Lolland is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of 1,243 km2. Located in the Baltic sea, it is part of Region Sjælland, as of 1 January 2013, it has 62,578 inhabitants. Lolland is known as the island because of its flatness. The island has been an important communication highway, among others for Nazi Germany during World War II, sugar beet has been grown in Lolland. Sugar is still an industry, visible from the large number of sugar beet fields. The largest town of Lolland is Nakskov, with 15,500 residents, other main towns are Maribo, which hosts the seat of the Diocese of Lolland and Falster, Sakskøbing and Rødby. Since January 1,2007, Lolland has been administered by two municipalities, Lolland covering the two thirds, and Guldborgsund uniting the eastern third with the neighbouring island Falster. Lolland has motor and railway links both to the island of Falster to the east and to Germany via ferry, european route E47 links Copenhagen to Hamburg via Lolland. This ferry, in service since 1963, serves 6 passenger trains per day.
Freight trains and night trains do not use the ferry, they take the way to the mainland via the Great Belt Bridge, Funen. The governments of Denmark and Germany plan to connect Lolland with Fehmarn by an immersed tunnel. Two older bridges span the strait between Lolland and Falster, the Frederick IX Bridge and Guldborgsund Bridge at the end of the strait. Frederick IX bridge is the bridge to Falster. Among the attractions of the island are Fuglsang Manor built in the half of the 19th century. Knuthenborg Safari Park north of Maribo is the largest safari park in Northern Europe, Middelaldercentret is an open-air museum on the most eastern part of the island just outside Nykøbing Falster. The Centre is a living history museum and it contains a reconstructed part of a medieval town from around 1400. It is among the most authentic reconstructions of the period in Europe. Lolland has many beaches and areas with summer houses, which are primarily visited by German tourists
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link
The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link is a planned immersed tunnel that is proposed to connect the Danish island of Lolland with the German island of Fehmarn. This route is known in German as the Vogelfluglinie and in Danish as the Fugleflugtslinjen, Fehmarn is already connected by bridge with the German mainland, and Lolland is already connected by a tunnel and bridges with Zealand over the island Falster. Furthermore, Zealand is already connected with the Swedish coast via the Øresund Bridge. The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link was tentatively expected to be completed in the year 2018, but in 2012 the completion date was estimated to be 2021, in 2014 further pushed to 2024, and in 2015 – to 2028. In June 2015, €589m of EU funding was awarded to Denmark by the European Commission under its Connecting Europe Facility scheme, beginning at least as early as 2000, German and Danish transportation planners pushed for a fixed link—either a bridge or a tunnel—across the Fehmarn Strait. A bridge was for years regarded the most likely scheme, but in late 2010 the Danish project planners declared that a tunnel would present fewer construction risks.
When the Danish Folketing ratified the project in March 2009, its cost was estimated at 42 billion Danish kroner and this cost included €1.5 billion for other improvements such as electrifying and improving 160 km of railway from single-track to double-track on the Danish side. In 2011 this was increased to a total of €5.5 billion, Construction estimates cover the period from 1 April 1998 until the opening of the fixed link in 2021. New bridges at Fehmarn Sound and Storstrøm would be needed, according to the treaty, the bridges do not have to be replaced. An upgrade of the Storstrom Bridge is however planned, the double-track railway construction in Germany may be delayed by up to seven years, according to the treaty. The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link and its double-tracks will shorten the journey from Hamburg to Copenhagen from four hours and 45 minutes to three hours and 15 minutes. According to current plans there will be one train and two freight trains in each direction per hour. Hence, there will probably be congestion and delays on the German side of the bridge, with much traffic.
The highway between Copenhagen and Hamburg is already a motorway except for 25 km in Germany, the rest is a two-lane expressway. The highway will be widened to a motorway except where it meets the Fehmarn Sound bridge and this project is comparable in size to that of the Øresund Bridge or the Great Belt Bridge. The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link will be financed by state-guaranteed loans, the government of Denmark will own the fixed link outright, will be allowed to keep tolls after the loans have been repaid, and will enjoy any employment opportunities at the toll station. The fees are planned to pay for the Danish railway upgrading. On the German side, the road will be upgraded to four lanes, the project is expected to have 5% rate of return for Europe
For the Danish municipality, Guldborgsund Municipality. Guldborgsund is the strait between the Danish islands of Lolland and Falster and it connects Smålandsfarvandet in the north with the Bay of Mecklenburg in the south. It is navigable for craft of up to 6 metres draught in its part and is used for commercial traffic to Nykøbing Falster. The southern part is much shallower with a depth of approximately 2 metres. Guldborgsund is crossed by two bridges, Frederick IX Bridge at Nykøbing and Guldborgsund Bridge at Guldborg, at the northern end of the strait. There is a tunnel carrying euro route E47 from Copenhagen. Nykøbing Falster and Sundby have all have marinas in Guldborgsund, the open-air museum Middle Ages Centre has got a museum harbour which was dug out in the mid 1990s. This is the point for sailing with reconstructed medieval ships such as Gedesbyskibet. Guldborgsund was the location of the 2005 KFUM-Spejderne i Danmark National Jamboree, Guldborgsund is the name of a minesweeper that served in the Royal Danish Navy from 1956-1993.
It was built by Stephens Brothers Inc. in Stockton, United States, two 900 hp General Motors diesel engines powered it to a max speed of 13.5 knots. With 375 tons of displacement, it had a range of 3,600 nautical miles at 7 knots and it was crewed by 33-37 men, including four officers, during its service. It was decommissioned on May 4,1993
Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of 486.2 km2 and 43,398 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010. Located in the Baltic sea, it is part of Region Sjælland and is administered by Guldborgsund Municipality, Falster includes Denmarks southernmost point, Gedser Odde, near Gedser. The largest town is Nykøbing Falster with over 40% of the islands inhabitants, other towns include Stubbekøbing, Nørre Alslev and Gedser. Falster has motor and railway links both to the island of Zealand to the north and to the island of Lolland to the south-west. These links lead to the islands of Masnedø and Farø. European route E47 links Copenhagen to Hamburg via Falster, from medieval times until 1766, most of Falster belonged to the crown. King Valdemars Census Book from c.1231 lists all the parishes, Falsters two main towns, Nykøbing and Stubbekøbing, were both founded towards the end of the 12th century. In medieval times, the island was marked by wars with the Wends in 1158, the census of 1509 includes only 90 of the 110 villages mentioned earlier.
By contrast, it mentions 29 new settlements mainly along the coast. In the 16th century, Falster had a number of farms which were owned by the nobility but, from 1560 to 1630. Therefore, Falster could therefore be used as the dowry for Frederick IIIs wife, Sophie Amalie but as a result of the taxes which resulted. Falster was managed as an estate from 1718 until 1766 when it was sold by auction and divided up into ten large farms. But as the fields had to be prepared through the serfdom of local peasants, the villages were replaced by the community from 1778 to 1814, and gradually moved to freehold tenants, a process which was only completed in about 1860. There was an increase in the cultivation of sugar beet which was processed in factories at Nykøbing and Stubbekøbing between 1890 and 1914, many seasonal workers, especially women, from Sweden and Poland came to help with harvesting the sugar beet and some of them stayed. With the new railway from Orehoved to Nykøbing in 1872 and railway ferries to Masnedø and Warnemünde and its position was reinforced by the construction of the Storstrøm Bridge and Farø Bridges.
Since 1975, Falster has been marked by high unemployment as a result of harder times for farming and industry. As of 2012, populations were as follows, With its marinas, sandy beaches and cycle tracks, one of the most popular resorts is Marielyst on the east coast. Nykøbing offers a number of attractions including its atmosphere with narrow streets
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe