Wooden churches in Ukraine
Wooden church architecture in Ukraine dates from the beginning of Christianity in the area and comprises a set of unique styles and forms specific to many sub-regions of the country. As a form of culture, construction of the churches in specific styles is passed on to subsequent generations. The architectural styles vary from simple to complicated - involving a high degree of carpentry. Aside from tserkvas, there are quite a few kosciols that are preserved in Western Ukraine, some of these churches remain in active use. Nearly 1,900 wooden churches have been identified in Ukraine as of the end of 2010, when Ukrainians emigrated to the New World in the late 19th century, many used these stylistic forms but adapted their construction to the new materials and new environmental conditions. According to the Director of the Lviv National Art Gallery, Borys Voznytsky, fewer churches burnt down in Western Ukraine during the Soviet era than have burnt down in the post-Soviet period. The wooden church architecture of Central and Eastern Ukraine finds its roots in the first millennium of Christianity in Ukraine from the time of Vladimir the Great, while masonry churches prevailed in urban areas, wooden church architecture continued primarily in Ukrainian villages of central and eastern Ukraine.
Unlike western Ukraine, there is no separation of style based on region. Central Ukrainian churches are similar to the multi-chamber masonry churches of Kievan Rus but are, both framed construction and nail-less styles are represented. Деревяні храми України Relatively isolated peasant cultures in western and Transcarpathian Ukraine were able to maintain construction into the early 20th century in wooden styles, many ethnographic regions maintained specific styles of architecture aligned to their cultural and historical differences. The Lviv region alone has 999 churches that are registered monuments of architecture -398 of which are of national importance - however only 16 of those churches have fire-alarm systems. During the post-Soviet era, the Lviv region has already lost some 80 churches to fires, in 2009 the government of the region granted approximately 2 million hryvnias to finance restoration projects of the churches. Bukovina The traditional Bukovinian church features a gabled roof.
The roofwork features opasannia and was covered in wooden shingles, the structure was usually built from logs but was often covered in clay and whitewashed, similar to Bukovinian-style homes. Lemko Lemko churches most often used a design with very tall gabled roofs. Topping each tower is a spire, resembling a Gothic spire, Hutsul Hutsul churches most often were 5-section cruciform structures, using spruce logs to form walls with opasannia type arcades. The central dome is formed in a shape with a splayed roof. Also unique to Hutsul churches is the use of tin or metalwork in the parts of the church
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions. It usually refers to a fort in the form of a single building, serving as a defensive strong point against any enemy that does not possess siege equipment or, in modern times. A fortification intended to resist these weapons is more likely to qualify as a fortress or a redoubt, or in modern times, however, a blockhouse may refer to a room within a larger fortification, usually a battery or redoubt. The term blockhouse is of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Middle Dutch blokhus, early blockhouses were designed solely to protect a particular area by the use of artillery, and they had accommodation only for the short-term use of the garrison. The first known example is the Cow Tower, built in 1398, the major period of construction was in the maritime defence programmes of Henry VIII between 1539 and 1545. They were built to protect important maritime approaches such as the Thames Estuary, the Solent, the last blockhouse of this type was Cromwells Castle, built in Scilly in 1651.
Blockhouses were a feature in Maltas coastal fortifications built in the 18th century by the Order of St. John. Between 1714 and 1716, dozens of batteries and redoubts were built around the coasts of the Maltese Islands, almost every battery and redoubt had a blockhouse, which served as gun crew accommodation and a place to store munitions. Many of the batteries consisted of a semi-circular or polygonal gun platform, the blockhouses usually had musketry loopholes, and in some cases were linked together by redans. Surviving batteries include Mistra Battery and Ferretti Battery, which both have two blockhouses, and Saint Marys Battery and Saint Anthonys Battery, which have a single blockhouse. Many of the redoubts consisted of a platform with a rectangular blockhouse at the rear. Surviving redoubts with blockhouses include Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq Redoubt and Briconet Redoubt, a few of the redoubts consisted of a single tower-like blockhouse without a platform, and were known as tour-reduits. Of the four tour-reduits that were built, only the Vendôme Tower survives today, originally blockhouses were often constructed as part of a large plan, to block access to vital points in the scheme.
Blockhouses may be made of masonry where available, but were made from very heavy timbers. They were usually two or even three floors, with all storeys being provided with embrasures or loopholes, and the uppermost storey would be roofed, blockhouses were normally entered via a sturdy, barred door at ground level. Most blockhouses were roughly square in plan, but some of the more elaborate ones were hexagonal or octagonal, to provide better all-around fire. In some cases, blockhouses became the basis for complete forts, by building a palisade with the blockhouse at one corner, many historical stone blockhouses have survived, and a few timber ones have been restored at historical sites. In New Zealand, the Cameron Blockhouse, near Whanganui, is one of the few blockhouses to survive from the New Zealand land wars, during the Second Boer War the British forces built a large number of fortifications in South Africa
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Icelandic turf house
30% of Iceland was forested when it was settled, mostly with birch. Oak was the timber for building Norse halls in Scandinavia. However, Iceland did have an amount of turf that was suitable for construction. Some structures in Norway had turf roofs, so the notion of using this as a material was not alien to many settlers. The common Icelandic turf house would have a foundation made of flat stones. The turf would be fitted around the frame in blocks often with a second layer, the only external wood would be the doorway which would often be decorative, the doorway would lead in to the hall which would commonly have a great fire. Another interesting aspect of the Icelandic turf house was the introduction of attached toilets, which were communal, the floor of a turf house could be covered with wood, stone or earth depending on the purpose of the building. They contain grass on their roofs, Icelandic architecture changed in many ways in the more than 1,000 years the turf houses were being constructed.
The first evolutionary step happened in the 14th century, when the Viking style longhouses were gradually abandoned and replaced with many small, in the late 18th century a new style started to gain momentum, the burstabær, with its wooden ends or gaflar. This is the most commonly depicted version of the Icelandic turf houses and this style was slowly replaced with the urban building style of wooden house clothed in corrugated iron, which in turn was replaced with the earthquake resistant reinforced concrete building
Podhale is Polands southernmost region, sometimes referred to as the Polish highlands. The Podhale is located in the foothills of the Tatra range of the Carpathian mountains, the region is characterized by a rich tradition of folklore that is much romanticized in the Polish patriotic imagination. Its folklore was brought mainly by Polish settlers from the Lesser Poland region further north. The name Podhale literally translates as below the mountain glen in English, Podhale is a part of the historical province of Lesser Poland with its capital in the Royal city of Kraków. Among the regions attractions are the mountain resort of Zakopane and the lake known as Morskie Oko. Nowy Targ along the Dunajec River, located in the valley beneath the Gorce Mountains, is the capital of the region, ludzmierz is home to the areas oldest shrine, Our Lady of Ludźmierz known as the Hostess of Podhale or in Polish Gaździna Podhala. The people in region are particularly famous for their oscypek, a cheese made from a mix of cows and sheeps milk, their music.
In the winter, it is the number one tourist site in Poland, czorsztyn Dunajec River Gorge Niedzica Niedzica Castle Pieniny Polish Tatra Sheepdog Sanctuary of Our Lady of Ludźmierz Szczawnica Gorals
This traditional building method is believed to be the predecessor to half-timber construction widely known by its German name fachwerkbau which has wall infill of wattle and daub, brick, or stone. This carpentry was used from parts of Scandinavia to Switzerland to western Russia and this method is not the same as the plank-frame buildings in North America with vertical plank walls. Danish, bulhus Italian, a ritti e panconi “The support of horizontal timbers by corner posts is an old form of construction in Europe and it was apparently carried across much of the continent from Silesia by the Lausitz urnfield culture in the late Bronze Age. The structures found dated from 747-722 B. C and are similar in concept to piece sur piece construction. This historic carpentry is known in southern Sweden, particularly Gotland where it is known as bulhus, Poland, Lithuania, Switzerland. Some researchers believe this method was introduced to the United States by Alpine-Alemannic Germans or Swiss. The Hudsons Bay Company adopted this style for most of its outposts all the way to the Pacific coast.
Some examples of surviving houses of this type are the circa 1809 Cray House in Stevensville, Maryland,1832 Jacob Highbarger House in Maryland. Red River Frame was a name for the post-and-plank construction technique used in the Red River Colony in the 19th Century. The building style was characterized by a timber structure with a horizontal log infill. The spaces between the logs were filled or chinked with clay and straw, the exterior would either be whitewashed with a limestone/water plaster mixture, or in years, the exterior would be covered by board siding. This style was popular because it could use smaller trees for logs — the longest trees needed were for the vertical logs, the Hoyle House has diagonal bracing
A humpy or gunyah was a small, temporary shelter made from bark and tree branches, traditionally used by Australian Aboriginals, with a standing tree usually used as the main support. The word humpy comes from the Jagera language, other groups would have different names for the structure. Both names were adopted by white settlers, and now form part of the Australian lexicon. Small impermanent dwellings made of branches and bark were built prior to the construction of permanent buildings. It is sometimes called a lean-to, since it can rely on the tree for support, in South Australia, such a shelter is known as a wurley, possibly from the Kaurna language. Hogan Igloo Longhouse Yurt State Library of Victoria photo of Aboriginal people and humpy article on early white settlers making humpies
Upper Lusatian house
The Upper Lusatian house or Umgebindehaus is a special type of house that combines log house, timber-framing and building stone methods of construction. It is especially common in the running from Silesia through Upper Lusatia and North Bohemia and into Saxon Switzerland. The Upper Lusatian house is defined by the separation of its living area from the roof, or its living area from the upper story. Upper Lusatian houses are transversely divided Middle German houses or Ernhäuser, the hallway runs transversely across the house and separates the ground floor into living and working areas. The living area or Blockstube is usually located at the eastern or southern end in order to protect it from damp. The working area, of construction is located opposite the Blockstube. This is where the stalls or stables, store rooms. A building in which the section is replaced by another Blockstube is known as a Doppelstubenhaus. Above the Blockstube the upper storey or roof rests on wooden posts that are stabilised by triangulation with jetty brackets or braces and it is thus independent of the carrying elements below it and may be freely worked on.
The upper storey is usually of timber framed construction, by contrast, especially in North Bohemia, the upper storey is made of log cabin construction. Historisch wertvolle Gebäude und Dorfanlagen im Kreis Löbau-Zittau, verein Ländliche Bauwerte in Sachsen e. V. Dresden 2009 Jürgen Cieslak, eine einzigartige Bauweise im Dreiländereck Deutschland - Polen - Tschechien,2007, ISBN 978-3-7845-5210-1 Karl Bernert, Umgebindehäuser. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-345-00001-6 Frank Delitz, Umgebinde im Überblick, Zu Fragen der Geschichte, Zittau 1987 Karl Bernert, Jürgen Cieslak, Wir wohnen in einem Umgebindehaus, Arbeitsmaterial zur Erhaltung u. sachgemäßen Pflege d. Ges. für Denkmalpflege im Kulturbund d, jack Breen, The Umgebinde Variations, A case-based study of formal typologies and systematic compositional variety. Form & Media Studies department, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology
A box crib or cribbing is a temporary wooden structure used to support heavy objects during construction, vehicle extrication and urban search and rescue. It is commonly used to secure overturned motor vehicles, and debris within collapsed buildings, cribbing is often used in conjunction with other stabilization equipment, such as pneumatic or hydraulic shoring. Cribbing is used in mining as a roof support. Cribbing has largely replaced by hydraulic shoring in modern mining applications. Some forms of cribbing can be used on sets and production sites for stabilizing dolly tracks, platforms. Cribbing is usually accomplished with blocks of wood, often 4x4 or 6x6, soft woods, like spruce and pine are often preferred because they crack slowly and make loud noises before completely failing, whereas stiffer woods may fail explosively and without warning. Cribbing may be out of plastic, which unlike wood is not susceptible to rot or corrosion from fluids the cribbing may come in contact with. Cribbing equipment is normally of three varieties, rectangular blocks and step chocks, blocks are the bread and butter of cribbing and will be used in most cribbing evolutions.
Shims are used to snug up contact between the crib and supported object or change the direction of the crib, step chocks are often used as a quick solution for stabilizing vehicles on all fours or to quickly increase the height of a crib. Cribbing structures are often categorized by shape, different shapes of cribbing structures are chosen depending on the area available and the point being cribbed to. A box crib is the simplest, most stable and most common method of cribbing and it is constructed by arranging sets of matched blocks in a regular log-cabin style to form a rising square or rectangular frame. The more blocks on level, the greater the number of support points. In trench rescue training materials three basic types of box cribbing are the 4-point, 9-point and full crib, the four point type has two timbers on each level thus four points of contact. Three timbers on each layer makes nine points of contact, the full crib type has each layer filled with timbers. Each point of contact carries a maximum load depending on the size, a triangle or A crib is similar to the box crib, except it resembles a triangular prism instead of rectangular. A parallelogram crib resembles a diamond prism, a tilted tower crib is a box crib in which pairs of shims are used to change the direction of the rising structure, resulting in a curve.
Curving a crib must be done in moderation and is only advisable for structures at sharp angles to the ground, cribbing is often performed as part of lifting/lowering operations. Expressions such as lift an inch, crib an inch and pack as you jack are used to remind operators of the importance of cribbing to secure and protect the load