It is divided into 4 areas:
It is divided into 4 areas:
1. Calabria – Calabria, known in antiquity as Bruttium and formerly as Italia, is a region in Southern Italy and forms the traditionally conceptualized toe of the Italian Peninsula which resembles a boot. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro and its most populated city, and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria, is Reggio Calabria in the Province of Reggio Calabria. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, the region covers 15,080 km2 and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria in English is Calabrian, in ancient times Calabria was referred to as Italy. The Romans later extended the name to cover Southern Italy and then the entire peninsula, the region is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for 248 km, with a maximum width of 110 km. Some 42% of Calabrias area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly and it is surrounded by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas. It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only 3.2 km, three mountain ranges are present, Pollino, La Sila and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna, the Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast and these mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety, and are included in the Pollino National Park. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches 1,928 metres, the area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests. La Sila also has some of the tallest trees in Italy which are called the Giants of the Sila, the Sila National Park is also known to have the purest air in Europe. The Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides and this unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres, and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea. In general, most of the terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries. The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards, the Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech. Calabrias climate is influenced by the sea and mountains, mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with frequent snow during winter. Erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea can bring heavy rainfall on the slopes of the region, while hot air from Africa makes the east coast of Calabria dry. The mountains that run along the region also influence the climate, the east coast is much warmer and has wider temperature ranges than the west coastCalabria – View of Calabria from satellite
2. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
3. Locri – Locri is a town and comune in the province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy. The name derives from the ancient Greek town Locris and its Latin name, Locri, is the plural of the Latin Locrus, which was used both to mean an inhabitant of Locris and the eponymous ancestor of the Locrians. Strabo suggests that it was the Ozolae who were the main founders, due to fierce winds at an original settlement, the settlers moved to the present site. After a century, a wall was built. Outside the city there are several necropoleis, some of which are very large, epizephyrian Locris was one of the cities of Magna Graecia. Its renowned lawgiver Zaleucus decreed that anyone who proposed a change in the laws should do so with a noose about their neck, plato called it The flower of Italy, due to the local peoples characteristics. Locris was the site of two sanctuaries, that of Persephone — here worshipped as the protector of fertile marriage —. In the early centuries Locris was allied with Sparta, and later with Syracuse and it founded two colonies of its own, Hipponion and Medma. During the Pyrrhic Wars fought between Pyrrhus of Epirus and Rome, Locris accepted a Roman garrison and fought against the Epirote king, however, the city changed sides numerous times during the war. Bronze tablets from the treasury of its Olympeum, a temple to Zeus, record payments to a king, despite this, Pyrrhus plundered the temple of Persephone at Locris before his return to Epirus, an event which would live on in the memory of the Greeks of Italy. The city was abandoned in the fifth century AD, the town was finally destroyed by the Saracens in 915. The survivors fled inland about 10 kilometres to the town Gerace on the slopes of the Aspromonte, after 1850 Gerace developed along the coast, forming a new centre Gerace Marina, to house new public buildings and a railway station. In 1934 it changed its name in Locri, which is now the centre of the Locride area. Since the twentieth century, Locri, became an important administrative, in Locri there are several private and public schools, Elementary, HighSchool, Liceum, Professional Schools. In Locri there are national offices as the criminal and civil court, the bishops office, banks, the State Archives, the tax office, the home district. In Locri there is the most important Hospital of the area, in the first half of the fifth century BC, the Locrians demolished their archaic temple and rebuilt a new temple in the Ionic style. The temple was designed by Syracusan architects around 470 BC, based on the idea of Hiero I of Syracuse, the new temple occupies the same place as the previous one but it has a different orientation. The temple was destroyed in the 11th century, the dimensions of the temple were 45.5 by 19.8 metresLocri – Pinax from Locris: Persephone and Hades sitting on the throne
4. Province of Reggio Calabria – The Province of Reggio Calabria is a province in the Calabria region of Italy. It is the southernmost province in mainland Italy and is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina, the Aspromonte massif dominates the western part, and with its long coastline, the province is a popular tourist destination during the summer. The capital is the city of Reggio and it will be effectively replaced by the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria starting from 2018. The province of Reggio Calabria is located at the southern tip of mainland Italy. To the west lies the Tyrrhenian Sea and to the south, the land borders are short, to the northeast lies the province of Catanzaro and to the northwest, the province of Vibo Valentia. Across the Strait of Messina, some 3 kilometres to the southwest, the province can be divided into three types of terrain. Near the west it is mountainous, with the Aspromonte massif being formed of overlapping terraces of gneiss, the highest point is 1,956 m and this area is part of the Aspromonte National Park. From the mountains flow many, often seasonal, creeks and rivers, the largest being the Amendolea, the Ancient Greeks built a town Rhegion at the site of present-day Reggio, a strategic site beside the Strait of Messina. The towns Museo Nazionale houses two statues, the Riace bronzes, recovered from the sea at Riace some 50 miles to the east. By the third century BC, the Greeks were conquered by tribes from the north and they established their sovereignty over present day Calabria and founded new cities, including their own capital Consentia, now known as Cosenza. After their victory in the Pyrrhic War, Rome occupied Calabria, the town of Reggio and other parts of the province, as well as Messina and neighbouring parts of Sicily, were devastated by the 1908 Messina earthquake. This was followed by a series of tsunamis that wreaked further damage, in the 1950s there was a mass migration of rural people from Reggio Calabria and other provinces in southern Italy to the cities of Rome, Milan and particularly Turin in the north. They were driven by poverty, the soils of the region. Between 1969 and 1973, southern Italy suffered from urban unrest due to the lack of employment possibilities and poor living conditions, in 1970, Catanzaro was chosen as the location for a new regional government. Catanzaro and Reggio Calabria were among the poorest cities in southern Italy, strikes and demonstrations occurred and went on for more than a year, and were sometimes put down brutally by the police. The railway service from Sicily was disrupted, the airport, post offices and TV station were occupied at different times, three people were killed, more than two hundred wounded and over four hundred were charged with public-order offences. The Italian government responded to this by confirming Catanzaro as the regional capital but arranging for the regional assembly to be held at Reggio. A new port and steel works were announced at Gioia Tauro, to employment in the area, but before the steel works was completed, the price of steel collapsedProvince of Reggio Calabria – A village on the Aspromonte massif
5. Locris – Locris was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of three distinct districts. The city of Locri in Calabria, also known in antiquity as Epizephyrian Locris, was a founded by the Locrians in Magna Graecia. There is some disagreement over whether it was those from Opuntian Locris or from Ozolian Locris who were responsible, the territory of the Locrians was divided into three by Doris and Phocis, perhaps due to an early invasion of a contiguous Locrian state. This fact, combined with the regions infertility, meant that the Locrians tended to be dominated by their neighbours, to the south-west of Phocis was Ozolian Locris, situated on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, between Naupactus and Crisa. The main cities of Ozolian Locris were Amphissa and Naupactus which was its seaport, to the north east of Phocis was Opuntian Locris, named after its main city, Opus. Finally, to the north of Phocis was Epicnemidian Locris, situated near the pass of Thermopylae, the territories of the Opuntian Locri and the Epicnemidian Locri were not a continuous unit but were separated from one another by Phocis The main towns of Ozolian Locris were Amphissa and Naupactus. Today, the area is part of Aetolia-Acarnania and Phocis, the main towns of Opuntia Locris were Opus and Larymna. Today, Opuntian Locris is part of modern Phthiotis, main article, Epicnemidian Locris The main towns of Epicnemidian Locris were Nicaea and Thronium. Today, Epicnemidian Locris is part of modern Phthiotis, the province of Locris was one of the provinces of the Phthiotis Prefecture. Its capital was the town Atalanti and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Amfikleia-Elateia, Lokroi, and Molos-Agios KonstantinosLocris – The mountains of Ozolian Locris, looking towards Naupactus, engraving.
6. Vallata dello Stilaro – The Vallata dello Stilaro is a valley in the Province of Reggio Calabria of Southern Italy. It takes its name from river that flow in the area, the principal settlements present in the valley are Bivongi, Monasterace, Pazzano and Stilo. The Ecomuseo delle ferriere e fonderie di Calabria, preserves and promotes the natural, artistic, Kaulon trades with inland indigenous people that mined minerals. They coined money with local silver, for its sources Kaulon was desired by Locri and Kroton colonies. In the first half of the 4th century BC, the Stilaro river was the site of an important battle between Dionisio I and Lega italiota made up by a group of colonies of Magna Grecia. After that, the region was conquered by Romans, who mined copper and created a colonial penalty for damnata ad metalla and deforesting the valley for wood. The Casale of Stilo grew in importance and incorporated Pazzano, Stignano, Guardavalle, Riace, on 15 July 982 AD, there was a battle between Ottone II and a Byzantine/Arab alliance which won. In this Norman period the valley turn to Catholicism, and the Hermit of Monte Stella is turned in a dedicated to Mary. A statue was located in the cave, at the end of 16th century there was an increase in mining at the Complesso siderurgico dellAssi. During the Kingdom of Italy, in 1875 two railways came to the area, in 1881,200,000 ducati was spent to build a new route to link the Ionian Sea with the Tyrrhenian Sea that cross the Valley of Stilaro and Serre mountains. In 1922 and 1923 two small power plants were built in Bivongi. On 9 July 1940, during the Second World War, near Punta Stilo the Battle of Punta Stilo between the Italian and British navy took place, in 2012 was announced the discovery of a pretended paleolithic settlement in Boario locality at Stilo. Locride Stilaro Ecomuseo delle ferriere e fonderie di Calabria Media related to Vallata dello Stilaro Allaro at Wikimedia Commons Video Vallata dello StilaroVallata dello Stilaro – Vallata dello Stilaro Landscape from Monte Consolino