Michèle Morgan was a French film actress, a leading lady for three decades in both French cinema and Hollywood features. She is considered to have been one of the great French actresses of the 20th century. Morgan was the inaugural winner of the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1992, she was given an honorary César Award for her contributions to French cinema. Morgan was born Simone Renée Roussel in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, a wealthy suburb of Paris, she grew up in Seine-Maritime, France. Morgan left home at the age of 15 for Paris determined to become an actress, she took acting lessons from René Simon while serving as an extra in several films to pay for her drama classes. It was that she took the stage name "Michèle Morgan", she argued that she did not have the body type of a Simone, "Morgan" sounded more Hollywood-friendly. Morgan was first noticed by director Marc Allégret, who offered her a major role in the film Gribouille, opposite Raimu. Came Le Quai des brumes directed by Marcel Carné, opposite Jean Gabin, Remorques directed by Jean Grémillon.
Upon the invasion of France in 1940 by the Germans, Morgan left for the United States and Hollywood where she was contracted to RKO Pictures in 1941. Her career there proved rather disappointing, apart from Joan of Paris opposite Paul Henreid, Higher and Higher opposite Frank Sinatra, she was tested and considered for the female lead in Casablanca but RKO would not release her for the amount of money that Warner Bros. offered. Morgan did work for Warners however in Passage to Marseille with Humphrey Bogart. After the war, Morgan returned to France and resumed her career with the film La Symphonie Pastorale directed by Jean Delannoy, which earned her the Best Actress award at the Cannes Film Festival, her Other films from this period include. She continued working in films throughout the 1960s, such as in Lost Command, a version of Les Centurions. In the 1970s, she retired from her acting career made only occasional appearances in film and theatre. For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Morgan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1645 Vine Street.
In 1969, the government of France awarded her the Légion d'Honneur. For her long service to the French motion picture industry, in 1992 she was given an Honorary César Award. In 1996, she received the Career Golden Lion for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival. Morgan took up painting in the 1960s, she had a solo exhibition, "Artistes En Lumière à Paris", from 2 March to 30 April 2009, at the Espace Cardin in Paris. In 1977 she released her memoir, titled With Those Eyes. While in Hollywood, Morgan married William Marshall, in 1942, with whom she had a son, Mike Marshall. Morgan and Marshall divorced in 1948, she married French actor Henri Vidal in 1950. She remained with him until his death in 1959, she lived with film director and actor/writer Gérard Oury until his death in 2006. Morgan died on 20 December 2016, aged 96, in France of natural causes, her funeral was held at the Église Saint-Pierre in Neuilly-sur-Seine on 23 December 2016, she was buried at the Montparnasse Cemetery. Michèle Morgan on IMDb Michèle Morgan at AllMovie Michèle Morgan at filmsdefrance.com Michèle Morgan at AlloCiné Photographs of Michèle Morgan Michèle Morgan
Alejandro Fernando Amenábar Cantos known as Alejandro Amenábar, is a Spanish and Chilean film director and composer. Among other honors, he has won two European Film Awards, he has written or co-written the screenplays to all six of his movies and composed all of the soundtracks. Amenábar is the son of Hugo Ricardo Amenabar and a Spanish woman, Josefina Cantos, he has a dual Chilean-Spanish citizenship. His father worked as a technician at General Electric, while his mother decided to stay at home and take care of the children. Alejandro is the younger of two brothers. Josefina's older sister had moved to the capital of Chile and she invited Josefina to join her there. In Santiago, Josefina met Hugo. Alejandro was born on March 31, 1972. In August 1973, his family moved to Spain; the family settled in Madrid. When Alejandro was six years old, they moved to a complex on the outskirts of the town of Paracuellos de Jarama. Alejandro and his brother did not watch much television. From the age of 15, Alejandro would dedicate his time to going to the cinema to watch movies.
Other than theater, his passions were writing stories and reading books. According to Alejandro's mother, Alejandro had the capacity to absorb everything; as a child, he composed melodies with the keyboard and guitar with the same ease as when he wrote his stories. Alejandro started his studies at the Padres Escolapios de Getafe school. In his second year of high school, he transferred to the Alameda de Osuna institute, in the north-east of Madrid; the school was not close to. Before he became a director, Alejandro worked as a stock boy in a warehouse and as a gardener, until he had enough money to buy his own home camera, he did not want to start his university studies in cinema before having touched a camera. Amenábar entered the Information Sciences Faculty at Madrid's Complutense University, where after numerous scholastic failures he decided to give up studying cinema and he began directing; the advantage from having attended university was that he met people who in life would become important throughout his career.
At university, he met Mateo Gil, a friend and companion, the pair made a pact to always support each other's projects. Between 1991 and 1994, Amenábar made three short films which in a significant way influenced his first full-length films: La Cabeza, Himenóptero, Luna. Knowing José Luis Cuerda helped Alejandro in his career. A friend of José Luis Cuerda gave him the script of Himenóptero. Thereafter, Cuerda was interested in Amenábar's work; this led to him becoming the producer of Thesis, one of Amenábar's most recognized films, putting his name on the map. Thesis was a thriller set in the School of Information Sciences at the Complutense University of Madrid. Through this film, he gained the attention of critics in the Berlin Film Festival and won seven Goyas, including Best Picture and Best New Director. In 1997 he made Abre Los Ojos, a science fiction movie that had notable success at international festivals such as Berlin and Tokyo. Impressed by the movie, Tom Cruise bought the rights to adapt and produce the film, starring in a remake, Vanilla Sky.
His third large film was a ghost story starring Nicole Kidman. It was successful at an international level in Spain, where it was the most viewed film that year; the Others was very popular in the United States, where it was at the top of the box office for several weeks. The film premiered at the Venice Film Festival in 2001, won eight Goyas, including the Best Picture and Best Director, was nominated for best European Film Movie. In 2004 Amenábar released The Sea Inside, a real life-story about a quadriplegic Ramón Sampedro, which addressed issues such as euthanasia, abortion, or “the right to a dignified life.” The movie won 14 Goyas, including best movie and best director, an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2004. In 2008 Amenábar released his next film, called Mists of Time; the film starred big-name actors including Max Minghella. Agora premiered on October 9, 2009, with a budget of 50 million euros, it is the most expensive Spanish film in history. After a hiatus of seven years, Amenábar came back in 2015 with a new movie titled Regression, a thriller starring Ethan Hawke and Emma Watson.
The film had its world premiere at the San Sebastián International Film Festival in September 2015. Initial reviews were lukewarm. Amenábar is the composer of the soundtrack of his films, as well as others, such as Butterfly's Tongue directed by José Luis Cuerda and Nobody Knows Anybody directed by Mateo Gil. In 2004, Amenábar came out as gay. On 18 July 2015, he married David Blanco. Amenábar was raised Catholic, but became Agnostic and is now Atheist. Himenóptero Luna Thesis Open Your Eyes The Others The Sea Inside Agora Regression Al Lado del Atlas Allanamiento de Morada La lengua de las mariposas Nobody Knows Anybody El Soñador Un viaje mar adentro Alejandro Amenába
Volver is a 2006 Spanish drama film written and directed by Pedro Almodóvar. Headed by actress Penélope Cruz, the film features an ensemble cast starring Carmen Maura, Lola Dueñas, Blanca Portillo, Yohana Cobo, Chus Lampreave. Revolving around an eccentric family of women from a wind-swept region south of Madrid, Cruz plays Raimunda, a working-class woman forced to go to great lengths to protect her 14-year-old daughter Paula. To top off the family crisis, her mother Irene comes back from the dead to tie up loose ends; the plot originates in Almodóvar's earlier film The Flower of My Secret, where it features as a novel, rejected for publication but is stolen to form the screenplay of a film named The Freezer. Drawing inspiration from the Italian neorealism of the late 1940s to early 1950s and the work of pioneering directors such as Federico Fellini, Luchino Visconti, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Volver addresses themes like sexual abuse and death, mixing the genres of farce, tragedy and magic realism.
Set in the La Mancha region, Almodovar's place of birth, the filmmaker cited his upbringing as a major influence on many aspects of the plot and the characters. Volver premiered at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, it received critical acclaim and won two awards at the festival, for Best Actress and Best Screenplay. The film's Spanish premiere was held on 10 March 2006 in Puertollano, where the filming had taken place. Cruz was nominated for the 2006 Academy Award for Best Actress, making her the first Spanish woman to be nominated in that category. Raimunda and Sole are sisters who grew up in Alcanfor de las Infantas, a small village in La Mancha, but now both live in Madrid, their parents had died in a fire three years before. Sole returns for the funeral of her dementia-stricken Aunt Paula. Aunt Paula's neighbour Agustina confesses to Sole that she has heard Paula talking to the ghost of their mother Irene. Sole encounters the ghost herself, when she returns to Madrid, she discovers that the ghost has stowed away in the trunk of her car.
Sole agrees to let Irene stay with her: Sole operates a hair salon in her apartment, Irene will assist her. Irene says that she wants to know why Raimunda hates her, why she herself is afraid to reveal herself to Raimunda. Meanwhile and her daughter Paula have a different death to cope with. Paula's father Paco attempts to rape her, claiming that he is not her father, Paula stabs him in self-defense. Raimunda hides the corpse in the deep-freezer of a nearby restaurant with Emilio; when members of a film crew happen upon the restaurant, Raimunda strikes a deal to cater for them, finds herself back in the restaurant business. Raimunda reveals to Paula that Paco was not her biological father, promises to tell her the whole story later. Agustina goes to Madrid for treatment. Raimunda visits her in the hospital. Agustina asks Raimunda. Agustina hopes that the ghost will be able to tell her about her own mother, who disappeared three years before. Raimunda leaves Paula with Sole, rents a van and transports the freezer to a convenient spot by the river Júcar.
While staying in Sole's apartment, Paula grows close to her. The next night, Agustina comes to the restaurant, Raimunda reveals two startling secrets: her father and Agustina's mother were having an affair, Agustina's mother disappeared on the same day that Raimunda's parents died. Sole tells Raimunda that she has seen their mother's ghost, in the next room with Paula. Irene admits that she did not, in fact, die in the fire, reveals the whole truth; the reason for Raimunda and Irene's estrangement is that Raimunda's father sexually abused her, resulting in the birth of Paula. Irene tells Raimunda that she did not know about the abuse until Aunt Paula told her about it, never forgave herself for failing to stop it. Irene explains that she found her husband in bed with another woman and started the fire that killed them both; the ashes, presumed to be Irene's were, in fact, the ashes of Agustina's mother, the woman with whom Irene's husband was having an affair. After the fire, Irene wandered for several days in the countryside, until she decided that she wanted to turn herself in.
But first, she wanted to say goodbye to Paula, who had lost the ability to look after herself and with whom Irene had been living prior to setting the fire. Paula welcomed Irene home as if nothing had happened, Irene stayed, caring for her sister and expecting that the police would come soon to arrest her. Due to the superstitious and closed nature of the community, the police never came and the residents, accustomed to tales of the dead returning, explained the rare sightings of Irene as "un fantasma", a ghost; the family reunites at Aunt Paula's house. Irene reveals her presence to Agustina. Irene pledges to stay in the village and care for Agustina as her cancer worsens, saying to Raimunda that it was the least that she could do after killing Agustina's mother. Raimunda visits her mother at Agustina's house, the two embrace and promise to repair their relationship. Penélope Cruz as Raimunda, a mother living in Madrid's suburbs Carmen Maura as Irene, the mother of Raimunda and Sole Yohana Cobo as Paula Blanca Portillo as Agustina Lola Dueñas as Soledad Chus Lampreave as Aunt Paula Antonio de la
Pedro Almodóvar Caballero, credited professionally as Pedro Almodóvar, is a Spanish filmmaker, screenwriter and former actor. He came to prominence as a director and screenwriter during La Movida Madrileña, a cultural renaissance that followed after the end of Francoist Spain, his first few films characterised the sense of political freedom of the period. In 1986, he established his own film production company, El Deseo, with his younger brother Agustín Almodóvar, responsible for producing all of his films since Law of Desire. Almodóvar achieved international recognition for his black comedy-drama film Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, went on to more success with the dark romantic comedy film Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down!, the melodrama High Heels and the romantic drama thriller Live Flesh. His subsequent two films won an Academy Award each: All About My Mother received the award for Best Foreign Language Film while Talk to Her earned him the award for Best Original Screenplay.
Almodóvar followed this with the drama Volver, the romantic thriller Broken Embraces, the psychological thriller The Skin I Live In and the drama Julieta, all of which were in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. His films are marked by his employment of certain actors and creative personnel, complex narratives, pop culture, popular songs, irreverent humour, strong colours, glossy décor. Desire, passion and identity are among Almodóvar's most prevalent themes. Acclaimed as one of the most internationally successful Spanish filmmakers, Almodóvar and his films have gained worldwide interest and developed a cult following, he has won two Academy Awards, five British Academy Film Awards, six European Film Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, nine Goya Awards and four prizes at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1997, Almodóvar received the French Legion of Honour, followed by the Gold Medal of Merit in the Fine Arts by the Spanish Ministry of Culture in 1999, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001 and received an honorary doctoral degree in 2009 from Harvard University in addition to an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Oxford in 2016 for his contribution to the arts.
In 2013, he received an honorary European Film Academy Achievement in World Cinema Award. In January 2017 he was named as President of the Jury for the 2017 Cannes Film Festival. Pedro Almodóvar Caballero was born on 25 September 1949 in Calzada de Calatrava, a small rural town of Ciudad Real, a province of Castile-La Mancha in Spain, he has two older sisters and María Jesús, one brother Agustín. His father, Antonio Almodóvar, was a winemaker, his mother, Francisca Caballero, who died in 1999, was a letter reader and transcriber for illiterate neighbours; when Almodóvar was eight years old, the family sent him to study at a religious boarding school in the city of Cáceres, Extremadura, in western Spain, with the hope that he might someday become a priest. His family joined him in Cáceres, where his father opened a gas station and his mother opened a bodega where she sold her own wine. Unlike Calzada, there was a cinema in Cáceres. "Cinema became my real education, much more than the one I received from the priest", he said in an interview.
Almodóvar was influenced by Luis Buñuel. Against his parents' wishes, Almodóvar moved to Madrid in 1967 to become a filmmaker; when caudillo Francisco Franco closed the National School of Cinema in Madrid, he became self-taught. To support himself, Almodóvar had a number of jobs, including selling used items in the famous Madrid flea market El Rastro and as an administrative assistant with Spanish phone company Telefónica, where he worked for twelve years. Since he worked only until three in the afternoon, he had the rest of the day to pursue his film-making. In the early 1970s, Almodóvar became interested in experimental theatre, he collaborated with the vanguard theatrical group Los Goliardos, in which he played his first professional roles and met actress Carmen Maura. Madrid's flourishing alternative cultural scene became the perfect scenario for Almodóvar's social talents, he was a crucial figure in La Movida Madrileña, a cultural renaissance that followed the death of Francisco Franco. Alongside Fabio McNamara, Almodóvar sang in a glam rock parody duo.
Writing under the pseudonym Patty Diphusa, Almodóvar penned various articles for major newspapers and magazines, such as El País, Diario 16 and La Luna as well as contributing to comic strips and stories in counterculture magazines, such as Star, El Víbora and Vibraciones. He published a novella, Fuego en las entrañas and kept writing stories that were published in a compilation volume entitled El sueño de la razón. Almodóvar bought his first camera, a Super-8, with his first paycheck from Telefónica when he was 22 years old, began to make hand-held short films. Around 1974, he made his first short film, by the end of the 1970s they were shown in Madrid's night circuit and in Barcelona; these shorts had overtly sexual narratives and no soundtrack: Dos putas, o, Historia de amor que termina en boda in 1974. He remembers, "I showed them in bars, at parties… I could not add a soundtrack because it was v
Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis was an American actress of film and theater. With a career spanning 60 years, she is regarded as one of the greatest actresses in Hollywood history, she was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic characters, was famous for her performances in a range of film genres, from contemporary crime melodramas to historical and period films, suspense horror, occasional comedies, although her greatest successes were her roles in romantic dramas. After appearing in Broadway plays, Davis moved to Hollywood in the summer of 1930. However, her early films for Universal Studios were unsuccessful, she joined Warner Bros. in 1932, established her career with several critically acclaimed performances. In 1937, she attempted to free herself from her contract, although she lost the well-publicized legal case against Warners, it marked the beginning of her most successful period; until the late 1940s, she was one of the most celebrated leading ladies of US cinema, known for her forceful and intense style.
Davis gained a reputation as a perfectionist who could be combative and confrontational. She clashed with film directors, as well as many of her co-stars, her forthright manner, idiosyncratic speech, ubiquitous cigarette contributed to a public persona, imitated. Davis was the co-founder of the Hollywood Canteen, a club venue for food and entertainment for servicemen during WWII, was the first female president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress twice, was the first person to accrue 10 Academy Award nominations for acting, was the first woman to receive a Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute. Her career went through several periods of eclipse, she admitted that her success had been at the expense of her personal relationships. Married four times, she was once widowed and three times divorced, raised her children as a single parent, her final years were marred by a long period of ill health and a tell-all book, My Mother's Keeper by daughter B.
D. Hyman, but she continued acting until shortly before her death from breast cancer. With more than 100 film and theater roles to her credit during her six-decade-long career. In 1999, Davis was placed second behind Katharine Hepburn on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female stars of the Classic Hollywood cinema era. Ruth Elizabeth Davis, known from early childhood as "Betty", was born on April 5, 1908, in Lowell, the daughter of Harlow Morrell Davis, a law student from Augusta and subsequently a patent attorney, Ruth Augusta, from Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. Davis' younger sister was Barbara Harriet. In 1915, Davis' parents separated, Davis attended a spartan boarding school called Crestalban in Lanesborough in the Berkshires. In 1921, Ruth Davis moved to New York City with her daughters, where she worked as a portrait photographer. Davis changed the spelling of her first name to "Bette" after Honoré de Balzac's La Cousine Bette. During their time in New York, Davis became a Girl Scout who proved so successful she ranked as a Patrol Leader.
Davis attended Cushing Academy, a boarding school in Ashburnham, where she met her future husband, Harmon O. Nelson, known as "Ham". In 1926, a 18-year-old Davis saw a production of Henrik Ibsen's The Wild Duck with Blanche Yurka and Peg Entwistle. Davis recalled for Al Cohn of Newsday, "The reason I wanted to go into theater was because of an actress named Peg Entwistle." She auditioned for admission to Eva Le Gallienne's Manhattan Civic Repertory, but was rejected by LeGallienne, who described her attitude as "insincere" and "frivolous". Davis auditioned for George Cukor's stock theater company in New York. Ed Sikov sources Davis' first professional role to a 1929 production by the Provincetown Players of Virgil Geddes play The Earth Between. In 1929, Davis was chosen by Blanche Yurka to play Hedwig, the character she had seen Entwistle play in The Wild Duck. After performing in Philadelphia and Boston, she made her Broadway debut in 1929 in Broken Dishes, followed it with Solid South. In 1930, 22-year-old Davis moved to Hollywood to screen test for Universal Studios.
Davis and her mother traveled by train to Hollywood. She recounted her surprise that nobody from the studio was there to meet her. In fact, a studio employee had waited for her, but left because he saw nobody who "looked like an actress", she was used in several screen tests for other actors. In a 1971 interview with Dick Cavett, she related the experience with the observation, "I was the most Yankee-est, most modest virgin who walked the earth, they laid me on a couch, I tested fifteen men... They all had to give me a passionate kiss. Oh, I thought. Just thought I would die." A second test was arranged for the 1931 film A House Divided. Hastily dressed in an ill-fitting costume with a low neckline, she was rebuffed by the film director William Wyler, who loudly commented to the assembled crew, "What do you think of these dames who show their chests and think they can get jobs?". Carl Laemmle, the head of Universal Studios, considered terminating Davis' employment, but cinematographer Karl Freund told him she had "lovely eyes" and would be suitable for Bad Sister, in which she subsequently made her film debut.
Alleluia is a 2014 Belgian-French drama film directed by Fabrice Du Welz. It was screened as part of the Directors' Fortnight section at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival, it received eight nominations including Best Director for Du Welz. Lola Dueñas as Gloria Helena Noguerra as Solange Laurent Lucas as Michel Stéphane Bissot as Madeleine David Murgia as Father Luis Alleluia on IMDb
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia