The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
Joseph Allen "Joey" Pearson is an American pop and R&B singer and actor from Hinesville, Georgia lives in San Diego, California. Joey began performing at the age of nine. Pearson was a semi-finalist on the renewed United States nationally syndicated talent show, Star Search, starring Arsenio Hall but has appeared on a Christmas episode of Jenny Jones' talk show, performed at Universal Studios in Hollywood, The Del Mar Fair located in San Diego, performed twice at the famed House of Blues in Hollywood, CA, among other venues, he earned awards from Ed McMahon's Next Big Star internet contest, a KidsTalk Young Achievers Award and a Billy Gilman Billyheads Rising Star Award. Joey is an animal lover, animal right's vegetarian. Joey is represented by Josquin Des Pres, songwriter, best-selling author and former Warner Chappell songwriter and co-writer with Bernie Taupin and is represented by Scott Carlson, manager of the rock band Veruca Salt as well as Corey Haim and Corey Feldman, among others. Joey categorizes himself as a pop/r&b/soul singer and musician and cites as his biggest influences, Stevie Wonder, Donny Hathaway, Otis Redding, Curtis Mayfield, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin, more John Legend, Elton John.
Joey continues to sing in and around the San Diego area in his local church and for the school where he is employed. He frequently posts songs on his Facebook account, accompanying himself on the piano. Something to Say, 2002 Novel, 2003 Authentic, 2006 Mirror Image, 2004 The Jenny Jones Show Star Search Myspace Channel YouTube Channel Track Star Studios
Hallmark Hall of Fame
Hallmark Hall of Fame called Hallmark Television Playhouse, is an anthology program on American television, sponsored by Hallmark Cards, a Kansas City-based greeting card company. The longest-running primetime series in the history of television, it first aired in 1951 and continues into the present day. From 1954 onward, all of its productions have been broadcast in color, it is one of the first video productions to telecast in color, a rarity in the 1950s. Many television movies have been shown on the program since its debut, though the program began with live telecasts of dramas and changed to videotaped productions before changing to filmed ones; the series has received eighty-one Emmy Awards, dozens of Christopher and Peabody Awards, nine Golden Globes, Humanitas Prizes. Once a common practice in American television, it is one of the last remaining television programs where the title includes the name of its sponsor. Unlike other long-running TV series still on the air, it differs in that it broadcasts only and not on a weekly broadcast programming schedule.
The Hall of Fame films have an above average budget and production values nearing that of a feature film. The series is the direct descendant of two old-time radio dramatic anthologies sponsored by Hallmark: Radio Reader's Digest, adapting stories from the popular magazine; the Hallmark Playhouse changed to more serious literature from all genres. Hallmark Television Playhouse debuted on December 24, 1951 on NBC television network first opera written for television and the Night Visitors featuring the ballet dancer Nicholas Magallanes. Playhouse was a weekly half hour. In 1953, the series was renamed Hallmark Hall of Fame, it was the first time a major corporation developed a television project as a means of promoting its products to the viewing public. The program was such a success that it was restaged by Hallmark several times during a period of fifteen years. Amahl was staged by other NBC television anthologies. Under the supervision of creative executives at its advertising agency, Foote and Belding in Chicago, Hallmark transformed its radio Hallmark Playhouse into a Hallmark Hall of Fame format—this time, featuring stories of pioneers of all types in America—from 1953 through 1955.
Early productions included some of the classical works of Shakespeare: Hamlet, Richard II, The Taming of the Shrew, Twelfth Night, The Tempest. Biographical subjects were eclectic, ranging from Florence Nightingale to Father Flanagan to Joan of Arc. Popular Broadway plays such as Harvey, Dial M for Murder, Kiss Me, Kate were made available to a mass audience, most of them with casts that had not appeared in the film versions released to theatres. In a few cases, the actors repeated their original Broadway roles. Noted actors such as Richard Burton, Alfred Lunt, Lynn Fontanne, Maurice Evans, Katharine Cornell, Julie Harris, Laurence Olivier and Peter Ustinov all made what were extremely rare television appearances in these plays. Two different productions of Hamlet have been broadcast on the Hallmark Hall of Fame, one featuring Maurice Evans and the other a British one featuring Richard Chamberlain; the 1953 version was the first TV broadcast of Shakespearean play. Neither one was more than two hours long.
Evans and actress Judith Anderson performed their famous stage Macbeth on the Hallmark Hall of Fame on two separate occasions, each time with a different supporting cast. The first version in 1954 was telecast live from NBC's Brooklyn color studio while the second in 1960 was filmed on location in Scotland and released to movie theatres in Europe after its American telecast; the Richard Chamberlain version of Hamlet, telecast in Britain on ITV Sunday Night Theatre, won five Emmys when telecast on the Hallmark Hall of Fame, out of a total of thirteen nominations. It may have set a record for the most-nominated Shakespeare production to be televised. In 1955, Hallmark Hall of Fame switched its format to a special series seen only four to eight times a year around greeting card holidays and in 90-minute or 120-minute length. Starting in 1970, the frequency dropped to two to three times a year; the source material were plays and novel from major authors and were produced with stage actors and actresses.
Hamlet and the other Shakespeare plays presented on Hallmark Hall of Fame were cut to fit the time limits of a standard film or of the Hallmark Hall of Fame itself, which during the 1950s,'60s and'70s never ran longer than two hours and even less. It was left to National Educational Television and Public Broadcasting Service to be the pioneers in presenting nearly complete Shakespeare productions on American television; as a result of Foote and Belding Advertising executive and producer Duane C. Bogie's influence, Hallmark Hall of Fame began to offer original material, such as Aunt Mary and Thursday's Child, although its lineup still consisted of expensive-looking Masterpiece Theatre-style adaptations of American and European literary classics, such as John Steinbeck's The Winter of Our Discontent, Robert Louis Stevenson's The Master of Ballantrae, Charles Dickens's A Tale of Two Cities, Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol. A Tale of Two Cities was the first Hallmark production to run three hours.
The late 1980s featured productions such as Foxfire, My Name is Bill W. Sarah and Tall, O Pioneers!, To Dance With the White Dog, The Piano
Serenity (2005 film)
Serenity is a 2005 American science fiction action film written and directed by Joss Whedon. It is a continuation of Whedon's short-lived 2002 Fox television series Firefly and stars the same cast, taking place after the events of the final episode. Set in 2517, Serenity is the story of the crew of Serenity, a "Firefly-class" spaceship; the captain and first mate are veterans of the Unification War, having fought on the losing Independent side against the Alliance. Their lives of smuggling and cargo-running are interrupted by a psychic passenger who harbors a dangerous secret; the film stars Alan Tudyk, Adam Baldwin, Summer Glau and Chiwetel Ejiofor. It was released in North America on September 30, 2005 by Universal Pictures to positive reviews and several accolades, including the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the Prometheus Special Award and the Nebula Award for Best Script, but underperformed at the box office. In the 26th century, humanity has left an overpopulated Earth to colonize a new solar system.
The central planets formed the Alliance and won a war against the outer planet Independents—those who resisted joining the Alliance. River Tam is conditioned by Alliance scientists into becoming an assassin, she is rescued by her brother Simon. During her training, River inadvertently read the minds of several top government officials and learned their secrets. A top Alliance agent known only as the Operative is tasked with recapturing her; the siblings have found refuge aboard the transport spaceship Serenity with Captain Malcolm "Mal" Reynolds, first mate Zoe Washburne, pilot Hoban "Wash" Washburne, mercenary Jayne Cobb, mechanic Kaylee Frye. Despite Simon's objections, Mal brings River on a bank robbery. River warns them that cannibalistic Reavers are coming, they escape. Once there, however, a subliminal message in a television commercial causes River to attack numerous bar patrons, Mal takes the siblings back aboard the ship; the crew contacts reclusive hacker Mr. Universe, who discovers the message designed to trigger River's mental conditioning.
He warns that someone else saw the footage. Mal receives an invitation to visit from a former Serenity occupant. Despite knowing it is a trap, Mal goes to rescue her; the Operative confronts Mal, promising to let him go free. Mal refuses and, with Inara's help escapes. River reveals; the crew flies to the planet Haven to ponder their next move, but they find Haven devastated and their old friend, Shepherd Book, mortally wounded. The Operative claims responsibility, promising to keep pursuing them and killing anyone who assists them until he gets River. Despite the crew's objection, Mal disguises Serenity as a Reaver ship and travels to Miranda through a Reaver fleet without being attacked. On the planet, the crew find all its colonists dead and a recording by the last surviving member of an Alliance survey team, she explains that an experimental chemical designed to suppress aggression was added into Miranda's atmosphere. A small portion, had the opposite reaction and became aggressive and violent beyond madness.
In effect, the Alliance created this is the secret River Tam had discovered. Mr. Universe agrees luring the crew to the Operative. However, the Operative kills him, orders the destruction of his transmitting equipment, prepares an ambush. Knowing this, the crew deliberately provoke the Reaver fleet into chasing them and lead them to the Alliance armada in orbit of Mr. Universe's planet; the Reavers and Alliance ships battle while Wash manages to pilot Serenity through the crossfire to the planet. The Operative's ship is destroyed but he manages to get to an escape pod and heads to the broadcast tower; the rest of the crew make a last stand against the Reavers to buy Mal time to broadcast the recording. Through a message recorded by Mr. Universe before his death, Mal learns of a backup transmitter, but the Operative comes across this message as well. Sustaining heavy injuries, the crew retreats behind a set of blast doors that fail to properly close. A Reaver shoots through the opening wounding Simon.
River dives through the doors to close them. At the backup transmitter, Mal fights the Operative subduing him and forcing him to watch the broadcast recording. Mal returns to the crew, the blast doors open to reveal that River has killed all the Reavers. Alliance troops arrive; the Operative provides medical aid and resources to repair Serenity. He tells Mal the broadcast has weakened the Alliance government, but while he will try to convince the Parliament that River and Simon are no longer threats, he warns that they will continue their pursuit in retribution for getting the word out. Serenity takes off with River as Mal's new pilot; the film is based on Firefly, a television series canceled by the Fox Broadcasting Company in December 2002, after 11 of its 14 produced episodes had aired. Attempts to have other networks acquire the series failed, creator Joss Whedon started to sell it as a
Nell Carter was an American singer and actress. Beginning her career in 1970, Carter started in theater. Carter was best known for her role as Nell Harper on the NBC sitcom Gimme a Break! which aired from 1981 to 1987. Carter received two Emmy and two Golden Globe award nominations for her work on the series. Prior to Gimme a Break!, Carter won a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical in 1978 for her performance in the Broadway musical Ain't Misbehavin', as well as an Primetime Emmy Award for her reprisal of the role on television in 1982. Born Nell Ruth Hardy in Birmingham, she was one of nine children born to Horace and Edna Mae Hardy; when she was two years old, her father was electrocuted. As a child, she began singing on a local gospel radio show and was a member of the church choir. At the age of 15, she began performing with the Renaissance Ensemble that played at area coffee houses and gay bars. On July 5, 1965, Hardy 16 years old, was raped at gunpoint by a man she knew who gave her a ride home from a performance with the Renaissance Ensemble.
Hardy became pregnant and gave birth to a daughter, the following year. Hardy found it too difficult, she sent Tracey to live with her elder sister Willie. At the age of 19, Hardy left Birmingham and moved to New York City with The Renaissance Ensemble, changing her surname to Carter. While living in New York City, Carter sang in coffee shops before landing her first role on Broadway in 1971. Carter made her Broadway debut in the 1971 rock opera Soon, she was the Music Director for the 1974 Westbeth Playwrights Feminist Collective's production of "What Time of Night It Is". Carter appeared alongside Bette Davis in the 1974 stage musical Miss Moffat, based on Davis' earlier film The Corn Is Green; the show closed before making it to Broadway. She broke into stardom in the musical Ain't Misbehavin, for which she won a Tony Award in 1978, she won an Emmy for the same role in a televised performance in 1982. Additional Broadway credits included Annie. In 1979, she had a part in the Miloš Forman-directed musical film adaptation of Hair.
Her vocal talents are showcased throughout the motion picture soundtrack. In 1978, Carter was cast as Effie White in the Broadway musical Dreamgirls, but departed the production during development to take a television role on the ABC soap opera, Ryan's Hope in New York; when Dreamgirls premiered in late 1981, Jennifer Holliday had taken over the lead. In 1981, Carter took a role on television's The Misadventures of Sheriff Lobo, before landing the lead role of Nell Harper on the sitcom Gimme a Break!. The series was a ratings earned Carter a Golden Globe and Emmy Award nominations. Gimme a Break! Aired from 1981 to 1987. In August 1987, after the cancellation of Gimme a Break!, Carter returned to the nightclub circuit with a five-month national tour with comedian Joan Rivers. In 1989, she shot a pilot for NBC entitled Morton's By the Bay, which aired as a one-time special in May of that year. In this, Carter played the assistant to the owner of a banquet hall, the focus was on her and her mad-cap staff.
Alan Ruck and Jann Karam co-starred. NBC passed on the series development. In October of that same year, she performed "The Star-Spangled Banner" prior to Game 4 of the 1989 World Series, played at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California; the following year, Carter starred. The series, perceived as being the black answer to Roseanne due to its portrayal of a working-class African-American family, featured Carter as a crass, no-nonsense mother and wife. You Take the Kids faced poor ratings and reviews, had a month's run from December 1990 to January 1991. During the early 1990s, Carter appeared in low-budget films, TV specials, on game shows such as Match Game'90 and To Tell the Truth, she co-starred in Hangin' with Mr. Cooper from 1993 to 1995. In the mid-1990s, Carter appeared on Broadway in a revival of Annie as Miss Hannigan, she was upset when commercials promoting the show used a different actress, Marcia Lewis, a white actress, as Miss Hannigan. The producers stated that the commercials, which were made during an earlier production, were too costly to reshoot.
Carter said. "Maybe they don't want audiences to know Nell Carter is black", she told the New York Post. "It hurts a lot", Carter told the Post, "I've asked them nicely to stop it—it's insulting to me as a black woman." Carter was replaced by Sally Struthers. In 2001, she appeared as a special guest star on the pilot episode of the new WB show Reba and continued with the show, making three appearances in season one; the following year, Carter made two appearances on Ally McBeal. The following year had her rehearsing for a production of Raisin, a stage musical of A Raisin in the Sun in Long Beach and filming a movie, Swing. Carter's final onscreen appearance was in the comedy film Back by Midnight, it was released in two years after her death. Carter self-identified as Pentecostal. After Gimme a Break! began, Carter's life took a turbulent turn. She attempted suicide in the early 1980s and entered a drug detoxification facility around 1985, her brother, died of complications due to AIDS in 1989. Carter married mathematician and lumber executive George Krynicki, converted to Judaism in 1982.
Carter filed for d
Lucas Jones is a fictional character from the original ABC Daytime soap opera, General Hospital. Born onscreen in 1989, the character was played by several child actors, most notably by Justin Cooper from 1996 to 1998 and Logan O'Brien from 1998 to 2002; the character was aged in 2002 and Evan Bonifant took over the role before he was replaced by C. J. Thomason who last appeared in 2003; the role was recast with Ryan Carnes in 2004. Carnes left the role in 2005, was replaced by Ben Hogestyn. Hogestyn left the series in 2006. In late 2013, it was announced. Lucas is the adopted son of Dr. Tony Jones and his ex-wife, Bobbie Spencer, the biological son of crime lord Julian Jerome, Cheryl Stansbury; as an infant, Lucas is at the center of a bitter custody battle between former friends and Tiffany Hill, Cheryl's sister. Under head writer, Robert Guza, Lucas is close with his adoptive cousins and Georgie Jones. In 2005, Lucas became the first character in General Hospital history to earn his Ph. D. After Tony's death in early 2006, the character was written out of the series.
In 2013, Lucas became a subject of conversation again when it was revealed that Julian was alive, Lucas is contacted by his new-found sister Sam for a DNA test. The role was played by Nicholas Moody in 1989 upon the character's onscreen birth; the role was portrayed by siblings and Chuckie Gravino from 1992 to 1994. The Gravino siblings had appeared on The Young and the Restless as Phillip Chancellor IV. Jay Sacane appeared in the role from 1994 to 1996. Justin Cooper took over the role from 1996 to 1998. Logan O'Brien stepped into the role in August 1998. O'Brien left the series in 2002. Evan Bonifant stepped into the role on September 6, 2002, when the character was aged. Bonifant made is final appearance on December 18, was replaced by C. J. Thomason. Thomason made his debut on December 24, 2002. Thomason made his final appearance on June 11, 2003. In 2004, the role was recast and Ryan Carnes stepped into the role. Ryan Carnes first auditioned for the role in May 2004. Carnes auditioned for a third time on June 2, 2004 and filmed his first scenes on June 16.
At the time, Carnes was on vacation in Hawaii when he was called back to California for his final audition. However, his car broke down on the way to his audition, he was able to get a ride with his acting coach. After the audition, Carnes returned to his car and was forced wait another three hours to have his car towed. During his wait, Carnes learned he had booked the recurring role of Lucas with his first air date slated for July 8, 2004. In 2005, it was announced Carnes would depart the series and would be replaced by Ben Hogestyn, just before Lucas revealed his sexuality. According to TV Guide, Carnes was fearful of being typecast in gay roles, due to his previous work on television series, Desperate Housewives and the film Eating Out. A representative for the actor claimed Carnes had planned to leave the series due several upcoming gigs, but chose to vacate the role earlier before the series delved into Lucas's storyline instead of having the role recast in the middle of the story. Carnes last appeared on September 21, Hogestyn stepped into the role on September 22.
Hogestyn, only with the show on a recurring status, left in 2006 to pursue a full-time role on The Bold and the Beautiful. According to writer Dave Goldschmid, the role was supposed to be recast at some point, but the recast never happened. In May 2013, General Hospital Happenings reported the producers had put out several casting calls, one of, for the role of Lucas. In October 2013, SoapZone.com reported the role had been cast and the new hire was a "hot commodity." The casting call, which lasted for several months was cancelled in mid November 2013. Starting on December 4, 2013, through Twitter, Ryan Carnes began referencing various locations with the word "Port" in the names. In December 2013, executive producer, Frank Valentini confirmed to Soaps In Depth that Ryan Carnes would reprise the role of Lucas. Following the announcement, Carnes updated his Twitter with the simple message: "Ah, Port Charles, it is!"Carnes filmed his first return scenes on December 11, 2013. Carnes first episode was slated for January 16, 2014, but was pushed back to January 17 due to news coverage.
In response to bringing Carnes back to the role, Valentini said it was important to maintain continuity of who had played Lucas. Valentini contacted Carnes. Head writer, Ron Carlivati said he was the most familiar face, he shared a resemblance to William DeVry, who played Julian, "and it just made sense."Carnes said he was quite shocked by the offer to reprise the role. A friend of Ryan Carnes', a fan of the show saw the onscreen events on unfolding and told Carnes that he expected Lucas coming back to the canvas; the casting department asked if he was interested. From 2002 to 2006, Lucas is integrated into a group of younger characters which consist of his adoptive cousins and Georgie. Lucas and Georgie dated in high school, he took her to prom only for Maxie to ruin their date. Though they were not biologically related, neither pairing caught on with fans. Lucas dated Brook Lynn Ashton while he supported Georgie during her troubled romance with Dillon Quartermaine. In late August 2005, TV Guide revealed the series had planned a Coming out story for the character of Lucas.
With the announcement of Carnes's departure shortly after, a rep said the storyline
Joseph Hill Whedon is an American screenwriter, producer, comic book writer, composer. He is the founder of Mutant Enemy Productions and co-founder of Bellwether Pictures, is best known as the creator of several television series, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Firefly and Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D.. Whedon co-wrote the Pixar animated film Toy Story and directed the Firefly film continuation Serenity, co-wrote and directed the Internet miniseries Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog, co-wrote and produced the horror comedy film The Cabin in the Woods, he wrote and directed the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero films The Avengers and its sequel Avengers: Age of Ultron, co-wrote the script for the DC Extended Universe superhero film Justice League, for which he served as director on reshoots. Born in New York City on June 23, 1964 as Joseph1 Hill Whedon, being a third-generation TV writer, he is a son of Tom Whedon, a screenwriter for Alice in the 1970s and The Golden Girls in the 1980s, a grandson of John Whedon, who worked on The Donna Reed Show in the 1950s and The Dick Van Dyke Show in the 1960s, as well as writing for radio shows like The Great Gildersleeve.
His mother, Ann Lee Stearns from Kentucky, was a teacher at Riverdale Country School as Lee Whedon, an aspiring novelist. His parents had both acted, appeared in a play together at the Harvard Radcliffe Dramatic Club. Whedon is the younger sibling of Samuel and Matthew Whedon and older sibling of writers Jed and Zack Whedon. At a young age, he showed great interest in British television with series like Masterpiece and Monty Python, he started out as a staff writer for 1990 sitcom Rosanne Whedon attended Riverdale Country School in New York City where his mother taught history. He spent three years at Winchester College in England, taking note of omnipresent bullying, he concluded, "it was clear to me from the start that I must take an active role in my survival". Whedon graduated from Wesleyan University in 1987, where he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters in 2013. There, he studied under renowned academic Richard Slotkin. After leaving Wesleyan, Whedon came up with the first incarnation of Buffy Summers, "Rhonda, the Immortal Waitress".
From 1989 to 1990, Whedon worked as a staff writer on the sitcoms Parenthood. As a script doctor, Whedon was an uncredited writer on films including The Getaway, Speed and Twister. X-Men, on which Whedon worked on an early draft, contained at least two dialogue exchanges of Whedon's contribution, while the final cut of Speed left in most of his dialogue. While he was script consulting, he wrote Buffy the Vampire Slayer—the film that would precede the series—Alien Resurrection and an early draft for Atlantis: The Lost Empire and co-wrote Toy Story and Titan A. E. the former of which earned him a shared Academy Award nomination for Best Original Screenplay. Whedon has expressed strong dissatisfaction with the released versions of the films Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Titan A. E. and Alien Resurrection. In 1997, Whedon created his first television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer.2 The series depicts Buffy Summers, the latest in a line of young women called to battle against vampires and other forces of darkness.
The idea came directly from his aversion to seeing the Hollywood formula of "the little blonde girl who goes into a dark alley and gets killed in every horror movie". Whedon said he wanted to subvert the idea and create someone, a hero; this conception came from "the first mission statement of the show, the joy of female power: having it, using it, sharing it". The writing process came together from conversations about the emotional issues facing Buffy Summers, how she would confront them in her battle against supernatural forces. Whedon directed episodes from his own scripts that held the most cathartic moments in Buffy's story; the series received numerous awards and nominations, including an Emmy Award nomination for the 1999 episode "Hush". The 2001 episode "The Body" was nominated for a Nebula Award in 2002, the fall 2001 musical episode "Once More, with Feeling" was nominated for a Best Dramatic Presentation Hugo Award and a Best Script Nebula Award; the final episode "Chosen" was nominated for a Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form Hugo Award in 2003.
All written and directed by Whedon, they are considered some the most effective and popular episodes of the series. Scholar A. Asbjørn Jøn recognized that the series has shifted the way vampires have since been depicted in popular culture representations. Since the end of the series, Whedon has stated that his initial intention was to produce a "cult" television series and acknowledged a corresponding "rabid insane fan base" that subsequently emerged. In June 2012, Slate magazine identified it as the most written about popular culture text of all time. "ore than twice as many papers and books have been devoted to the vampire drama than any of our other choices—so many that we stopped counting when we hit 200". A lifelong comic book fan, Whedon authored the Dark Horse Comics miniseries Fray, which takes place in the far future of the Buffyverse. Like many writers of the show, he contributed to the series' comic book continuation, writing for the anthology Tales of the Slayers, the main storyline of the miniseries Tales of the Vampires.
Whedon and the other writers released a new ongoing series, taking place after the series finale "Chosen", which he recognizes as the canonical eighth season. Whedon returned to the world of Fray during the season eight-story arc "Time of Your