The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Mehrauli is a neighbourhood in the South West district of Delhi in India. It represents a constituency in the legislative assembly of Delhi; the area is located close to next to Vasant Kunj. Naresh Yadav of Aam Aadmi Party is the current MLA from Mehrauli. Mehrauli is one of the seven ancient cities. Mehrauli is derived from a Sanskrit word Mihira-awali, it signifies the town- ship where the well known astronomer Varaha-Mihira of Vikramaditya’s court lived along with his helpers and technicians. The Lal Kot fort was constructed by the Tanwar chief Anangpal I around 731 AD and expanded by AnangPal II in the 11th century, who shifted his capital to Lal Kot from Kannaujs The Tanwars were defeated by the Chauhans in the 12th century. Prithviraj Chauhan further called it Qila Rai Pithora, he was defeated and killed in 1192 by Mohammed Ghori, who put his general Qutb-ud-din Aybak in charge and returned to Afghanistan. Subsequently in 1206, after the death of Mohammed Ghori, Qutubuddin enthroned himself as the first Sultan of Delhi.
Thus Delhi became the capital of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi, the first dynasty of Muslim sultans to rule over northern India. Mehrauli remained the capital of the Mamluk dynasty which ruled until 1290. During the Khalji dynasty, the capital shifted to Siri. TheAHBasicCompany In 12th-century Jain scriptures, the location is mentioned as Yogninipura, now noticeable by the presence of the "Yogmaya Temple", near the Qutub Minar complex, believed to have been built by the Pandavas. Martyr Place of Great Sikh Saint-Soldier Baba Banda Singh Bahadur. Mehrauli lies in the South district of Delhi at 28°30′57″N 77°10′39″E. To its north lies Malviya Nagar. Vasant Kunj lies to Tughlakabad to its south. Like the rest of Delhi, Mehrauli has a semi-arid climate with high variation between summer and winter temperatures. While the summer temperatures may go up to 46 °C, the winters can seem freezing to people used to a warm climate with near 0 °C; the soil of Mehrauli consists of sandy loam to loam texture. The water level has gone down in the recent past hovering between 45 m to 50 m due to rise in population.
Though Mehrauli is like any ordinary neighbourhood today, its past is what distinguishes it in terms of architecture. Ahinsa Sthal is a Jain temple located in Delhi; the main deity of the temple is Mahavira, the 24th and last Tirthankara of a present half cycle of time. A magnificent statue of Tirthankara Mahāvīra is installed here. Though the capital shifted from Mehrauli after the Slave dynasty rule came to an end, many other dynasties contributed to Mehrauli's architecture; the most visible piece of architecture remains the, initiated by Qutub ud din Aybak with subsequent additions by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji. The Qutb complex is today a UNESCO world heritage site, the venue for the annual Qutub Festival. There are several pillars of temples adjacent to Qutb Minar. Mausoleum of a 13th century, Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki is situated near the Qutub Minar Complex and the venue for the annual Phoolwalon-ki-sair Festival; the dargah complex houses graves of Mughal emperors, Bahadur Shah I, Shah Alam II, Akbar II, in an adjacent marble enclosure.
To the left of the dargah, lies Moti Masjid, a small mosque, built for private prayer by the son of Aurangzeb, Bahadur Shah I. Balban's tomb belonging to Balban, Slave dynasty ruler of Delhi Sultanate was constructed here in the 13th century can still be seen though in a dilapidated condition; the architecturally important structure as it is the first true arch in Indo-Islamic architecture, Another tomb, that of Balban's son, Khan Shahid, who died before he could be crowned, is located nearby in Mehrauli Archeological Park. A baoli or stepwell known as Rajon Ki Baoli was constructed in 1506 during Sikandar Lodhi's reign, it was used to store water though it is now dried and is now known as Sukhi Baoli. The Jamali Kamali mosque was built in 1528, in honour of the Sufi saint Shaikh Hamid bin Fazlullah known as Dervish Shaikh Jamali Kamboh Dihlawi or Jalal Khan; the saint's tomb built in 1536 upon his death is adjacent to the mosque. The Adham Khan's Tomb was constructed by Emperor Akbar in memory of his foster brother and general Adham Khan in 1566.
The tomb known as Bhulbhulaiyan, as one could get lost in the labyrinth of its passages, it was used by the British as a residence, rest house and as a police station. Close to Adham Khan's tomb, lies that of another Mughal General, Muhammad Quli Khan it served as the residence of Sir Thomas Metcalfe, Governor-General’s Agent at the Mughal court; the Mehrauli Archaeological Park spread over 200 acres, adjacent to Qutb Minar site was redeveloped in 1997. In the 2013 Delhi Assembly Elections, Parvesh Verma of BJP was elected as the MLA of Mehrauli, he succeeded Yoganand Shastri, former Delhi Assembly Speaker affiliated to the Indian National Congress Mehrauli Assembly Constituency comprises four municipal wards, ward 169 Lado Sarai, ward 170 Mehrauli, ward 171 Vasant Kunj and ward 172 Kishangarh. All four wards are represented by women councillors in the Municipal Corporation. St. John's School Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Memorial School Lareesa Public School I. G. Delhi Public School Saraswati Bal Vidya Mandir Ramanujan Sarvodiya Kanya Vidalaya Government Boys' Senior Secondary School-2 Government Boys' Senior Secondary School-3 Suryathan Play School Concealed in a black polythene bag, a bomb was dropped by two unidentified persons riding a motorcycle In Sarai Electronic Market in New Delhi on September 27, 2008.
A fortnight after th
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Research and Analysis Wing
The Research and Analysis Wing is the foreign intelligence agency of India. It was established in 1968 following the intelligence failures of the Sino-Indian War, which persuaded the Government of India to create a specialised, independent agency dedicated to foreign intelligence gathering. During the nine-year tenure of its first Director, Rameshwar Nath Kao, R&AW came to prominence in the global intelligence community, playing a role in major events such as the independence of Bangladesh and the accession of the state of Sikkim to India; the agency's primary function is gathering foreign intelligence, engaging in counter-terrorism, promoting counter-proliferation, advising Indian policymakers, advancing India's foreign strategic interests. It is involved in the security of India's nuclear programme. Many foreign analysts consider the R&AW to be an effective organisation and identify it as one of the primary instruments of India's national power. Headquartered in New Delhi, R&AW's current chief is Anil Dhasmana.
The head of RAW is designated Secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat, is under the direct command of the Prime Minister, reports on an administrative basis to the Cabinet Secretary of India, who reports to the Prime Minister. Prior to the inception of the Research and Analysis Wing, overseas intelligence collection was the responsibility of the Intelligence Bureau, created by the British. In 1933, sensing the political turmoil in the world which led to the Second World War, the Intelligence Bureau's responsibilities were increased to include the collection of intelligence along India's borders. In 1947, after independence, Sanjeevi Pillai took over as the first Indian Director of the IB. Having been depleted of trained manpower by the exit of the British, Pillai tried to run the bureau on MI5 lines. In 1949, Pillai organised a small foreign intelligence operation, but the Indian debacle in the Sino-Indian War of 1962 showed it to be ineffective. Foreign intelligence failure during the 1962 Sino-Indian War led then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to order a dedicated foreign intelligence agency to be established.
After the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, the Chief of Army Staff, General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri called for more intelligence-gathering. Around the end of 1966 the concept of a separate foreign intelligence agency began to take concrete shape; the Indira Gandhi administration decided. R. N. Kao a deputy director of the Intelligence Bureau, submitted a blueprint for the new agency. Kao was appointed as the chief of India's first foreign intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing; the R&AW was given the responsibility for strategic external intelligence, human as well as technical, plus concurrent responsibility with the Directorate-General of Military Intelligence for tactical trans-border military intelligence up to a certain depth across the Line of control and the international border. R&AW started as a wing of the main Intelligence Bureau with 250 employees and an annual budget of ₹20 million. In the early seventies, its annual budget had risen to ₹300 million while its personnel numbered several thousand.
In 1971, Kao had persuaded the Government to set up the Aviation Research Centre. The ARC's job was aerial reconnaissance, it replaced the Indian Air Force's old reconnaissance aircraft, by the mid-1970s, R&AW, through the ARC, had high quality aerial pictures of the installations along the Chinese and Pakistani borders. In 2007, the budget of R&AW is speculated to be as high as US$450 million to as low as US$100 million. Other child agencies such as The Radio Research Center and Electronics & Tech. Services were added to R&AW in the 1990s. In the 1970s, the Special Frontier Force moved to R&AW's control. In 1977, R&AW's operations and staff were cut under the premiership of Morarji Desai, which hurt the organization's capabilities with the shutting of entire sections of R&AW, like its Information Division; these cuts were reduced following Gandhi's return. In 2004 Government of India added yet another signal intelligence agency called the National Technical Facilities Organisation, renamed as National Technical Research Organisation.
While the exact nature of the operations conducted by NTRO is classified, it is believed that it deals with research on imagery and communications using various platforms. The Joint Intelligence Committee, under the Cabinet Secretariat, is responsible for coordinating and analysing intelligence activities between R&AW, the Intelligence Bureau and the Defence Intelligence Agency. In practice, the effectiveness of the JIC has been varied. With the establishment of the National Security Council in 1999, the role of the JIC has been merged with the NSC. R&AW's legal status is unusual, in that it is not an "Agency", but a "Wing" of the Cabinet Secretariat. Hence, R&AW is not answerable to the Parliament of India on any issue, which keeps it out of reach of the Right to Information Act; this exemption was granted through Section 24 read with Schedule II of the act. However, information regarding the allegations of corruption and human rights violations has to be disclosed; the present R&AW objectives include: Monitoring the political, military and scientific developments in countries which have a direct bearing on India's national security and the formulation of its foreign policy.
Moulding international public opinion and influence foreign governments with the help of the strong and vibrant In
Tomb of Safdar Jang
Safdarjung's Tomb is a sandstone and marble mausoleum in Delhi, India. It was built in 1754 in the late Mughal Empire style for Nawab Safdarjung; the monument has an ambience of spaciousness and an imposing presence with its domed and arched red brown and white coloured structures. Safdarjung, Nawab of Oudh, was made prime minister of the Mughal Empire when Ahmed Shah Bahadur ascended the throne in 1748; the tomb is located near the Safdarjung Airport at the T junction of Lodhi Road and Aurobindo Marg in New Delhi. The structure was constructed in 1754 in the late Mughal Empire style Safdarjung. Mirza Muqim Abul Mansur Khan, popularly known as Safadarjung, who ruled over Awadh was an independent ruler of Awadh as viceroy of Muhammad Shah, he was rich and most powerful. With the death of Emperor Muhammad Shah of Mughal Empire, he moved to Delhi; when Mohammed Shah Ahmed Shah ascended the throne of the Mughal Empire in Delhi in 1748, Safdarjung was made the Prime Minister of the empire with the title of Vazir ul-Mamalk-i-Hindustan and at that time the empire was on decline as their rule extended only to North India.
As Vazir he usurped all powers under his control as the king was only a puppet, a figurehead, into enjoying life with wine and women. But his control over the emperor’s family was so cruel that the emperor called the Marathas to rid of their Vazir; the Marathas drove Safdarjung out of Delhi in 1753. He died soon thereafter in 1754. After his death his son Nawab Shujaud Daula pleaded with the Mughal Emperor to permit him to erect a tomb for his father in Delhi, he built the tomb, designed by an Abyssininan architect. To the south of this tomb is the historic site of the battle, fought in 1386 between Timur of Mangol and Mohammed Tughlaq when the latter was defeated; the Safdarjung tomb, the last monumental tomb garden of the Mughals, was planned and built like an enclosed garden tomb in line with the style of the Humayun tomb. It was completed in 1754; the slabs from the tomb of Abdul Rahim Khankhana were used in the construction of the tomb. The tomb has four key features which are: The Char Bagh plan with the mausoleum at the center, a ninefold floor plan, a five-part façade and a large podium with a hidden stairway.
The main entry gate to the tomb is two-storied and its façade has elaborate ornamentation over plastered surfaces and is in ornate purple colour. There is an inscription in Arabic on the surface and its translation reads "When the hero of plain bravery departs from the transitory, may he become a resident of god’s paradise"; the rear side of the façade, seen after entering through the gate, has many rooms and the library. To the right of the gate is the mosque, a three-domed structure marked with stripes. Entering through the main gate gives a perfect view of the mausoleum, its walls are built high and the central dome, the main mausoleum of Safdarjung, is built over a terrace. Red and buff stones are the materials used for building the main mausoleum which measures 28 metres square; the central chamber, square in shape, has eight partitions with a cenotaph in the middle. Here there are partitions in rectangular shape and the corner partitions are in octagonal shape; the interior of the tomb is covered with rococo plaster with decorations.
There are four towers around the main tomb at the corners which are polygonal in shape and are provided with kiosks. They have marble panels which are faded, decorated arches. There is an underground chamber in the mausoleum which houses the graves of his wife; the ceiling of the mosque has been plastered and ornamented. The façade, though built in the style of the Taj Mahal, lacks symmetry as the vertical axis has been given prominence which has resulted in an unbalanced appearance to the tomb; the dome is more elongated. The four minarets at the four corners are part of the main mausoleum, a different concept in elevation compared to the Taj Mahal where the towers are detached and away from the facade of the tomb; the architecture of the tomb is praised and derided. Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta between 1823 and 1826, based on the light brown colour of the stone used, had observed that the tomb has the "colour of potted meat". ASI has observed that the marble used for ornamentation in the towers though pleasing is "rather florid".
Another observation is that the tomb can not be compared to the Taj Mahal or the Humayun Tomb, as, at the time it was built, the Mughal Empire was on the decline and sandstone had to be used and lines were set improperly and the quality appeared "thread bare". The large square garden surrounding the tomb is surrounded by a wall, 280 metres long on each side; the layout is in the form of four squares with wide footpaths and water tanks, which have been further subdivided into smaller squares. The garden is in the Mughal charbagh garden style, is a smaller version of the garden of the Humayun Tomb, built in Delhi. One channel leads to the other leads to the three pavilions; the main podium over which the mausoleum is built measures 50 metres on each side. The high walls have recessed arches in the interior; the towers or chatris are octagonal in shape. Its overall layout consists of four pavilions which have multiple chambers and the entrance gateway to the east is impressive. On the eastern side adjoining the gate are many apartments and a mosque, a courtyard.
The pavilions are laid out in the western, northern and so
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Lodi Gardens or Lodhi Gardens is a city park situated in New Delhi, India. Spread over 90 acres, it contains, Mohammed Shah's Tomb, Tomb of Sikandar Lodi, Shisha Gumbad and Bara Gumbad, architectural works of the 15th century by Lodis - who ruled parts of northern India and Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of modern-day Pakistan, from 1451 to 1526; the site is now protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. The gardens are situated between Khan Market and Safdarjung's Tomb on Lodhi Road and is a hot spot for morning walks for the Delhites; the tomb of Mohammed Shah, the second last of the Sayyid dynasty rulers, the earliest of the tombs in the garden, was built in 1444 by Ala-ud-din Alam Shah as a tribute to Mohammed Shah. As there is little architecture from these two periods remaining in India, Lodi Gardens is an important place of preservation; the tomb of Mohammed Shah is visible from the road, is the earliest structure in the gardens. The architecture is characterised by the octagonal chamber, with stone chhajjas on the roof and guldastas on the corners.
Another tomb within the gardens is that of Sikander Lodi, similar to Mohammed Shah's tomb, though without the chhatris, it was built by his son Ibrahim Lodi in 1517, the last of Sultan of Delhi from Lodi dynasty, as he was defeated by Babur, First battle of Panipat in 1526, this laying the foundation of the Mughal Empire. His tomb is mistaken to be the Shisha Gumbad, is situated in near the tehsil office in Panipat, close to the Dargah of Sufi saint Bu Ali Shah Qalandar, it is a simple rectangular structure on a high platform approached by a flight of steps. The tomb was renovated by the British, an inscription mentioning Ibrahim Lodi's defeat at the hands of Babur and the renovation was included in 1866. Under the Mughals major renovations would take place depending on what occasions they would use the gardens for, under Akbar the Great the garden was used as an observatory and to keep records in a purpose built library. In the centuries, after the 15th century Sayyid and Lodi dynasties, two villages grew around the monuments, but the villagers were relocated in 1936 in order to create the gardens.
During British Raj, it was landscaped by Lady Willingdon, wife of Governor-General of India, Marquess of Willingdon, hence named the'Lady Willingdon Park' upon its inauguration on 9 April 1936, 1947, after Independence, it was given its present name, Lodi Gardens. It was re-landscaped in 1968 by J A Stein, who designed the adjacent India International Centre, along with Garrett Eckbo, during the time Stein made a glasshouse within the park. A British-period gateway, is still being used as an entrance that once welcomed visitors to'Lady Willingdon Park'. Since 2005, INTACH and Archaeological Survey of India organise heritage walks for students and general public within the park area, which has become a favorite with morning walkers and yoga enthusiasts, it is a popular picnic spot for the residents of New Delhi. INTACH has made available a small booklet, offering information about park's history, the monuments and trees within the complex. In 2009, Archaeological Survey of India awarded the restoration project of five monuments with the garden in phases to and INTACH Delhi Chapter, starting with the Bara Gumbad, Shish Gumbad and Mohammed Shah's Tomb, after conservation report for the sites were being prepared since 2007.
The MoU of the Rs 1 crore, first phase of the project funded by Steel Authority of India Ltd. was signed in 2005, initiating the process of conservation in which structural work began in 2009. In the middle of the gardens is the Bara Gumbad, it consists of a large rubble-construct dome, it is not a tomb but a gateway to an attached a three domed masjid, both built in 1494 during the reign of Sikander Lodi, there is a residence surrounding a central courtyard, where the remains of a water tank can be seen. Opposite the Bara Gumbad is the Shisha Gumbad for the glazed tiles used in its construction, which contains the remains of an unknown family, this was built during the reign of Sikander Lodi. Further into the gardens, are remains of a watercourse which connects the Yamuna River to Tomb of Sikandar Lodi; this tomb still has the battlements enclosing it. Nearby to Sikander's tomb is the Athpula Bridge, the last of the buildings in Delhi, built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar, it contains seven arches, amongst which the central one being the largest.
The tomb of Mohammed Shah, the last of the Sayyid dynasty rulers, the earliest of the tombs in the garden, was built in 1444 by Ala-ud-din Alam Shah as a tribute to Mohammed Shah. The tomb is octagonal in shape, with numerous ornamental Hindu-style chhatris around the central dome, numerous arches and sloping buttresses. There are turrets at each corner; the main tomb is supported by a 16-sided drum. It is of a flattened type and is surrounded by chhatris, which make it look diminutive compared to its larger base. Several years the Tomb of Sikandar Lodi seems to have been copied from this Sayyid tomb; as there is little architecture from these two periods remaining in India, Lodi Gardens is an important place of preservation. The tomb of Mohammed Shah is visible from the road, is the earliest structure in the gardens, it is a good example of Islamic styles of architecture. The Hindu features include eight chhatris, each of them capped by a lotus finial with a decorative band around the base. Delhi Sultanate Sunder Nursery List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi Bara Gumbad Shisha Gumbad Sikandar Lodi Tomb of Bahlul Lodi Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb Tomb of