Parlophone Records Limited is a German-British record label founded in Germany in 1896 by the Carl Lindström Company as Parlophon. The British branch of the company was founded in 8 August 1923 as The Parlophone Company Limited, which developed a reputation in the 1920s as a jazz record label. On 5 October 1926, the Columbia Graphophone Company acquired Parlophone's business, name and release library, merged with the Gramophone Company on 31 March 1931 to become Electric & Musical Industries Limited. George Martin joined EMI in 1950 as assistant label manager, taking over as manager in 1955. Martin produced and released a mix of product, including comedy recordings of the Goons, pianist Mrs Mills, teen idol Adam Faith. In 1962, Martin signed the Beatles, at the time a struggling rock band from Liverpool. During the 1960s, when Cilla Black, Billy J. Kramer, the Fourmost, the Hollies signed, Parlophone became one of the world's most famous labels. For several years, Parlophone claimed the best-selling UK single, "She Loves You", the best-selling UK album, Sgt.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, both by the Beatles. The label placed seven singles at No. 1 during 1964, when it claimed top spot on the UK Albums Chart for 40 weeks. Parlophone continued as a division of EMI until it was merged into the Gramophone Co. on 1 July 1965. On 1 July 1973, the Gramophone Co. was renamed EMI Records Limited. On 28 September 2012, regulators approved Universal Music Group's planned acquisition of EMI on condition that its EMI Records group would be divested from the combined group. EMI Records Ltd. included Parlophone and other labels to be divested and were for a short time operated in a single entity known as the Parlophone Label Group, while UMG pended their sale. Warner Music Group acquired Parlophone and PLG in 7 February 2013, making Parlophone their third flagship label alongside Warner Bros. and Atlantic. PLG was renamed Parlophone Records Limited in May 2013. Parlophone is the oldest of WMG's "flagship" record labels. Parlophone was founded "Parlophon" by Carl Lindström Company in 1896.
The name Parlophon was used for gramophones. The label's ₤ trademark is a German L. On 8 August 1923, the British branch of "Parlophone" was established, led by artists and repertoire manager Oscar Preuss. In its early years, Parlophone established itself as a leading jazz label in Britain. In 1927, the Columbia Graphophone Company acquired a controlling interest in the Carl Lindström Company, including Parlophone. Parlophone became a subsidiary of Electric & Musical Industries, after Columbia Graphophone merged with the Gramophone Company in 1931. In 1950, Oscar Preuss hired record producer George Martin as his assistant; when Preuss retired in 1955, Martin succeeded him as Parlophone's manager. Parlophone specialized in classical music, cast recordings, regional British music. Musicians signed to the labels include the Vipers Skiffle Group. One of the label's successful acts was teen idol Adam Faith, signed to the label in 1959; the label gained significant popularity in 1962. Parlophone gained more attention after signing the Hollies, Ella Fitzgerald, Gerry and the Pacemakers in the 1960s.
Martin left to form Associated Independent Recording Studios in 1965. Parlophone became dormant in 1973 when most of EMI's heritage labels were phased out in favor of EMI. Parlophone was revived in 1980. During the next decades the label signed Pet Shop Boys, Duran Duran, Radiohead, Guy Berryman, the Chemical Brothers, Coldplay, Kylie Minogue, Damon Albarn, Conor Maynard, Gabrielle Aplin, Gorillaz. On 23 April 2008, Miles Leonard was confirmed as the label's president. On 28 September 2012, regulators approved Universal Music Group's planned acquisition of Parlophone's parent group EMI for £1.2 billion, subject to conditions imposed by the European Commission requiring that UMG sell off a number of labels, including Parlophone itself, Ensign, Virgin Classics, EMI Classics, EMI's operations in Portugal, France, Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic and Poland. These labels and catalogues were operated independently from Universal as Parlophone Label Group to prepare for a transaction early in 2013.
UMG received several offers for PLG, including those from Island founder Chris Blackwell, Simon Fuller, a Sony/BMG consortium, Warner Music Group, MacAndrews & Forbes. On 7 February 2013, it was confirmed that Warner Music Group would acquire Parlophone Label Group for US$765 million; the deal was approved in May 2013 by the European Union, which saw no concerns about the deal because of WMG's smaller reach compared to the merged UMG and Sony. Warner Music closed the deal on July 1. Parlophone Label Group was the old EMI Records company that included both the Parlophone and the eponymous EMI labels; the EMI name was retained by Universal. Soon after acquiring Parlophone, WMG signed an agreement with IMPALA and the Merlin Network to divest $200 million worth of artists to independent labels in order to help offset the consolidation triggered by the merger. In April 2016, the back catalog
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Grafton, New South Wales
Grafton is a city in the Northern Rivers region of the Australian state of New South Wales. It is located on the Clarence River 500 kilometres north-northeast of the state capital Sydney; the closest major cities and the Gold Coast, are located across the border in South-East Queensland. According to the 2016 census, the Grafton "significant urban area" had a population of 18,668 people; the city is the largest settlement and administrative centre of the Clarence Valley Council local government area, which has over 50,000 people in all. Before European settlement, the Clarence River marked the border between the Bundjalung and Gumbaynggirr peoples, so descendants of both language groups can now be found in the Grafton region. Grafton, like many other settlements in the area, was first opened up to white settlement by the cedar-getters. An escaped convict, Richard Craig, discovered the district in 1831. With the wealth of'red gold' cedar just waiting for exploitation, he was given a pardon and one hundred pounds to bring a party of cedar-getters on the cutter'Prince George' to the region.
Word of such wealth to be had did not take long to spread and one of the arrivals was pioneer John Small on the'Susan' in 1838, he first occupied land on Woodford Island.'The Settlement' was established shortly after. In 1851, Governor FitzRoy named the town "Grafton", after his grandfather, the Duke of Grafton, a former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Grafton was proclaimed a city in 1885. Local industries include logging, beef cattle, fishing/prawning, sugar and tourism; the Grafton Bridge, connecting the main townsite with South Grafton, opened in 1932. It completed the standard-gauge rail connection between Sydney and Brisbane, forming a vital link for the Pacific Highway; the only way to travel from Grafton to South Grafton was via ferry. As a result, South Grafton developed quite a separate identity, in fact had its own municipal government from 1896 to 1956. Grafton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Duke Street: Christ Church Cathedral 170 Hoof Street: Grafton Correctional Centre North Coast railway: Grafton Bridge 95 Prince Street: Saraton Theatre 150 Victoria Street: Arcola, Grafton According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 18,668 people in Grafton.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.7% of the population. 87.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.5% and New Zealand 0.7%. 90.5% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Anglican 27.0%, No Religion 24.5% and Catholic 21.1%. Grafton has a humid subtropical climate with more rainfall and higher temperatures in summer than in winter. Rainfall is lower than in stations directly on the coast, but monthly rain totals can surpass 300 millimetres; the wettest month since records began was March 1974 when Cyclone Zoe produced a monthly total of 549.0 millimetres, whilst during periods of anticyclonic control and strong westerly winds monthly rainfall can be low. Grafton gets around 115.2 clear days on an annual basis. Grafton like many NSW regional centres, is affected by heatwaves in the summer months. On 12 February 2017 Grafton recorded a maximum temperature of 46.3, the town's highest recorded temperature since records began.
Grafton is known and promoted as the Jacaranda City, in reference to its tree-lined streets and to the annual Jacaranda Festival. Inaugurated in 1935, Jacaranda is held each October/November. A half-day public holiday is observed locally on the first Thursday of November, the Festival's focal day. A half-day public holiday is observed for the Grafton Cup horse race, held each year on the second Thursday in July, it is the high point of the city's annual Racing Carnival—Australia's largest and richest non-metropolitan Carnival—which takes place over a fortnight in that month. Grafton is the birthplace of several renowned country music players. Local artist Troy Cassar-Daley received four Golden Guitar awards at the 2006 Tamworth Country Music Awards—the largest and most prestigious country music awards in Australia. At the same event Samantha McClymont, the 2005/2006 Grafton Jacaranda Queen and sister of Brooke McClymont received an award for her country music talent. A vision of Grafton with its numerous brilliantly-flowered trees in bloom is immortalised in Australian popular music in Cold Chisel's song Flame Trees, written by band member Don Walker, who had lived in Grafton during his formative years.
Christ Church Cathedral, designed by John Horbury Hunt, was consecrated in 1884 and is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Grafton. Schaeffer House is a historic 1900 Federation house and contains the collection of the Clarence River Historical Society, formed in 1931; the Murwillumbah – Byron Bay – Lismore railway was extended to Grafton's original railway station in 1905. The North Coast Line reached South Grafton's railway station from Sydney in 1915. Pending the opening of the combined road and rail bascule bridge in 1932, Grafton had a train ferry to connect the two railways. Clarence Valley Regional Airport is the airport. Grafton lies on the Pacific Highway, the main North–South road route through Eastern Australia, links it to the Gwydir Highway, one of the primary East-West routes through Eastern Australia. Busways Grafton is the operator for local town routes, as well as out-of-town routes to Junction Hill, Jackadgery/Cangai and Maclean and Yamba. Lawrence Bus Service operates a shopper service, a
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, established in 1846 and closed in 1957. It was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left-leaning approach from 1949; the Argus's main competitor was The Age. The newspaper was owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with The Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkner's newspaper, the Port Phillip Patriot; the first edition was published on 2 June 1846, with the paper soon known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm, such that by 1853, Kerr had lost ownership after a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. By the 1880s, Richard Twopeny regarded it as "the best daily paper published out of England." The paper become a stablemate to the weekly, The Australasian, to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933, it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, but was forced to close the venture in 1936.
In 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group. On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper; the paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria and its television station GTV-9. The company's newspaper operation experienced a severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint and acute competition for newspaper circulation in Melbourne. In 1957, the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features, HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners; the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The company's other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected; the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus.
Fresh capital, new ideas, new strategies from London. But instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession. Frederick William Haddon – Argus sub-editor in 1863, editor 1867–1898 Edward Wilson Andrew Murray, editor in 1855 and 1856 Howard Willoughby Julian Howard Ashton, journalist and critic Roy Curthoys, editor 1929–1935 List of newspapers in Australia Argus Building Argus finals system, a series of systems for determining the Premiers of the Victorian Football League and other Australian rules football competitions in the early 20th century Australasian Sketcher with Pen and Pencil Don Hauser, The Printers of the Streets and Lanes Of Melbourne Nondescript Press, Melbourne 2006 Jim Usher The Argus – life and death of a newspaper Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne 2008 The Melbourne Argus at Trove The Argus at Trove The Argus: Special War Edition – 1 May 1915 Digitised World War I Victorian newspapers from the State Library of Victoria
The Daily Examiner
The Daily Examiner is a daily newspaper serving Grafton, New South Wales, Australia. The newspaper is owned by APN Media. At various times the newspaper was known as The Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser and Clarence and Richmond Examiner; the Daily Examiner is circulated to Grafton, the Clarence Valley and surrounding areas from Woody Head in the north to Red Rock in the south. The circulation of The Daily Examiner is 6,446 on Saturday. A major redesign of The Daily Examiner was commended in the PANPA 2002 Newspaper of the Year Awards for dailies and Sundays up to 20,000; the Daily Examiner was awarded PANPA Newspaper of the Year 0 to 20,000 copies in 2009 for Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific and 2010 APN Newspaper of the yearThe Daily Examiner website is part of the APN Regional News Network. The Clarence and Richmond Examiner was ostensibly launched in 1859 by William Edward Vincent. However, the power behind the throne was wealthy politician Clark Irving, an advocate of the separation of the Northern Rivers from the colony of New South Wales.
Grafton had three or more newspapers from 1874 into the new century when the tri-weekly Clarence and Richmond Examiner was converted into a daily on 1 July 1915, "to keep public issues before the minds of the people". Grafton has had a succession of long-serving editors who won renown for their editorial leadership in community affairs, most notably Cecil Bush Bailey, William Bailey-Tart and John Irvine Moorhead. Grafton surgeon Earle Page a caretaker Prime Minister, was a major boardroom influence on The Examiner as it continued to champion the New England New State proposal, a hydro-electric scheme on the Nymboida River, a deep-sea port plan for Iluka. Editors who have had the stewardship of the paper in the era of modern technological advancement include Geoff Orchison, Robert Milne and Peter Ellem, who has campaigned for a second Grafton bridge crossing, an ambulance station/health clinic in Yamba, improvements to the Pacific Highway; the Examiner continued its groundbreaking role in 1981, by appointing Laureta Godbee as the first female editor of an Australian daily newspaper.
The current editor is Bill North. The various versions of the paper have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project hosted by the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia List of newspapers in New South Wales Official website Clarence and Richmond Examiner at Trove Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser at Trove Clarence and Richmond Examiner at Trove Daily Examiner at Trove
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was