Hendon is a London urban area in the Borough of Barnet, 7 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Hendon was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex and has been part of Greater London since 1965. Hendon had a population of 52,972 in 2011 which includes the West Hendon and Colindale wards that are separated from Hendon by the NW9 postcode area Hendon was a civil parish in the county of Middlesex; the manor is described in Domesday, but the name'Hendun' – meaning'at the highest hill' – is of earlier origin. Evidence of Roman settlement was discovered by members of the Hendon and District Archaeological Society and others; the Midland Railway and the Great Northern Railways were built through Hendon in the 1860s. The underground arrived at Golders Green to the south in 1907, the line being extended to Hendon Central and Edgware in 1923/24. Much of the area developed into a suburb of London and now the area is built-up with some countryside in the Mill Hill area, such as the Copthall Playing fields.
Hendon's industry was centred on manufacturing, included motor and aviation works, developed from the 1880s. In 1931 the civil parish of Edgware was abolished and its area was added to the great civil parish of Hendon. Hendon became an urban district in 1894. In 1932 the urban district became the Municipal Borough of Hendon; the municipal borough was abolished in 1965 and the area became part of the London Borough of Barnet. Hendon's main claim to fame is in the early days of flying and Hendon Aerodrome is now the RAF Museum; the area is associated with pioneer aviator Claude Grahame-White. Another part of the Aerodrome site is the Hendon Police College, the training centre for the Metropolitan Police; the Metropolitan Police Book of Remembrance is displayed in the entrance of Simpson Hall at the centre. There is a memorial garden, it is ancient parish. The name means the high place or down, Hendon's motto is Endeavour; the Burroughs is a civic centre for the London Borough of Barnet, the site of Middlesex University Business School.
The River Brent runs through Hendon. On 30 November 2009 the Environment Agency warned residents of flooding along River Brent from Hendon to Brentford, after a day of notably heavy rain. Several premises were temporarily flooded in Perivale. Hendon and District Archaeological Society has found a number of interesting Roman artifacts at Church End but nothing conclusive, the Saxon settlement near to St Mary's Church may not be a continuation of its Roman predecessor; the Domesday Survey mentions a priest, a church building was documented in 1157. The oldest fabric of the present church is 13th century; the 50 ft tower was much restored in the 18th century when the weathercock in the form of a "Lamb and Flag", the badge of St John, was added. However, the church is dedicated to an enigma that defies local historians to this day, it may be a sign of the cult of Mary Magdalene said to have been promoted by the Templars and their successors. Eastern extensions carried out between 1913–15 to designs by architect Temple Moore have expanded the church.
Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore in 1819, is buried in the church. Another grave of distinction in the churchyard is that of football manager Herbert Chapman who had great success in charge of Northampton Town, Leeds City, Huddersfield Town and Arsenal before his sudden death from pneumonia in 1934. Bram Stoker may well have had St Mary's graveyard in mind when he created the fictional "Kingstead", the uneasy resting place of Lucy Westenra, in his book Dracula. However, St Mary's graveyard is the resting place of a more benign spirit, Coventry Patmore's wife Emily, the model for the poem The Angel in the House, upon whom the Victorian ideal of domesticity "the Angel of the Hearth" is based. Adjacent to the church at the top of Greyhound Hill is the Greyhound pub, rebuilt in 1898. Called the Church House, it was used for vestry meetings from the 1600s to 1878. In 1676 the inn, by known as the Greyhound, burned down in a fire. In 1855 a fire brigade was established, renamed the Hendon volunteer fire brigade in 1866, a manual fire engine was kept in a building near the church.
Further west, adjacent to the Greyhound pub, is the oldest building in Hendon, a seventeenth-century farmhouse which became the former Church Farmhouse Museum, now part of the campus of nearby Middlesex University. The Claddagh Ring pub known as The Midland Arms, in Church Road, Hendon, is somewhat more than nine miles from Athenry; the sign is genuinely Irish, giving pleasure to a significant Irish community in this area. Another pub, the Midland Hotel, close to Hendon station, was opened in 1890 by The Midland Railway Company to provide liquid refreshment for commuters using the Midland Railway. At the time when both of these pubs were open The Midland Arms was known as The Upper Midland and The Midland Hotel was known as The Lower Midland; the Irish connection with Hendon goes back at least to the early 19th century when many of that country came here to make the hay, for which Hendon was famous. The Burroughs was a distinct hamlet until the 1890s, known from 1316 until the 19th century as'the burrows', which no doubt referred to the keeping of rabbit warrens.
After the UK outbreak of myxomatosis in the 1950s, rabbits were smoked out of the area using steam engines. During the 18th century, some of the immediate estate surrounding Hendon Place was auctioned off for large houses, with much of the land being used for building other mansions. Of these, Hendon Hall (now a hot
1953 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1953 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 21st Grand Prix of Endurance, took place on 13 and 14 June 1953, at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans. It was the third round of the F. I. A. World Sports Car Championship. British drivers Tony Rolt and Duncan Hamilton won the race with one of three factory-entered Jaguar C-Types, the first cars to race at Le Mans with disc brakes. With the ongoing success of the World Championship for Grand Prix drivers, this year saw the introduction by the FIA of a World Championship for Sports Cars, creating great interest from the major sports car manufacturers, it drew together the great endurance races in Europe and North America. The Le Mans race was the third round in the championship after the 12 Hours of Sebring and the Mille Miglia. After the efforts by drivers in the recent races to drive single-handedly and the consequent safety danger through exhaustion, the ACO set limits of maximum driving spells of 80 consecutive laps and 18 hours in total for each driver; this year marked the first use of a radar-‘gun’ to measure speeds across a flying kilometre on the Hunaudières Straight.
The results, not aligned with engine size but also the impact of aerodynamics on top speed: The prestige of the race, as well as the advent of the new championship generated intense interest in Le Mans. Of the 69 entrants and reserves, nineteen different marques were present. There were an unprecedented 56 works-entered cars represented, with over half in the main S-8000, S-5000 and S-3000 classes. Mercedes-Benz did not return to defend their title – they were busy preparing new cars for both the F1 and Sports Car championships. So the overall victory was shaping up as a contest between Italy, England (Jaguar supported by Aston Martin and Nash-Healey/Austin-Healey and the USA Cunningham, with the French being the ‘dark horses’. Drivers included all three F1 World Champions to date and over 30 other current and up-and-coming Grand Prix racers; the Italian teams had built new cars for the season and all had strong driver line-ups. Ferrari entered a lightweight 375 MM Berlinetta powered by the company's big 330 bhp 4.5 litre V12 engine built for a challenge at Indianapolis, plus two 340 bhp 4.1 litre 340 MMs.
All had Pinin Farina-designed bodies. Ascari and Luigi Villoresi were to share the lightweight coupé, while brothers Paolo and Gianni Marzotto and Giuseppe Farina and debutante Mike Hawthorn were down to drive the 340MMs. A fourth 340 MM Spyder was entered by American Ferrari agent Luigi Chinetti for himself, with Anglo-American Tom Cole as his co-driver; such was the quality of the entry list. Alfa Romeo was back at Le Mans for the first time since the war and fielded the beautiful new 6C/3000CM powered by a 3.5L S6 engine for Fangio and Onofre Marimón and Consalvo Sanesi and Piero Carini. The third car was driven by Mercedes-Benz works-drivers Karl Kling and Fritz Riess who had their team manager, Alfred Neubauer, in the pits with them. Lancia this year stepped up to the big class with three new D.20 Coupés. Having just won the non-Championship Targa Florio with a 3.0L V6 engine, team manager Vittorio Jano instead decided to install supercharged 2.7L engines. This proved to be a mistake as the small increase in power increased unreliability and gave away over 20 km/h top speed to the rival Jaguars and Ferraris.
GP-racers Louis Chiron and Robert Manzon, Piero Taruffi and Umberto Maglioli were in the team, with José Froilán González and endurance-race specialist Clemente Biondetti in the reserve car. Jaguar returned with their C-Types and after the debacle of the previous year, were determined not to repeat those mistakes, having undertaken a lot of development work. Team manager ‘Lofty’ England employed the same driver pairings as 1952, with Peter Walker and Stirling Moss, Peter Whitehead and Ian Stewart, Tony Rolt and Duncan Hamilton; the cars reverted to the aerodynamic design prior to that of the 1952 Le Mans cars, whose revised nose and tail had adversely affected stability at speeds over 120 mph. For 1953 the cars were lighter and more powerful, they were the first-ever Le Mans cars equipped with disc brakes, from Dunlop, whose greater efficiency gave the C-Types a distinct advantage over their drum-braked competitors; the disc brakes had been available in 1952, but given the problems with the radiators they had been swapped out so the team could concentrate on just one potential issue in the race.
The works cars were supported by a standard production-body car entered by the new Belgian Ecurie Francorchamps team. Aston Martin entered their new DB3S cars for Reg Parnell and Peter Collins, George Abecassis and Roy Salvadori, Eric Thompson and Dennis Poore. Using the same 3-litre engine as the DB3, it was put into a newly designed, chassis; however it was suffering from considerable lack of testing. Donald Healey this year had two collaborations: his last year with Nash Motors with a pair of long-tailed models, a new partnership with the Austin Motor Company using its 2.7L engine, producing only 100 bhp but capable of 190 km/h. Bristol arrived with two cars for Lance Macklin / Graham Whitehead and Jack Fairman / Tommy Wisdom, managed by former Bentley Boy and Le Mans winner Sammy Davis; the rear-engined 450 coupés were ugly and noisy but the 2
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
The Jaguar C-Type is a racing sports car built by Jaguar and sold from 1951 to 1953. The "C" stands for "competition"; the car used the XK 120 running gear of the contemporary road proven XK120 in a lightweight tubular frame designed by William Heynes and an aerodynamic aluminium body jointly developed by Heynes, R J Knight and Malcolm Sayer. A total of 53 C-Types were built, 43 of which were sold to private owners in the US; the road-going XK120's 3.4-litre twin-cam, straight-6 engine produces between 180 bhp. The C-Type version was tuned to around 205 bhp; the early C-Types were drum brakes. C-Types are more powerful, using triple twin-choke Weber carburettors and high-lift camshafts, they are lighter, from mid 1953 braking performance was improved by disc brakes on all four wheels. The lightweight, multi-tubular, triangulated frame was designed by William Heynes. Heynes and Sayer together developed the aerodynamic body. Made of aluminium in the barchetta style, it is devoid of road-going items such as carpets, weather equipment and exterior door handles.
According to the Jaguar Heritage Registry the cars were produced between May 1952 starting with XKC001 and ending August 1953 XK054. The original alloy body was marked with the prefix K; the C-Type was successful in racing, most notably at the Le Mans 24 hours race. In 1951, the car won at its first attempt; the factory entered three, whose driver pairings were Stirling Moss and Jack Fairman, Leslie Johnson and triple Mille Miglia winner Clemente Biondetti, the eventual winners, Peter Walker and Peter Whitehead. The Walker-Whitehead car was the only factory entry to finish, the other two retiring with lack of oil pressure. A entered XK120, owned by Robert Lawrie, co-driven by Ivan Waller completed the race, finishing 11th. In 1952, worried by a report about the speed of the Mercedes-Benz 300SLs that would run at Le Mans, modified the C-Type’s aerodynamics to increase the top speed. However, the consequent rearrangement of the cooling system made the cars vulnerable to overheating, all three retired from the race.
The Peter Whitehead-Ian Stewart and Tony Rolt/Duncan Hamilton cars blew head gaskets, the Stirling Moss-Peter Walker car, the only one not overheating having had a full-sized radiator hurriedly fitted, lost oil pressure after a mechanical breakage. Testing by Norman Dewis at MIRA after the race proved that the overheating was caused more by the revisions to the cooling system than by the altered aerodynamics: the water pump pulley was undersized, so it was spinning too fast and causing cavitation. With the pump pulley enlarged, the tubing increased to 1 1/4 inch, the problem was eliminated; the main drawback of the new body shape was that it reduced downforce on the tail to the extent that it caused lift and directional instability at speeds over 120 mph on the Mulsanne Straight. These cars had chassis numbers XKC 001, 002 and 011; the first two were dismantled at the factory, the third survives in normal C-type form. In 1953, C-Types won again, placed second and fourth; this time the body was in thinner, lighter aluminium and the original twin H8 sand cast SU carburettors were replaced by three DCO3 40mm Webers, which helped boost power to 220 bhp.
Philip Porter mentions additional changes: Further weight was saved by using a rubber bag fuel tank... lighter electrical equipment and thinner gauge steel for some of the chassis tubes... he most significant change to the cars were the triple Weber carburetors and disc brakes. Duncan Hamilton and Tony Rolt won the race at 105.85 mph – the first time Le Mans had been won at an average of over 100 miles per hour. Disc brakes were novel in 1953, Jaguar's win due to their superiority, set off a scramble to include discs in production cars. 1954, the C-Type's final year at Le Mans, saw a fourth place by the Ecurie Francorchamps entry driven by Roger Laurent and Jacques Swaters. When new, the car sold for about $6,000 twice the price of an XK120. In an article in the 11 June 2003 issue of Autocar magazine the value of a "genuine, healthy" C-Type is estimated as £400,000, the value of the 1953 Le Mans winner is about £2 million. A C-Type once owned and raced by Phil Hill sold at an American auction in August 2009 for $2,530,000 and another C-type was sold at the Pebble Beach auction in 2012 for $3,725,000, Recently an unrestored C-Type that raced at Le Mans has sold for £5,715,580, during the Grand Prix Historique race meeting in Monaco.
In August 2015, an ex-Ecurie Ecosse Lightweight C-type, chassis XKC052 and the second of only three works lightweights, driven by Peter Whitehead and Ian Stewart to fourth at the 1953 Le Mans 24 Hours, fetched $13.2 million at auction in California Porter, Philip. Jaguar Sports Racing Cars. Bay View Books. ISBN 1901432211. Jaguar Heritage Trust - Official Jaguar Heritage Trust Page on 1950s developments Jaguar Heritage Trust - Official Jaguar Heritage Chassis Number description Coventry Racers – Pages for each of the 54 C-Types, including photos and short histories for many
Cricklewood is an area of north-west London, England, 5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, between Willesden Green and Dollis Hill to the west and Kilburn to the south, West Hampstead and Childs Hill to the south-east and east, Brent Cross to the north. The area is split between three London boroughs: Barnet to the north-east, Brent to the west and Camden to the south-east. Cricklewood was a small rural hamlet around Edgware Road the Roman road, called Watling Street, until the impetus for its urbanisation came with the surface and underground railways in nearby Willesden Green in the 1870s; the shops on Cricklewood Broadway, as Edgware Road is known here, contrast with quieter surrounding streets of late-Victorian, 1930s housing. The area has strong links with Ireland due to a sizeable Irish population and The Crown pub, now the Clayton Crown Hotel, is a local landmark; the 35-hectare Gladstone Park marks its north-western edge. Cricklewood has two conservation areas, the Mapesbury Estate and the Cricklewood Railway Terraces, in 2012 was awarded £1.65 million from the Mayor of London's office to improve the area.
The small settlement at the junction of Cricklewood Lane and the Edgware Road was established by 1294, which by 1321 was called Cricklewood. By the 1750s the Crown was providing for coach travellers, by the 1800s it had a handful of cottages and Cricklewood House as neighbours, was known for its "pleasure gardens". By the 1860s there were a number of substantial villas along the Edgware Road starting with Rockhall Lodge. Childs Hill and Cricklewood station renamed Cricklewood, opened in 1868. In the summer of 1881 the Midland Railway Company moved its locomotive works from Kentish Town to the new "Brent Sidings", in October of the same year it was announced that new accommodation for its workers would be built the now-listed Railway Cottages. Mr H. Finch laid out a handful of streets directly behind the Crown Inn, in 1880; the station had become the terminus for the Midland Railway suburban services by 1884. The census of 1881 showed that the population had grown enough for a new church, St. Peter's replaced a tin chapel in 1891.
A daughter church called Little St. Peter's was opened in 1958 on Claremont Way but closed in 1983; the parish church on Cricklewood Lane was rebuilt in the 1970s. This church building was closed in 2004. Services for Anglicans were held in the Carey Hall on Claremont Road but were discontinued there in December 2015; the London General Omnibus Company commenced services to Regent Street from the Crown in 1883, in 1899 opened a bus garage, still in use and was rebuilt in 2010. By the 1890s, houses and shops had been built along part of Cricklewood Lane. Cricklewood Broadway had become a retail area by 1900 replacing the Victorian villas; the Queens Hall Cinema the Gaumont, replaced Rock Hall House, was itself demolished in 1960. Thorverton and Dersingham Roads were laid out in 1907, the year of the opening of Golders Green Underground station. Cowhouse Farm, latterly Dicker's Farm and Avenue Farm, was closed in 1932. From 1908 to 1935, Westcroft Farm was owned by the Home of Rest for Horses; the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead opened the Westcroft Estate in 1935.
Much of the land to the west of Edgware Road was part of the estate of All Souls Oxford. Much of the land was wooded and in 1662 there were 79 oaks in Cricklewood; the transformation of the area came with the opening of the underground station in Willesden Green in 1879, known as Willesden Green and Cricklewood station from 1894 to 1938. A number of developers built houses in the 1890s and 1900s. George Furness laid out what he called Cricklewood Park between 1900 on Clock Farm. Roads in the area are named after trees; the name Cricklewood Park is no longer used. To the south of this, Henry Corsellis built Rockhall and Howard Roads from 1894. All Souls' College built a group of roads named after fellows of the college. Further expansion westward was blocked by the Dollis Hill estate, which became a public park, Gladstone Park, in 1901. To the north of Furness's Cricklewood Park Estate, Earl Temple built Temple Road by 1906 and surrounding roads. To the south, the Mapesbury Estate was built between 1895 and 1905 and is a Conservation Area of semi-detached and detached houses.
With the introduction of the tram system in 1904, the motorisation of bus services by 1911, numerous important industries were established. The first of these was the Phoenix Telephone Company in 1911; the Handley Page Aircraft Company soon followed, from 1912 until 1917, at 110 Cricklewood Lane and subsequently occupying a large part of Claremont Road. The Cricklewood Aerodrome was adjacent to their factory; the former aircraft factory was converted into Cricklewood Studios in 1920, the largest film studio in the country at the time. It became the production base for Stoll Pictures during the silent era. After turning out a number of quota quickies, it closed down in 1938; some years the property was redeveloped and hosts a Wickes DIY store. A number of plans were drawn up around the turn of the 20th century to extend the developing London Underground network to Cricklewood. Several proposals were put forward to construct an und
English Racing Automobiles
English Racing Automobiles was a British racing car manufacturer active from 1933 to 1954. ERA was founded by Humphrey Cook, Raymond Mays, Peter Berthon in November 1933 and established in Bourne, next to Eastgate House, the family home of Raymond Mays between Eastgate road and Spalding road, their ambition was to manufacture and campaign a team of single seater racing cars capable of upholding British prestige in Continental European racing. With the cost of aspiring to full Grand Prix racing prohibitive, they instead aimed ERA's efforts at the smaller voiturette—1500cc supercharged—class of motor racing, the Formula 2 equivalent of the day. Humphrey Cook financed the operation—using the wealth from the family drapery business, Son & Co. of St Paul's Churchyard, London. Berthon was responsible for the overall design of the cars, while Mays became its principal driver—having successfully raced several other makes including Vauxhall and Riley. A new chassis was conceived by British designer Reid Railton and was constructed by Thomson & Taylor at Brooklands.
The engine was based on the well-proven Riley six-cylinder unit, albeit this was modified in a number of significant ways. A stronger forged crankshaft with a large centre Hyatt roller bearing was made and an new aluminium cylinder head designed; the engine was supercharged using a bespoke supercharger designed by Murray Jamieson who had worked with Mays and Berthon on the White Riley. The ERA engine was designed around three capacities—a base 1500cc, an 1100cc and was capable of being expanded up to 2000 cc, it ran on methanol and in its 1500cc form was capable of producing around 180–200 bhp and in excess of 250–275 bhp in 2000cc form. The panel-beating brothers George and Jack Gray hand-fashioned the new car’s single-seater bodywork, to a design credited to a Mr Piercy who had designed the bodywork for Campbell’s'‘Bluebird’' record breaker; the unveiling of the first ERA—chassis R1A—to the press and public took place at Brooklands on 22 May 1934 following testing at Syston Park. After initial chassis handling problems, which required a number of modifications, soon ERA had a winning formula.
By the end of the year ERAs had scored notable victories against many more established marques. In 1935, in a major race at the Nürburgring, ERAs took first, third and fifth places. Through the remainder of the decade, with drivers of the calibre of Dick Seaman in the team, ERA dominated voiturette racing, with the original A-Type design being developed into the B-Type, C-Type and D-Type designs over time. Two Siamese princes, Chula Chakrabongse and Bira Birabongse, whose trio of ERAs became famous as "Hanuman", "Romulus" and "Remus", ran their own team, operating from The White Mouse Garage. Prince Chula owned the team, having bought Romulus as a present for his cousin, Prince Bira, the team's driver; the more modern E-Type ERA appeared just before the Second World War but was not developed. The Second World War brought a halt to motor racing in Europe, the team's Bourne site was sold to the Bus operator Delaine who occupied adjacent premises; the original building is still in use today by Delaine as an office block.
By the time racing resumed in the late 1940s Berthon and Mays had moved on to the British Racing Motors project. ERA restarted operations in Dunstable under new ownership in 1947 when Leslie Johnson bought the company, together with ERA E-Type GP2, the second of two built in 1939, raced by Reg Parnell and Leslie Brooke. Refitted with a Zoller supercharger and driven by Johnson, GP2 tied with Parnell's Maserati 4CLT for fastest lap in the 1948 British Empire Trophy and finished fifth. In the same race GP1, upgraded by the works with Murray Jamieson-designed Roots-type supercharging and driven by Reg Parnell's mechanic Wilkie Wilkinson, retired with a broken connecting rod. After posting the fastest time in the opening practice session for the 1948 British Grand Prix, Johnson retired GP2 from third place on the first lap when a driveshaft universal joint failed. In practice for the Coupe du Salon at Montlhéry he broke the lap record but retired GP2 from the race with a fractured fuel tank after three laps.
In 1949 at Goodwood GP2 broke a back axle universal joint in practice but Johnson took the car to fifth in the Richmond Trophy and third in the Chichester Cup. In the first day's practice for the Jersey International Road Race, he was second-fastest to Luigi Villoresi's record-breaking lap in a Maserati but on the second day the engine bearings failed and the car did not race. At Silverstone's 1950 Grand Prix d'Europe the supercharger disintegrated after two laps. Meanwhile, GP1, driven by Fred Ashmore, failed to finish the 1948 Jersey International Road Race owing to fuel starvation and defective steering. In the 1949 BRDC/Daily Express International Trophy, Peter Walker took GP1 to within 1.2 seconds of Giuseppe Farina's Maserati in practice and finished fifth in the race, despite gearbox and steering problems, a leaking radiator, the exhaust burning the driver's foot. Walker was fastest in practice for Ireland's Wakefield Trophy road race, but a snatching brake forced him down the escape road at the first corner.
Here GP1's race ended when it was hit by an Alta that had collided with Salvadori's Maserati 4CL. In 1950, GP1 was gutted by fire in a crash at the British Empire Trophy race on the Isle of Man, caused by driveshaft failure when the car was at high speed with Walker at the wheel; the 1.5-litre G-Type raced in the 1952 World Championship, the first season to be run under Formula Two rules. The fundamental design was laid down by Robert Eberan-Eberh
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c