689 and is a restatement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William III and Mary II in February 1689, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England; the Bill of Rights lays down limits on the powers of the monarch and sets out the rights of Parliament, including the requirement for regular parliaments, free elections, freedom of speech in Parliament. It sets out certain rights of individuals including the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment and reestablished the right of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law. Furthermore, the Bill of Rights condemned several misdeeds of James II of England; these ideas reflected those of the political thinker John Locke and they became popular in England.
It sets out – or, in the view of its drafters, restates – certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as represented in Parliament. In the United Kingdom, the Bill of Rights is further accompanied by Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Habeas Corpus Act 1679 and the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 as some of the basic documents of the uncodified British constitution. A separate but similar document, the Claim of Right Act 1689, applies in Scotland; the Bill of Rights 1689 was one of the inspirations for the United States Bill of Rights. Along with the Act of Settlement 1701, the Bill of Rights is still in effect in all Commonwealth realms. Following the Perth Agreement in 2011, legislation amending both of them came into effect across the Commonwealth realms on 26 March 2015. During the 17th century, there was renewed interest in Magna Carta; the Parliament of England passed the Petition of Right in 1628 which established certain liberties for subjects.
The English Civil War was fought between the King and an oligarchic but elected Parliament, during which the idea of a political party took form with groups debating rights to political representation during the Putney Debates of 1647. Subsequently, the Protectorate and the English Restoration restored more autocratic rule although Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act in 1679, which strengthened the convention that forbade detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence. Objecting to the policies of King James II of England, a group of English Parliamentarians invited the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau to overthrow the King. William's successful invasion with a Dutch fleet and army led to James fleeing to France. In December 1688, William took over the provisional government by appointment of the peers of the realm, as was the legal right of the latter in circumstances when the King was incapacitated, summoned an assembly of certain members of parliament; this assembly called for an English Convention Parliament to be elected, which convened on 22 January 1689.
The proposal to draw up a statement of rights and liberties and James's violation of them was first made on 29 January 1689 in the House of Commons, with members arguing that the House "cannot answer it to the nation or Prince of Orange till we declare what are the rights invaded" and that William "cannot take it ill if we make conditions to secure ourselves for the future" in order to "do justice to those who sent us hither". On 2 February a committee specially convened reported to the Commons 23 Heads of Grievances, which the Commons approved and added some of their own. However, on 4 February the Commons decided to instruct the committee to differentiate between "such of the general heads, as are introductory of new laws, from those that are declaratory of ancient rights". On 7 February the Commons approved this revised Declaration of Right, on 8 February instructed the committee to put into a single text the Declaration, the resolution of 28 January and the Lords' proposal for a revised oath of allegiance.
It passed the Commons without division. On 13 February the clerk of the House of Lords read the Declaration of Right, the Marquess of Halifax, in the name of all the estates of the realm, asked William and Mary to accept the throne. William replied for his wife and himself: "We thankfully accept what you have offered us", they went in procession to the great gate at Whitehall. The Garter King at Arms proclaimed them King and Queen of England and Ireland, whereupon they adjourned to the Chapel Royal, with the Bishop of London preaching the sermon, they were crowned on 11 April. The Coronation Oath Act 1688 had provided a new coronation oath, whereby the monarchs were to "solemnly promise and swear to govern the people of this kingdom of England, the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the statutes in parliament agreed on, the laws and customs of the same", they were to maintain the laws of God, the true profession of the Gospel, the Protestant Reformed faith established by law. This replaced an oath.
The previous oath required the monarch to rule based on "the laws and customs... granted by the Kings of England". The Declaration of Right was enacted in an Act of Parliament, the Bill of Rights 1689, which received the Royal Assent in December 1689; the Act asserted "certain ancient rights and liberties" by declaring that: the pretended power of suspending the laws and dispensing with laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal.
A steam car is a car propelled by a steam engine. A steam engine is an external combustion engine in which the fuel is combusted outside of the engine, unlike an internal combustion engine in which fuel is combusted inside the engine. ECEs have a lower thermal efficiency, but carbon monoxide production is more regulated; the first steam-powered vehicle was built in 1672 by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish Jesuit in China. The vehicle was a toy for the Chinese Emperor. While not intended to carry passengers, therefore not a "car", Verbiest's device is to be the first engine-powered vehicle; the first experimental steam-powered cars were built in the late 18th and 19th centuries, not until after Richard Trevithick had developed the use of high-pressure steam around 1800, that mobile steam engines became a practical proposition. By the 1850s it was viable to produce them commercially: steam road vehicles were used for many applications. Development was hampered by adverse legislation from the 1830s and the rapid development of internal combustion engine technology in the 1900s, leading to their commercial demise.
Few steam-powered vehicles remained in use after the Second World War. Many of these vehicles were acquired by enthusiasts for preservation; the search for renewable energy sources has led to an occasional resurgence of interest in using steam power for road vehicles. A steam engine is an external combustion engine, as opposed to an internal combustion engine. While gasoline-powered ICE cars have an operational thermal efficiency of 15% to 30%, early automotive steam units were capable of only about half this efficiency. A significant benefit of the ECE is that the fuel burner can be configured for low emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburned carbon in the exhaust, thus avoiding pollution; the greatest technical challenges to the steam car have focused on its boiler. This represents much of the total mass of the vehicle, making the car heavy, requires careful attention from the driver, although the cars of 1900 had considerable automation to manage this; the single largest restriction is the need to supply feedwater to the boiler.
This must either be carried and replenished, or the car must be fitted with a condenser, a further weight and inconvenience. Steam-powered and electric cars outsold gasoline-powered cars in the US prior to the invention of the electric starter, since internal combustion cars relied on a hand crank to start the engine, difficult and dangerous to use, as improper cranking could cause a backfire capable of breaking the arm of the operator. Electric cars were popular to some extent, but had a short range, could not be charged on the road if the batteries ran low. Once working pressure was attained, early steam cars could be driven off with high acceleration. To overcome this, development has been directed toward flash boilers, which heat a much smaller quantity of water to get the vehicle started, in the case of Doble cars, spark ignition diesel burners; the steam car does have advantages over internal combustion-powered cars, although most of these are now less important than in the early 20th century.
The engine is lighter than an internal combustion engine. It is better-suited to the speed and torque characteristics of the axle, thus avoiding the need for the heavy and complex transmission required for an internal combustion engine; the steam car is quieter without a silencer. A French inventor, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, built the first working self-propelled land-based mechanical vehicle. There is an unsubstantiated story that a pair of Yorkshiremen, engineer Robert Fourness and his cousin, physician James Ashworth had a steam carriage running in 1788, after being granted a British Patent, No.1674 of December 1788. An illustration of it appeared in Hergé's book Tintin raconte l'Histoire de l'Automobile; the first substantiated steam carriage for personal use was that of Josef Božek in 1815. He was followed by Thomas Blanchard of Massachusetts in 1825. Over thirty years passed before there was a flurry of steam cars from 1857 onwards with Dugeon and Spenser from the United States, Thomes Rickett, Austin and Ayres from England, Innocenzo Manzetti from Italy, Elijah Leonard of London, Canada being the earliest.
Others followed with Amédée Bollée and Louis Lejeune of France in 1878, Rene Thury of Switzerland in 1879. The 1880s saw the rise of the first larger scale manufacturers in France, the first being Bollée followed by De Dion-Bouton, Whitney of East Boston, Ransom E. Olds and Peugeot; this early period saw the first repossession of an automobile in 1867 and the first getaway car the same year - both by Francis Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts. The 1890s were dominated by the formation of numerous car manufacturing companies; the internal combustion engine was in its infancy. Electric powered cars were becoming available but suffered from their inability to travel longer distances; the majority of steam powered car manufacturers from this period were from the United States. The more notable of these were Clark from 1895 to 1909, Locomobile from 1899 to 1903 when it switched to gasoline engines, Stanley from 1897 to 1924; as well as England and France, other countries made attempts to manufacture steam cars
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but during the 18th and 19th centuries. At the peak, in the 1830s, over 1,000 trusts administered around 30,000 miles of turnpike road in England and Wales, taking tolls at 8,000 toll-gates and side-bars. During the early 19th century the concept of the turnpike trust was adopted and adapted to manage roads within the British Empire and in the United States. Turnpikes declined with the coming of the railways and the Local Government Act 1888 gave responsibility for maintaining main roads to county councils and county borough councils; the term "turnpike" originates from the similarity of the gate used to control access to the road, to the barriers once used to defend against attack by cavalry. The turnpike consisted of a row of pikes or bars, each sharpened at one end, attached to horizontal members which were secured at one end to an upright pole or axle, which could be rotated to open or close the gate.
Pavage grants made for paving the marketplace or streets of towns, began to be used for maintaining some roads between towns in the 14th century. These grants were made by letters patent invariably for a limited term the time to be required to pay for the required works. Tudor statutes had placed responsibility on each parish vestry to maintain all its roads; this arrangement was adequate for roads that the parishioners used themselves but proved unsatisfactory for the principal highways that were used by long-distance travellers and waggoners. During the late 17th century, the piecemeal approach to road maintenance caused acute problems on the main routes into London; as trade increased, the growing numbers of heavy carts and carriages led to serious deterioration in the state of these roads and this could not be remedied by the use of parish statute labour. A parliamentary bill was tabled in 1621/22 to relieve the parishes responsible for part of the Great North Road by imposing a scale of tolls on various sorts of traffic.
The toll revenue was to be used in repairing the road, the bill was defeated. During the following forty years, the idea of making travellers contribute to the repair of roads was raised on several occasions. Many parishes continued to struggle to find funds to repair major roads and in Hertfordshire way wardens on behalf of the vestries stood frequent trial at quarter sessions for their failure to keep the Old North Road in a good state of repair. In 1656 the parish of Radwell, Hertfordshire petitioned their local sessions for help to maintain their section of the Great North Road; as a result judges on the Hertfordshire and Huntingdonshire circuit represented the matter to Parliament. It passed an act that gave the local justices of the peace powers to erect toll-gates on a section of the road, between Wadesmill, Hertfordshire; the toll-gate erected at Wadesmill was the prototype in England. Parliament gave similar powers to the justices in other counties in England and Wales. An example is the first Turnpike Act for Surrey in 1696, during the reign of William III for enhanced repairs between Reigate in Surrey and Crawley in Sussex.
The act made provision to erect turnpikes, appoint toll collectors. The first scheme that had trustees who were not justices was established through a Turnpike Act in 1707, for a section of the London-Chester road between Fornhill and Stony Stratford; the basic principle was that the trustees would manage resources from the several parishes through which the highway passed, augment this with tolls from users from outside the parishes and apply the whole to the maintenance of the main highway. This became the pattern for the turnpiking of a growing number of highways, sought by those who wished to improve flow of commerce through their part of a county; the proposal to turnpike a particular section of road was a local initiative and a separate Act of Parliament was required to create each trust. The Act gave the trustees responsibility for maintaining a specified part of the existing highway, it provided them with powers to achieve this. Local gentlemen and merchants were nominated as trustees and they appointed a clerk, a treasurer and a surveyor to administer and maintain the highway.
These officers were paid by the trust. Trustees were not paid, though they derived indirect benefits from the better transport, which improved access to markets and led to increases in rental income and trade; the first action of a new trust was to erect turnpike gates. The Act gave a maximum toll allowable for each class of vehicle or animal – for instance one shilling and six pence for a coach pulled by four horses, a penny for an unladen horse and ten pence for a drove of 20 cows; the trustees could call on a portion of the statute duty from the parishes, either as labour or by a cash payment. The trust applied the income to pay for labour and materials to maintain the road, they were able to mortgage future tolls to raise loans for new structures and for more substantial improvements to the existing highway. The trusts applied some funds to erecting tollhouses that accommodated the pikeman or toll-collector beside the tu
History of rail transport in Great Britain 1830–1922
The history of rail transport in Great Britain 1830–1922 covers the period between the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the Grouping, the amalgamation of all of Britain's many railway companies into the Big Four by the Railways Act 1921. As Manchester had grown on cotton spinning, so Leeds had a growing trade in weaving; the Pennines restricted canal development, so the railway provided a realistic alternative with the growth in coal usage from the mines in the North East and Yorkshire. A number of lines were approved in the area, such as the Leeds and Selby Railway, in 1830, which would link the former to the port of Hull, via the River Ouse. While the L&MR had not ousted the Lancashire canal system from the transport of goods, there was an unexpected enthusiasm for passenger travel; the financial success of these lines was beyond all expectations and interests in London and Birmingham soon planned to build lines linking these cities together and with Liverpool and Manchester via the L&MR.
These two lines were the London and Birmingham, designed by Robert Stephenson, which ran from Euston Square, London, to Curzon Street and the Grand Junction, engineered by Joseph Locke, which ran from Curzon Street to an end-on junction with the Warrington and Newton Line, a branch of the L&MR, at Dallam, near Warrington in Cheshire. The Grand Junction was designed to link the existing L&MR and the new L&BR. Although Acts of Parliament allowed railway companies compulsory purchase of wayleave, some powerful landowners objected to railways being built across their land and raised objections in Parliament to prevent the bill from being passed; some landowners charged excessive amounts, so these early lines did not always follow the optimal route. In addition steep gradients were to be avoided, (while speeds were expected to be less than about 30 mph, curves were considered less of a problem, it was the curves on these early lines that, a century would lead to British Railways' experimentation with, introduction of, tilting trains.
Although the Government was in favour of the development of trunk railways to stimulate economic recovery and to facilitate the movement of troops in times of potential civil unrest, it was necessary that each line be authorised by a separate Act of Parliament. While there were entrepreneurs with the vision of an intercity network of lines, such as those through the East Midlands, it was much easier to find investors to back shorter stretches that were defined in purpose, where rapid returns on investment could be predicted; the boom years were 1836 and 1845–47, when Parliament authorized 8,000 miles of lines at a projected cost of £200 million, about the same value as the country’s annual Gross Domestic Product at that time. A new railway needed an Act of Parliament, which cost over £200,000 to obtain, but opposition could prevent its construction; the canal companies, unable or unwilling to upgrade their facilities to compete with railways, used political power to try to stop them. The railways responded by purchasing about a fourth of the canal system, in part to get the right of way, in part to buy off critics.
Once an Act was obtained, there was little government regulation, as laissez faire and private ownership had become accepted practices. The railways had exclusive territory, but given the compact size of Britain, this meant that two or more competing lines could connect major cities. George Hudson became the most important railway promoter of his time. Called the "railway king" of Britain, Hudson amalgamated numerous short lines and set up a "Clearing House" in 1842 which rationalized the service by providing uniform paperwork and standardized methods for apportioning fares while transferring passengers and freight between lines, loaning out freight cars, he could design complex company and line amalgamations and his activities helped to bring about the beginnings of a more modern railway network. In 1849 he exercised effective control over nearly 30% of the rail track operating in Britain, most of it owned by four railway groups, the Eastern Counties Railway, the Midland, the York and Berwick, the York and North Midland, before a series of scandalous revelations forced him out of office.
The economic and accounting literatures have treated Hudson as an important figure in railway history, although concentrating on the financial reporting malpractices of the Eastern Counties Railway, while Hudson was its chairman, which were incorporated into the influential Monteagle Committee Report of 1849. He did away with accountants and manipulated funds—paying large dividends out of capital because profits were quite low, but no one knew that until his system collapsed. All the railways were promoted by commercial interests; this led to a speculative frenzy, following a common pattern: as the price of railway shares increased and more money was poured in by speculators, until the inevitable collapse in price. It reached its zenith in 1846, when no fewer than 272 Acts of Parliament setting up new railway companies were passed. Unlike most stock market bubbles, there was a net tangible result from all the investment in the form of a vast expansion of the British railway system, though at an inflated cost.
When the government stepped in and announced closure for depositing schemes, the period of "Railway Mania", as it was called, was brought to an