Machakos County is a county of Kenya. Its capital is Machakos, its largest town is the country's first administrative headquarters. The county had a population of 1,098,584 as of 2009; the county borders Nairobi and Kiambu counties to the west, Embu to the north, Kitui to the east, Makueni to the south, Kajiado to the south west, Muranga and Kirinyaga to the north west. The office of the governor of Machakos was created on 27 March 2013. Alfred Mutua, the incumbent, is the inaugural holder of the office. There are many primary schools in Machakos County, including Machakos Primary School and Machakos Academy. Machakos County has giant secondary schools such as Machakos School, Machakos Girls' School, Mumbuni Boys' Secondary School, Mumbuni Girls' Secondary School, Masii Boys' Secondary School, Tala Girls' School, Matungulu Girls' High School, Kitulu Day Secondary School and Kabaa High School, which boasts of a castle, left behind by Christian missionaries; this castle is now a museum. Kwa Nthanze Secondary School, found in Machakos County, is famous for its volleyball championship in the country.
Universities and colleges within Machakos County include Machakos University, Scott Theological University, South Eastern Kenya University, St. Paul's University, African Training Center for Research and Technology, Century Park College, Machakos Institute of Technology, Machakos Technical Training Institute for the Blind; the local climate is semi-arid with hilly terrain and an altitude of 1000 to 2100 metres above sea level. Tourist-related activities include camping, hiking safaris and cultural tourism and music festivals. Subsistence agriculture is practiced with maize and drought-resistant crops such as sorghum and millet being grown due to the area's semi-arid state; the county plays host to the open air market concept with major market days where large amounts of produce are traded. Fruits and other food stuffs like maize and beans are sold in these markets; the county is banking on projects such as the Konza Technology City, a new Machakos City and its proximity to Nairobi County to boost output in the economy.
Source: USAid Kenya The county has eight constituencies: Masinga Constituency Yatta Constituency Kangundo Constituency Matungulu Constituency Kathiani Constituency Mavoko Constituency Machakos Town Constituency Mwala Constituency Machakos County is within Greater Nairobi which consists of 4 out of 47 counties in Kenya, but the area generates about 60% of the nation's wealth. The counties are: Source: NairobiMetro/ Kenya Census Source: OpenDataKenya Source: OpenDataKenya Worldbank Source: OpenDataKenya Source: OpenDataKenya Worldbank Kitui County Makueni County Embu County Kirinyaga County Muranga County Machakos County Governor Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – Kenya AdminLevels 1-4
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Kericho County is a county of Kenya. It has a population of 752,396 and an area of 2,111 km2, its capital and largest town is Kericho. The current governor is Professor Paul Kiprono Chepkwony known as "Timbilwet". Kericho County is home to the best of Kenyan tea, renowned worldwide for its taste with its town square known as Chai Square; some of the largest tea companies including Unilever Kenya, James Finlay and Williamson Tea are based here. It is home to the popular Ketepa brand; the former Buret District is now part of Kericho County. The county has six constituencies: Ainamoi Constituency Belgut Constituency Bureti Constituency Kipkelion East Constituency Kipkelion West Constituency Sigowet–Soin Constituency Source: USAid Kenya
Nakuru County is a county in Kenya. The capital and largest town is Nakuru. With a population of 1,603,325, it is the fourth largest county in Kenya after Nairobi and Kiambu in that order in terms of population. Nakuru County has an area of 2,325.8 km². Until August 21st 2010, it formed part of Rift Valley Province. Nakuru County is home to Lake Nakuru, Lake Elmenteita and Lake Naivasha some of the Rift Valley soda lakes. Lake Nakuru is best known for its thousands, sometimes millions of flamingoes nesting along the shores; the surface of the shallow lake is hardly recognisable due to the continually shifting mass of pink. The number of flamingos on the lake varies with water and food conditions and the best vantage point is from Baboon Cliff. Of interest, an area of 188 km around the lake fenced off as a sanctuary to protect Rothschild giraffe and black rhinos. Other sites of interest around Nakuru include an extinct volcano 2,490 m high; the views of the crater itself, as well as the surrounding countryside, are spectacular.
Hyrax Hill Prehistoric Site, discovered by the Leakeys in 1926, is considered a major Neolithic and Iron Age site. The adjoining museum features finds from various nearby excavations; the second largest surviving volcanic crater in the world, the Menengai Crater is 2,242 meters above sea level at its highest point. The crater plunges 483 m down from the rim and the summit is accessible by foot or vehicle 8 km from the main road; the mountain is surrounded by a nature reserve. The Rift Valley Institute of Science and Technology is a tourist attraction, it is a giant institute established in 1979 by the people of Rift Valley. Surrounding towns include Lanet, which lies 10 km from Nakuru is predominantly a residential town and is home to an army base. Njoro lies 20 km from Nakuru and is a small agricultural town with a local university aimed at promoting agricultural development in Kenya, namely Egerton University. * 2009 census. Source: The county has eleven constituencies: Naivasha Constituency represented by Hon. John Kihagi, The National Alliance Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Nakuru Town West Constituency represented by Hon. Samuel Arama, The National Alliance Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Nakuru Town East Constituency represented by Hon. David Gikaria, The National Alliance Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Kuresoi South Constituency Hon. Zakayo Cheruiyot, United Republican Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Kuresoi North Constituency Hon. Moses Cheboi, United Republican Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Molo Constituency represented by Hon. Jacob Waweru Macharia, The National Alliance Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Rongai Constituency represented by Hon. Raymond Kipruto Moi, Kenya African National Union, a member of Amani coalition Subukia Constituency represented by Hon. Nelson Gachuiya, The National Alliance Party, a member of Jubilee Coalition Njoro Constituency represented by Hon. Joseph Nganga Tiuna, The National Alliance Party, A member of Jubilee Coalition Gilgil Constituency represented by Hon. Nderitu Mathenge, The National Alliance Party a member of Jubilee Coalition Bahati Constituency represented by Hon. Onessmus Kimani Ngunjiri, The National Alliance Party a member of Jubilee CoalitionNakuru County was seen as the epicenter of violence in the aftermath of the disputed 2007 Presidential Elections which left over 1,100 people dead and over 350,000 displaced nationwide The Nakuru County Peace Accord refers to the peace agreement signed on 19 August 2012 between elders of the Agikuyu and Kalenjin communities as well as other ethnic groups of Kenya.
The agreement was designed to address sources of ethnic conflict and a history of violence in the rift valley region of Kenya. It was signed following a 16 month-long peace process led by the National Cohesion and Integration Commission and the National Steering Committee on Peace Building and Conflict Management Carole Kariuki and executive Narok County Kajiado County Baringo County Laikipia County Kericho County Bomet County Nyandarua County Kiambu County Nakuru County Directory Kenya Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – Kenya AdminLevels 1-4
Lake Turkana known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Kenyan Rift Valley, in northern Kenya, with its far northern end crossing into Ethiopia. It is the world's largest alkaline lake. By volume it is the world's fourth-largest salt lake after the Caspian Sea, Issyk-Kul, Lake Van, among all lakes it ranks 24th. Lake Turkana is now threatened by the construction of Gilgel Gibe III Dam in Ethiopia due to the damming of the Omo river which supplies most of the lake's water; the water is unpalatable. It supports a rich lacustrine wildlife; the climate is hot and dry. The rocks of the surrounding area are predominantly volcanic. Central Island is an active volcano. Outcrops and rocky shores are found on the east and south shores of the lake, while dunes and flats are on the west and north, at a lower elevation. On-shore and off-shore winds can be strong, as the lake warms and cools more than the land. Sudden, violent storms are frequent. Three rivers flow into the lake. Lake volume and dimensions are variable.
For example, its level fell by 10 metres between 1975 and 1993. Due to temperature and geographic inaccessibility, the lake retains its wild character. Nile crocodiles are found in great abundance on the flats; the rocky shores are home to scorpions and carpet vipers. Lake Turkana National Parks are now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sibiloi National Park lies on the lake's eastern shore, while Central Island National Park and South Island National Park lie in the lake. Both are known for their Nile crocodiles. An abundance of hominid fossils have been discovered in the area surrounding Lake Turkana; the lake was named Lake Rudolf by Count Sámuel Teleki de Szék and his second-in-command Lieutenant Ludwig Ritter Von Höhnel, a Hungarian and an Austrian, on 6 March 1888. They were the first Europeans to have recorded visiting the lake after a long safari across East Africa. Natives who live around Lake Turkana include the Turkana, Gabbra, Hamar Koke, Nyagatom, Mursi and Molo peoples. For the location of many of these peoples, refer to the dialect map in the article.
J. W. Gregory reported in The Geographical Journal of 1894 that it was called "Basso Narok", meaning "Black Lake" in the Samburu language. Nearby Lake Chew Bahir is "Basso Naibor" in Samburu, meaning "White Lake"; the Samburu are among the dominant tribes in the lake Turkana region when the explorers came." What the native form of this phrase was, what it might mean, in which language is not clear. The lake kept its European name during the colonial period of British East Africa. After the independence of Kenya, the president, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, renamed it in 1975 after the Turkana, the predominant tribe there. At some unknown time, the lake acquired an alternate name as the Jade Sea from its turquoise colour seen approaching from a distance; the colour comes from algae. This is also a European name; the Turkana refer to the lake as Anam Ka'alakol, meaning "the sea of many fish". It is from the name Ka'alakol that Kalokol, a town on the western shore of Lake Turkana, east of Lodwar, derives its name.
The previous indigenous Turkana name for Lake Turkana was Anam a Cheper. The area still sees few visitors; the lake is an imaginary boundary of the Rendille and Borana and Oromo to the Turkana land. The area is clay-based and is more alkaline than seawater; the major biomes are the lake itself, an aquatic biome, the surrounding region, classified as desert and xeric shrubland. The Chalbi Desert is east of the lake. During moister times, a dry grassland appears, featuring Aristida A. mutabilis. During drier times, the grass disappears; the shrublands contain dwarf shrubs, such as Indigofera spinosa. Near the lake are doum palms. Both phytoplankton and zooplankton are found in the lake. Of the former, cyanobacteria are represented by Microcystis aeruginosa and microalgae by Botryococcus braunii. Present are Anabaenopsis arnoldii, Planctonema lauterbornii, Oocystis gigas, Sphaerocystis schroeteri, some others; the zooplankton includes copepods and protozoans. Compared to other large African lakes, Turkana has few fish species.
The lake holds about 50 fish species, including 12 endemics: the cichlids Haplochromis macconneli, H. rudolfianus, H. turkanae and Hemichromis exsul, the barb Enteromius turkanae, the catfish Chrysichthys turkana, the robber tetras Brycinus ferox and B. minutus, the Rudolf lates Lates longispinis, the lampeyes Lacustricola jeanneli and Micropanchax rudolfianus, the cyprinid Neobola stellae. Non-endemics include species such as Nile tilapia, the elephantfish Mormyrus kannume, African arowana, African knifefish, Distichodus niloticus, the Nile perch and numerous others. During the early Holocene, the water level of the lake was higher, it overflowed into the Nile River, allowing fish and crocodiles access; the non-endemic fishes in the lake are riverine species of Nilotic origin. Some of the non-endemics do not breed in the lake, but migrate up the Omo River and other affluents to breed; the lake is fished. The Lake Turkana region is home to hundreds of species of birds native to Kenya; the East African Rift System serves as a flyway for migrating birds, bringing in hundreds more.
The birds are supported by plankton masses in the lake, which feed the fish. Some birds more common to Turkana are
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
Lodwar Airport is an airport in Kenya. Lodwar Airport is located in Turkana County, in the town of Lodwar, in the northwestern part of the Republic of Kenya, its location is 515 kilometres, by air, northwest of Nairobi International Airport, the country’s largest civilian airport. The geographic coordinates of Lodwar Airport are:3° 7' 20.00"N, 35° 36' 36.00"E. Lodwar Airport is a civilian airport that serves the town of Lodwar and surrounding communities. Situated at 1,715 feet above sea level, the airport has a single asphalt runway which measures 1000 m in length and is 15 m wide. Kenya Airports Authority Kenya Civil Aviation Authority List of airports in Kenya Location of Lodwar Airport At Google Maps Website of Kenya Airports Authority Airport information for HKLO at Great Circle Mapper