Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, descriptions, or skills, acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to a practical understanding of a subject, it can be explicit. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception and reasoning; the eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible by the notion that philosophy's core was "theory of knowledge," a theory distinct from the sciences because it was their foundation... Without this idea of a "theory of knowledge," it is hard to imagine what "philosophy" could have been in the age of modern science; the definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology. The classical definition, described but not endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified and believed.
Some claim that these conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples demonstrate. There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert Nozick's arguments for a requirement that knowledge'tracks the truth' and Simon Blackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet any of these conditions'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge. Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth. In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moore's paradox, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on this account, to know that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular task with the statement that the kettle is boiling.
Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natural languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance. Following this idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but, not adequately captured by any definition. Symbolic representations can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, audio and video recordings. Philosophers of language and semioticians construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication. While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant tools for the transfer of knowledge is writing and reading, argument over the usefulness of the written word exists nonetheless, with some scholars skeptical of its impact on societies. In his collection of essays Technopoly, Neil Postman demonstrates the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt from Plato's work Phaedrus.
In this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. In this story, Theuth presents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new invention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians". King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge, he argues that the written word will infect the Egyptian people with fake knowledge as they will be able to attain facts and stories from an external source and will no longer be forced to mentally retain large quantities of knowledge themselves. Classical early modern theories of knowledge those advancing the influential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke, were based implicitly or explicitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words; this analogy between language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowledge in which the mind was treated as a table, a container of content, that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters, numbers or symbols.
This created a situation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognitive weight, so much so that educators paid close attention to the visual structure of information on the page and in notebooks. Major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge, it is only that audio and video technology for recording knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay equipment and electricity. Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limited to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could interpret wr
Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, several different definitions exist, which include the rational, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, self-corrective thinking, it presupposes assent to rigorous standards of mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism and sociocentrism; the earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight, he demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief, he established the importance of seeking evidence examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational lack of reliable knowledge. Socrates demonstrated, he established the method of questioning beliefs inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance. Socrates set the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking, namely, to reflectively question common beliefs and explanations distinguishing beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those that—however appealing to our native egocentrism, however much they serve our vested interests, however comfortable or comforting they may be—lack adequate evidence or rational foundation to warrant belief.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves; the "first wave" of critical thinking is referred to as a'critical analysis', clear, rational thinking involving critique. Its details vary amongst those. According to Barry K. Beyer, critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments. During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, judged; the U. S. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of and skillfully conceptualizing, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, experience, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action." In the term critical thinking, the word critical, derives from the word critic and implies a critique. The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable to the teaching practice and vision of Socrates 2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.
Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: "The process of and skillfully conceptualizing, analyzing and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion" "Disciplined thinking, clear, open-minded, informed by evidence" "Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based" "Includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs" The skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism Thinking about one's thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify, raise the efficiency of, recognize errors and biases in one's own thinking. Critical thinking is not'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems. Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking.
"An appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation"Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities and processes such as creativity, discovery, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity and inconclusiveness. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices; the ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking. "First wave" logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought. It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his ess
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Aaron T. Beck
Aaron Temkin Beck is an American psychiatrist, professor emeritus in the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. He is regarded as the father of cognitive therapy, his pioneering theories are used in the treatment of clinical depression. Beck developed self-report measures of depression and anxiety, notably the Beck Depression Inventory which became one of the most used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology and psychometrics, he has published more than 600 professional journal articles, authored or co-authored 25 books. He has been named one of the "Americans in history who shaped the face of American Psychiatry", one of the "five most influential psychotherapists of all time" by The American Psychologist in July 1989, his work at the University of Pennsylvania inspired Martin Seligman to refine his own cognitive techniques and work on learned helplessness. Beck is the President Emeritus of the non-profit Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy which he and his psychologist daughter, Judith S. Beck, set up in 1994.
Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, US, the youngest child of four siblings to Russian Jewish immigrants. Beck was married in 1950 to Phyllis W. Beck, the first woman judge on the appellate court of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, they have four adult children: Roy, Judy and Alice. Beck's daughter Judith is a prominent cognitive behavioral therapy educator and clinician, who wrote the basic text in the field, she is President of the non-profit Beck Institute. Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942. At Brown he was elected a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, was an associate editor of The Brown Daily Herald, received the Francis Wayland Scholarship, William Gaston Prize for Excellence in Oratory, Philo Sherman Bennett Essay Award. Beck attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an MD in 1946, he began to specialize in neurology liking the precision of its procedures. However, due to a shortage of psychiatry residents he was instructed to do a six-month rotation in that field, became absorbed in psychoanalysis, despite initial wariness.
After completing his medical internships and residencies from 1946 to 1950, Beck became Fellow in psychiatry at the Austen Riggs Center, a private mental hospital in the mountains of Stockbridge, until 1952. At that time it was a center of ego psychology with unusually cross-disciplinary work between psychiatrists and psychologists, including David Rapaport. Beck completed military service as assistant chief of neuropsychiatry at Valley Forge Army Hospital in the United States Military. Beck joined the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1954; the department chair was Kenneth Ellmaker Appel, a psychoanalyst, president of the American Psychiatric Association, whose efforts to expand the presence and connections of psychiatry had a big influence on Beck's career. At the same time, Beck began formal training in psychoanalysis at the Philadelphia Institute of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Beck's closest colleague was Marvin Stein, a friend since their army hospital days to whom Beck looked up for his scientific rigor in psychoneuroimmunology.
Beck's first research was with Leon Saul, a psychoanalyst known for unusual methods such as therapy by telephone or setting homework, who had developed inventory questionnaires to quantify ego processes in the manifest content of dreams. Beck and a graduate student developed a new inventory they used to assess "masochistic" hostility in manifest dreams, published in 1959; this study found themes of loss and rejection related to depression, rather than inverted hostility as predicted by psychoanalysis. Developing the work with NIMH funding, Beck came up with what he would call the Beck Depression Inventory, which he published in 1961 and soon started to market, unsupported by Appel. In another experiment, he found that depressed patients sought encouragement or improvement following disapproval, rather than seeking out suffering and failure as predicted by the Freudian anger-turned-inwards theory. Through the 1950s, Beck adhered to the department's psychoanalytic theories while developing his experimentation and harboring some private doubts.
In 1961, controversy over whom to appoint as the new chair of psychiatry—specifically, fierce psychoanalytic opposition to the favored choice of biomedical researcher Eli Robins—brought matters to a head, an early skirmish in a power shift away from psychoanalysis nationally. Beck, with Albert J. Stunkard, opposed a petition to block Robins. Stunkard, a behaviorist who specialized in obesity and who had dropped out of psychoanalytic training, was appointed department head in the face of sustained opposition which again Beck would not engage in, putting him at bitter odds with his friend Stein. On top of this, despite having graduated from his Philadelphia training, the American Psychoanalytic Institute rejected Beck's membership application in 1960, skeptical of his claims of success from brief therapy and advising he conduct further supervised therapy on the more advanced or termination phases of a case, again in 1961 when he had not done so but outlined his clinical and research work; such deferments were a tactic used by the Institute to maintain the orthodoxy in teaching, but Beck did not know this at the time and has described the decision as stupid and dumb.
Beck explains his increasing belief in his cognitive model by reference to a patient he had been listening to for a year at the Penn clin
A decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs, utility. It is one way. Decision trees are used in operations research in decision analysis, to help identify a strategy most to reach a goal, but are a popular tool in machine learning. A decision tree is a flowchart-like structure in which each internal node represents a "test" on an attribute, each branch represents the outcome of the test, each leaf node represents a class label; the paths from root to leaf represent classification rules. In decision analysis, a decision tree and the related influence diagram are used as a visual and analytical decision support tool, where the expected values of competing alternatives are calculated. A decision tree consists of three types of nodes: Decision nodes – represented by squares Chance nodes – represented by circles End nodes – represented by trianglesDecision trees are used in operations research and operations management.
If, in practice, decisions have to be taken online with no recall under incomplete knowledge, a decision tree should be paralleled by a probability model as a best choice model or online selection model algorithm. Another use of decision trees is. Decision trees, influence diagrams, utility functions, other decision analysis tools and methods are taught to undergraduate students in schools of business, health economics, public health, are examples of operations research or management science methods. Drawn from left to right, a decision tree has only burst nodes but no sink nodes. Therefore, used manually, they can grow big and are often hard to draw by hand. Traditionally, decision trees have been created manually — as the aside example shows — although specialized software is employed; the decision tree can be linearized into decision rules, where the outcome is the contents of the leaf node, the conditions along the path form a conjunction in the if clause. In general, the rules have the form: if condition1 and condition2 and condition3 outcome.
Decision rules can be generated by constructing association rules with the target variable on the right. They can denote temporal or causal relations. A decision tree is drawn using flowchart symbols as it is easier for many to read and understand. Analysis can take into account the decision maker's preference or utility function, for example: The basic interpretation in this situation is that the company prefers B's risk and payoffs under realistic risk preference coefficients. Another example used in operations research courses, is the distribution of lifeguards on beaches; the example describes two beaches with lifeguards to be distributed on each beach. There is maximum budget B that can be distributed among the two beaches, using a marginal returns table, analysts can decide how many lifeguards to allocate to each beach. In this example, a decision tree can be drawn to illustrate the principles of diminishing returns on beach #2; the decision tree illustrates that when sequentially distributing lifeguards, placing a first lifeguard on beach #1 would be optimal if there is only the budget for 1 lifeguard.
But if there is a budget for two guards placing both on beach #2 would prevent more overall drownings. Much of the information in a decision tree can be represented more compactly as an influence diagram, focusing attention on the issues and relationships between events. Decision trees can be seen as generative models of induction rules from empirical data. An optimal decision tree is defined as a tree that accounts for most of the data, while minimizing the number of levels. Several algorithms to generate such optimal trees have been devised, such as ID3/4/5, CLS, ASSISTANT, CART. Among decision support tools, decision trees have several advantages. Decision trees: Are simple to interpret. People are able to understand decision tree models after a brief explanation. Have value with little hard data. Important insights can be generated based on experts describing a situation and their preferences for outcomes. Help determine worst and expected values for different scenarios. Use a white box model.
If a given result is provided by a model. Can be combined with other decision techniques. Disadvantages of decision trees: They are unstable, meaning that a small change in the data can lead to a large change in the structure of the optimal decision tree, they are relatively inaccurate. Many other predictors perform better with similar data; this can be remedied by replacing a single decision tree with a random forest of decision trees, but a random forest is not as easy to interpret as a single decision tree. For data including categorical variables with different number of levels, information gain in decision trees is biased in favor of those attributes with more levels. Calculations can get complex if many values are uncertain and/or if many outcomes are linked. Extensive Decision Tree tutorials and examples Gallery of example decision trees
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure; because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction; the rationalists had such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence were regarded as unnecessary to ascertain certain truths – in other words, "there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience".
Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the more extreme position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge". Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic clear interpretation of authority. In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive "Classical Political Rationalism" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. In the 17th-century Dutch Republic, the rise of early modern-period rationalism — as a systematic school of philosophy in its own right for the first time in history — exerted an immense and profound influence on modern Western thought in general, with the birth of two influential rationalistic philosophical systems of Descartes and Spinoza — namely Cartesianism and Spinozism, it was the 17th-century arch-rationalists like Descartes and Leibniz who have given the "Age of Reason" its name and place in history.
In politics, since the Enlightenment emphasized a "politics of reason" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism was softened by the adoption of pluralistic methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology. In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham noted how rationalism, a methodology, became conflated with atheism, a worldview: In the past in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term'rationalist' was used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force; the use of the label'rationalist' to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today. But the old usage still survives. Rationalism is contrasted with empiricism. Taken broadly, these views are not mutually exclusive, since a philosopher can be both rationalist and empiricist. Taken to extremes, the empiricist view holds that all ideas come to us a posteriori, to say, through experience.
The empiricist believes that knowledge is based on or derived directly from experience. The rationalist believes we come to knowledge a priori – through the use of logic – and is thus independent of sensory experience. In other words, as Galen Strawson once wrote, "you can see. You don't have to get up off your couch and go outside and examine the way things are in the physical world. You don't have to do any science." Between both philosophies, the issue at hand is the fundamental source of human knowledge and the proper techniques for verifying what we think we know. Whereas both philosophies are under the umbrella of epistemology, their argument lies in the understanding of the warrant, under the wider epistemic umbrella of the theory of justification; the theory of justification is the part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant and probability.
Of these four terms, the term, most used and discussed by the early 21st century is "warrant". Loosely speaking, justification is the reason. If "A" makes a claim, "B" casts doubt on it, "A"'s next move would be to provide justification; the precise method one uses to provide justification is where the lines are drawn between rationalism and empiricism. Much of the debate in these fields are focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth and justification. At its core, rationalism consists of three basic claims. For one to consider themselves a rationalist, they must adopt at least one of these three claims: The Intuition/Deduction Thesis, The Innate Knowledge Thesis, or The Innate Concept Thesis. In addition, rationalists can choose to adopt the claims of Indispensability of Reason and or the