Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is located in the former province of Soule, it is located some 35 km west by 10 km north of Larrau. The commune can be accessed by the small D247 road from the village to Tardets-Sorholus in the north-east; the D149 goes north to Camou-Cihigue. There is the D117 road which goes west from the village to Mendive. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, most of the southern border of the commune is formed by the Alphoura river which flows through the village and continues northeast to join the Saison near Alos-Sibas-Abense; the Alphoura is fed by many tributaries rising in the commune including the Ardounc. The Escalérako erreka flows west with its many tributaries. Paul Raymond mentioned a brook that rises at Alçay and flows into the Alphoura; the commune name in Basque is Altzai-Altzabeheti Zünharreta. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, the base altz meaning "aulne" was used for the both toponyms Alcay and Alçabéhéty.
Beheti means "at the bottom". The name Sunharette comes from the Basque zunharr using the romanized locative suffix ette meaning the "place of elm"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini1: Alçabéhéty on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Cassini2: Sunharette on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini databaseOrigins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Chronicles: Chronicles of Arthez-Lassalle Soule: Custom of Soule In 1790 Sunharette was the chief town of a canton, part of the District of Mauleon; the canton included the communes of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette, Alos-Sibas-Abense, Camou-Cihigue, Lacarry-Arhan-Charritte-de-Haut, Lichans-Sunhar, Ossas-Suhare. In 1833, the three communes of Alçay, Alçabéhéty, Sunharette merged to form a single joint commune.
List of Successive Mayors The town is part of seven intercommunal organisations: the Community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the association to support Basque culture. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. According to the 2006 classification of INSEE, showing the median household incomes for all communes with more than 50 households Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is ranked 20,901st with an average income of €14,927 per year; the commune has two sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Seven Ibarnaba Tumuli in the Esquirassy district The Ten Ibarletta Tumuli in the Esquirassy districtOther sites of interestThe Gaztelu zahar of Maide korralea meaning "the enclosure of Maide" is attributed to Maidé, mythological beings incorporating some of the traits of Jentils and Laminak. The Romanesque Parish Church of Saint-Pierre is registered as an historical monument; the church contains a Processional Cross, registered as an historical object. The Belhygagne peaks and Gaztelia are the highest points in the commune at 1,072 and 1,345 metres high.
Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ALTZAI-ALTZABEHETI-ZUNHARRETA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Lion1906 Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Google Maps Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Sunharete and Alcabehety on the 1750 Cassini Map Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on the INSEE website INSEE
Alos-Sibas-Abense is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Soule; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Aloztar-Ziboztar-Oniztar Alos-Sibas-Abense is located some 90 km south-east of Bayonne and 80m km west of Lourdes. The D918 road does not enter. Access to the commune is on road D247 from Alcay-Alcabehety-Sunharette in the southwest which runs through the heart of the commune to the village, it continues to the southeast linking with the D918 at Tardets-Sorholus. Most of the commune is farmland with some forest and it has a network of country roads covering most of the commune. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the Saison river passes along and forms the eastern border of the commune parallel with the D918 road; the Aphoura stream, fed by the Ardounc, the Batasse, the Laritolle, the Jaga, the Uthurrotche erreka, flows near the village and to the Saisson. The commune name in Basque is Aloze-Ziboze-Onizegaine.
The Basque form of Sibas can be Ziborotz. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested that Abense came from a Roman phonetic change to the Basque Oniz > onise > oénse > auénse > abense. The base of the name is the oronym ona present in Bayonne and Oneix; the modern Basque form are equivalent to "Upper". Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggests; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: 1750 Cassini Map EHESS: Abense on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Luntz: Soule: Customs of Soule Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Sibas merged with Alos on 23 October 1843 to form Alos-Sibas. On 16 April 1859, following the annexation of part of the territory of Abense-de-Haut, the commune took the name of Alos-Sibas-Abense. On the same day the commune of Abense-de-Haut disappeared, its territory being divided between Alos-Sibas and Tardets.
Lists of Successive Mayors of Alos-Sibas-Abense AlosSibasAbense-de-Haut Alos-SibasAbense-de-Haut Alos-Sibas-Abense The town is part of six intercommunal structures: the community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the union to support Basque culture SIVOM of the canton of Tardets the municipal association for the gaves of Oloron and Mauleon SIVU for Tourism in Haute-Soule and Barétous the AEP Union for Soule country In 2009 the commune had 274 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is focused on agriculture; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. Etchandia House owned by the Etchandy family. La Salle d'Abense The Church of Abense contains a Processional Cross, registered as an historical object.
The common practices Controlled burns for prevention of forest fires. The town has an Ikastola. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Alos-Sibas-Abense official website Alos-Sibas-Abense personal website ALOZE-ZIBOZE-ONIZEGAINE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alos-Sibas-Abense on Lion1906 Alos-Sibas-Abense on Google Maps Alos-Sibas-Abense on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Alos and Abens on the 1750 Cassini Map Alos-Sibas-Abense on the INSEE website INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Trois-Villes is a commune in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Region of south-western France. The French military officer Comte de Troisville was a major landowner in this city, it is located in the former province of Soule. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE IRURI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Esquiule is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Béarn, it stands out as an outpost of the Basque area of Soule, the village being Basque speaking. It has played host to the carnivalesque performances known as maskaradak and its inhabitants arranged and performed one traditional theatre piece of Soule under the title Madalena de Jaureguiberry in 2000. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file ESKIULA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Gestas is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file JESTAZE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia