Franco-Belgian comics are comics that are created for French-Belgian and/or French readership. These countries have a long tradition in comics and comic books, where they are known as BDs, an abbreviation of bandes dessinées in French and stripverhalen or strips in the Dutch-speaking part of Europe, the first non-Francophone territories where the Franco-Belgian comics became a major force on their comic scenes from 1945 onward, brought forth by the bilingual nature of Belgium. Among the most popular Franco-Belgian comics that have achieved international fame are The Adventures of Tintin, Gaston Lagaffe, Lucky Luke and The Smurfs in the humoristically drawn genres, whereas such bande dessinées as Blueberry, Thorgal, XIII, as well as the various creations of Hermann have done well internationally in the realistically drawn genres – albeit not all of them in the English-speaking world. In Europe, the French language is spoken natively not only in France and the city state of Monaco, but by about 40% of the population of Belgium, 16% of the population of Luxembourg, about 20% of the population of Switzerland.
The shared language creates an artistic and commercial market where national identity is blurred, one of the main rationales for the conception of the "Franco-Belgian comics" expression itself. The potential appeal of the French-language comics extends beyond Francophone Europe, as France in particular has strong historical and cultural ties with several Francophone overseas territories, some of which, like French Polynesia or French Guiana, still being Overseas France. Of these territories it is Quebec, where Franco-Belgian comics are doing best, due – aside from the obvious fact that it has the largest comic reading Francophone population outside Europe – to that province's close historical and cultural ties with the motherland and where French-Belgian comic publishers like Le Lombard and Dargaud maintain a strong presence, in the process influencing its own native Quebec comics scene from 1960 onwards; this is in stark contrast to the English-speaking part of the country, culturally US comics oriented.
While Flemish Belgian comic books are influenced by Francophone comics in the early years, they did evolve into a distinctly different style, both in art as well as in spirit, why they are nowadays sometimes categorized as Flemish comics, as their evolution started to take a different path from the late-1940s onward, due to cultural differences stemming from the increasing cultural self-awareness of the Flemish people. And while French language publications are habitually translated into Dutch/Flemish, Dutch/Flemish publications are less translated into French, for cultural reasons. Despite the shared language, Flemish comics are not doing that well in the Netherlands and vice versa, save for some notable exceptions, such as the Willy Vandersteen creation Suske en Wiske, popular across the border. Concurrently, the socio-cultural idiosyncrasies contained within many Dutch/Flemish comics means that these comics have seen far less translations into other languages than their French-language counterparts have due to their more universal appeal, the French language's cultural status..
Belgium is and a tri-lingual country as there is a small, yet sizable recognized German-speaking minority, though Belgian comic home market first print releases, be it in Dutch or in French, are translated into that language with German-speaking Belgians having to wait for internationally released editions for reading in their native tongue those from licensed publishers stemming from neighboring Germany. Though Dutch and German are Germanic-language cousins, German-Belgium is encapsulated by French-Belgium, resulting in that French is the most utilized language in that territory and has caused the handful of comic artist originating from there, such as Hermann and Didier Comès, to create their comics in French. Born Dieter Hermann Comès, Comès has "frenchified" his given name to this end, whereas Hermann has dispensed with his family name "Huppen" for his comics credits, though he maintained the Germanic spelling for his first name. Due to its relative modesty, both in size and in scope, despite the close historical and cultural ties, no German-Belgian artists are as of 2018 known to have created comics for the German comics world, when discounting commercial translations of their original Francophone creations.
Something similar applies to France, where there exist several regional languages, of which Breton and Occitan are two of the more substantial ones. But while these languages are culturally recognized as regional languages, they are, contrary to Belgium in regard to German, not recognized as official national languages, with similar consequences as in Belgium for comics and their artists. On rare occasions though, independent local and regional publishers obtain licenses from the main comic publisher to release comic books, or rather comic albums, of the more popular comi