Ittiri is a comune in the Province of Sassari in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 160 kilometres northwest of Cagliari and about 15 kilometres south of Sassari. It is part of the Logudoro traditional region. Ittiri is located on a plateau at m. 450 on the sea level. The territory, made up of high plateaus of trachytic and basaltic rocks, is rugged and crossed by valleys destined for cultivation. Characteristic is the historical center where there are several baroque palaces in liberty / deco style with particular balconies and facades of houses embellished by the Ittcherian trachite. Church of San Pietro in Vincoli. Church cistercian COUNTRY of "N. S Coros". Numerous nuraghe and Giant's tombs sites, necropolises Baroness Palace Sussarellu S'Arcus, old town Hospital G. A. Alivesi Sa Figu Archaeological Complex. Ochila Necropolis. Necropolis and tomb of Musellos. Cistercian Abbey of Santa Maria di Paulis. Nuraghe Majore of Nuraghe Monte Torru. Fontana S'Abbadorzu. Church of San Francesco, former Franciscan convent and ex-convent restored and used as a Franciscan library.
Primary School St. John Bosco. Old town with Liberty style façade features. Museum of the radio "Mario Faedda", with annexed antique mill. - By decree of April 24, 2000, the President of the Republic granted Ittiri the institutional title of the city. Ittiri's economy is linked to the handicraft sector. There are many farms specializing in the production of vegetables, among which we cite the Sardinian spiky artichoke. In the dairy sector, Ittiri offers a large production of sheep cheese, most exported to United States of America. In the craft sector, at Ittiri there are many companies that produce typical Sardinian sweets, including the famous "Piricchitto" typical sweet from Ittiri. In the construction industry, there are many craft businesses, some deal with local stone processing the trachytis Ittiritmi, the International Music and Ethnic Music Festival, was conducted in mid-July in the first half of August; the 2015 edition is the 25th edition and every year artists from all over the world perform.
For some years, besides music, other artistic forms such as theater and photography have been hosted. The event is organized by the Pro Loco. Ittiri Folk Party is held in the third week of July. International exhibition of popular music and folk dances, parade in the streets of the city, exhibition of antiques and tasting typical local products; the show came to the 32nd edition in 2017 and is organized by the Folklore Association Ittiri Cannedu. Prendas de Ittiri, the fair of the agro-food products and the Ittirian handicrafts; the biennial of trachyte, where numerous sculptures have been exhibited in streets and squares. Rock'n' wine, an event that combines a regional wine show with the emerging rock band music of northern Sardinia, takes place in the first week of July. Cantigos de sos tres Re, an itinerant event on the hustle and bustle of ancient traditions, takes place during the Christmas season and is handled by the Boghes and Ammentos Cultural Association. CantInCoro, Sardinian Cori Traditional Show of Sardinia, organized by the Istituto Folkloristico Cultural Choir of Ittiri takes place on Saturday before Christmas.
Ittirese Carnival with parades and parties. Field Day Coros, amateur-radio gathering. Official website
The Logudoro is a large traditional region in central-northern Sardinia, Italy. The local dialect is known as Logudorese. Composed of soft volcanic terrains, it is the most fertile area of the island. For this reason it was settled since early Prehistoric times, as shown by the presence of numerous nuraghe. During the Roman domination it was one of the main grain supplier of the Empire, was the seat of several legions, which guarded it from the never-Romanized population of the inner areas. In the Middle Ages, it was the center of one of the four quasi-kingdoms in which Sardinia was divided, the Giudicato di Torres or Logoduro, the first capital being Ardara replaced by Sassari. To this period date the numerous countryside Romanesque basilicas. After the conquest of the giudicato by the House of Aragon, Logoduro declined, until the decision to move the seat of the governor to Cagliari made it marginal. Under the Savoy rule as part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, it gave shelter of bands of anti-governative brigands.
In the early 20th century the construction of roads and railways brought more prosperity, but at the same time destroyed the large forest heritage of the region. The demographic pressure and the reduced competitivity of the local grain production in the Italian market pushed numerous Logoduresi to emigrate in the 1950s, first in the main Sardinian cities and to the Italian northern mainland. Giudicato di Torres
Regional Italian, sometimes called dialects of Italian, is any regional variety of the Italian language. Such regional varieties and standard Italian exist along a sociolect continuum, are not to be confused with the actual languages of Italy that predate the national tongue or any regional dialect thereof; the various forms of Regional Italian have phonological and lexical features which originate from the underlying substrate of the original language. The various Tuscan and Central Italian dialects are, to some extent, the closest ones to Standard Italian in terms of linguistic features, since the latter is based on a somewhat polished form of Florentine; the difference between Regional Italian and the actual languages of Italy imprecisely referred to as dialects, is exemplified by the following: in Venetian, the language spoken in Veneto, "we are arriving" would be translated into sémo drio rivàr, quite distinct from the Standard Italian stiamo arrivando. In the regional Italian of Veneto, the same expression would be stémo rivando or siamo dietro ad arrivare.
The same relationship holds throughout the rest of Italy: the local dialect of standard Italian is influenced by the underlying regional language, which can be different from Italian with regard to phonology, morphology and vocabulary. Anyone who knows Standard Italian well can understand Regional Italian, while not managing to grasp the regional languages. Many contemporary Italian regions had different substrata before the conquest of Italy and the islands by the ancient Romans: Northern Italy had a Celtic, a Ligurian and a Venetic substratum. Central Italy had an Etruscan substratum, Southern Italy had an Italic and Greek substratum, Sardinia had a Nuragic and Punic substratum; these languages in their respective territories contributed in creolising Latin, the official language of the Roman Empire. Though the Sicilian School, using the Sicilian language, had been prominent earlier, by the 14th century the Tuscan dialect of Florence had gained prestige once Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio all wrote major works in it: the Divina Commedia, the Canzoniere and the Decameron.
It was up to Pietro Bembo, a Venetian, to identify Florentine as the language for the peninsula in the Prose della volgar lingua in which he set up Petrarch as the perfect model. Italian, was a literary language and so was a written rather than spoken language, except in Tuscany and Corsica; the creation of a unified Italian language was the main goal of Alessandro Manzoni, who advocated building a national language derived from Florence's vernacular with some inputs from Lombard and Venetian. Italian was an unwieldy means for expressing thought. Having lived in Paris for a long time, Manzoni had noticed that French, on the contrary, was a lively language, spoken by ordinary people in the city's streets; the only Italian city where common people spoke something similar to literary Italian was Florence, so he thought that Italians should choose Florentine as the basis for the national language. The Italian Peninsula's history of fragmentation and colonization by foreign powers between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and its unification in 1861 played a considerable role in further jeopardizing the linguistic situation.
When the unification process took place, the newly founded country used Italian as a literary language. Many Romance and non-Romance regional languages were spoken throughout the Italian Peninsula and the islands, each with their own local dialects. Following Italian unification Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio, one of Cavour's ministers, is said to have stated that while Italy had been created, there still was to create Italians. Italian as a spoken language was born in two "linguistic labs" consisting of the metropolitan areas in Milan and Rome, which functioned as magnets for internal migration. Immigrants were only left with the national language as a lingua franca to communicate with both the locals and other immigrants. After unification, Italian started to be taught at primary schools and its use by ordinary people increased along with mass literacy; the regional dialects of Italian, as a product of standard Italian clashing with the regional languages, were born. The various regional languages would be retained by the population as their normal means of expression until the 1950s, when breakthroughs in literacy and the advent of TV broadcasting made Italian become more and more widespread in its regional varieties.
The solution to the so-called language question, which concerned Manzoni, came to the nation as a whole in the second half of the 20th century by television, as its widespread adoption as a popular household appliance in Italy was the main factor in helping all Italians learn the common national language regardless of class or education level. At the same time, many southerners moved to the north to find jobs; the powerful trade unions campaigned against the use of dialects to maintain unity among the workers. The use of Standard Italian helped the southerners, whose "dialects" were not mutually intelligible with those of northerners, assimilate; the large number of mixed marriages in large industrial cities such as Milan and Turin, resulted in a generation that could speak only Standard Italian and only understand their parents' "dialects". Within North American Italian diaspora communities, Italian dialects that have nearly died o
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The Nuragic civilization known as the Nuragic culture was a civilization or culture on the island of Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, which lasted from the 18th century BCE to 238 BCE when the Romans colonized the island. Others date the culture as lasting at least until the 2nd century CE or even to the 6th century CE; the adjective "Nuragic" derives from the island's most characteristic monument, the nuraghe, a tower-fortress type of construction the ancient Sardinians built in large numbers starting from about 1800 BCE. Today more than 7,000 nuraghes dot the Sardinian landscape. No written records of this civilization have been discovered, apart from a few possible short epigraphic documents belonging to the last stages of the Nuragic civilization; the only written information there comes from classical literature of the Greeks and Romans, may be considered more mythological than historical. In the Stone Age the island was first inhabited by people who had arrived there in the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages from Europe and the Mediterranean area.
The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in northern Sardinia. Several cultures developed on the island, such as the Ozieri culture; the economy was based on agriculture, animal husbandry and trading with the mainland. With the diffusion of metallurgy and copper objects and weapons appeared on the island. Remains from this period include hundreds of menhirs and dolmens, more than 2,400 hypogeum tombs called domus de Janas, the statue menhirs, representing warriors or female figures, the stepped pyramid of Monte d'Accoddi, near Sassari, which show some similarities with the monumental complex of Los Millares and the talaiots in the Balearic Islands. According to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and those found in Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from the Eastern Mediterranean; the altar of Monte d'Accoddi fell out of use starting from c. 2000 BCE, when the Beaker culture, which at the time was widespread in all western Europe, appeared on the island.
The beakers arrived in Sardinia from two different regions: firstly from Spain and southern France, secondly from Central Europe, through the Italian Peninsula. The Bonnanaro culture was the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia, displayed several similarities with the contemporary Polada culture of northern Italy; these two cultures shared common features in the material culture such as undecorated pottery with axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread to Sardinia via Corsica, where they absorbed new architectural techniques that were widespread on the island. New peoples coming from the mainland arrived on the island at that time, bringing with them new religious philosophies, new technologies and new ways of life, making obsolete the previous ones or reinterpreting them, it is in virtue of stimuli and models from the Central European and Polada-Rhone areas, that the culture of Bonnanaro I gives a jolt to the known and produces in step with the times. From the severe, practical character and essentiality of the material equipment, we understand the nature and the warlike habit of the newcomers and the conflictual thrust that they give to life on the island.
This is confirmed by the presence of metal weapons. The metal spreads in objects of use, ornamental objects It seems to feel a fall of ideologies of the old pre-nuragic world corresponding to a new historical turning point The widespread diffusion of bronze brought numerous improvements. With the new alloy of copper and tin, or arsenic, a harder and more resistant metal was obtained, suitable for manufacturing tools used in agriculture and warfare. From this period dates the construction of the so-called proto-nuraghe, a platformlike structure that marks the first phase of the Nuragic Age; these buildings are different from the classical nuraghe having an irregular planimetry and a stocky appearance. Dating to the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, the nuraghe, which evolved from the previous proto-nuraghe, are megalithic towers with a truncated cone shape, they are widespread in the whole of Sardinia, about one nuraghe every three square kilometers. Early Greek historians and geographers speculated about their builders.
They described the presence of fabulous edifices, called daidaleia, from the name of Daedalus, after building his labyrinth in Crete, would have moved to Sicily and to Sardinia. Modern theories about their use have included social, religious, or astronomical roles, as furnaces, or as tombs. Although the question has long been contentious among scholars, the modern consensus is that they were built as defensible homesites, that included barns and silos. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE, archaeological studies have proved the increasing size of the settlements built around some of these structures, which were located at the summit of hills. For protection reasons, new towers were added to the original ones, connected by walls provided with slits forming a complex nuraghe. Among the most famous of the numerous existing nuraghe, are the Su Nuraxi at Barumini, Santu Antine at Torralba, Nuraghe Losa at Abbasanta, Nuraghe Palmavera at Alghero, Nuraghe Genna Maria at Villanovaforru, Nuraghe
The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris Colloquial Latin, or Common Romance, was a range of non-standard sociolects of Latin spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire. Compared to Classical Latin, written documentation of Vulgar Latin appears less standardized; the Romance languages, such as French, Portuguese and Spanish all evolved from Vulgar Latin and not from Classical Latin. Works written in Latin during classical times and the earlier Middle Ages used prescribed Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, with few exceptions, thus Vulgar Latin had no official orthography of its own. In Renaissance Latin, Vulgar Latin was called vulgare Latinum vulgare. By its nature, Vulgar Latin varied by region and by time period, though several major divisions can be seen. Vulgar Latin dialects began to diverge from Classical Latin by the third century during the classical period of the Roman Empire. Throughout the sixth century, the most spoken dialects were still similar to and mutually intelligible with Classical Latin.
The verb system seems to have remained intact throughout the fifth century the transformation of the language, from structures we call Latin into structures we call Romance, lasted from the third or fourth century until the eighth, "So its history came to an end – or to put it another way, the language becomes a'dead' language – when it stops functioning in this way and is no longer anybody's natural mother tongue," In Gaul from the mid-eighth century many people were not able to understand the most straightforward religious texts read to them in Latin. In Italy the first signs that people were aware of the difference between the everyday language they spoke and the written form is in the mid-tenth century; the period of most rapid change occurred from the second half of the seventh century. Until the spoken and written form were regarded as one language; the Latin of classical antiquity changed from being a "living natural mother tongue" to being a language foreign to all, which could not be used or understood by Romance-speakers except as a result of deliberate and systematic study.
If a date is wanted "we could say Latin'died' in the first part of the eighth century", after a long period 650–800 A. D. of accelerating changes. After the end of Classical Latin, people had no other names for the languages they spoke than Latin, lingua romana, or lingua romana rustica for 200–300 years. Modern people call these languages proto-Romance; the flaw in the death metaphor for Latin is summarized in the first line of Wright's essay, "Did Latin die?": "Latin isn't dead, you know." Wright explains that the hundreds of millions of people whose first language is one of Spanish, French, Romanian, etc. speak evolved Latin as as English speakers use the evolved continuation of Old English. While traditional Classical Latin was reduced in use as a written code and abandoned as a useful secondary "roof language" spoken Latin changed as all languages do. In terms of regional differences for the whole Latin period, "we can only glimpse a tiny amount of divergence with the actual written data.
In texts of all kinds, literary and all others, the written Latin of the first five or six centuries A. D. looks as if it were territorially homogeneous in its'vulgar' register. It is only in the texts, of the seventh and eighth centuries, that we are able to see in the texts geographical differences that seem to be the precursors of similar differences in the subsequent Romance languages."In the Eastern Roman Empire, Latin faded as the court language over the course of the 6th century. The Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkans north of Greece became influenced by Greek and Slavic and became radically different from Classical Latin and from the proto-Romance of Western Europe; the term "common speech", which became "Vulgar Latin", was used by inhabitants of the Roman Empire. Subsequently, it became a technical term from Latin and Romance-language philology referring to the unwritten varieties of a Latinised language spoken by Italo-Celtic populations governed by the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Traces of their language appear in some inscriptions, such as advertisements. The educated population responsible for Classical Latin may have spoken Vulgar Latin in certain contexts depending on their socioeconomic background; the term was first used improperly in that sense by the pioneers of Romance-language philology: François Juste Marie Raynouard and Friedrich Christian Diez. In the course of his studies on the lyrics of songs written by the troubadours of Provence, studied by Dante Alighieri and published in De vulgari eloquentia, Raynouard noticed that the Romance languages derived in part from lexical and syntactic features that were Latin, but were not preferred in Classical Latin, he hypothesized an intermediate phase and identified it with the Romana lingua, a term that in countries speaking Romance languages meant "n