Lilian Whiting was an American journalist and author of poetry and short stories. Her father was Illinois State Senator Lorenzo D. Whiting, she served as literary editor of the Boston Evening Traveller, editor-in-chief of the Boston Budget, afterward, spent much of her time in Europe. Whiting was the author of The World Beautiful, From Dreamland Sent, a book of poems, A Study of the Life and Poetry of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, A Record of Kate Field, The World Beautiful in Books, Boston Days, Florence of Landor, The Outlook Beautiful, the Magic Land, Paris the Beautiful, others. Emily Lilian Whiting was born in Niagara Falls, New York, in October 3, 1847, though she claimed her date of birth as October 3, 1859, her parents were Lucretia Clement Whiting. Her ancestry included Rev. William Whiting, the first Unitarian minister of Concord, Massachusetts, in the early part of the 17th century, her paternal grandmother was born Mather, was a direct descendant of Cotton Mather. On her mother's side, her ancestry was from New England of the Episcopal clergy.
While Whiting was an infant, the parents removed to Illinois. For some time, the parents served as principals of the public schools in Tiskilwa, Illinois, a village near their farm. Subsequently, the father became the editor of the Bureau County Republican, published in Princeton, Illinois. In that work, he was assisted by his wife, he was elected to the Illinois General Assembly as representative from his district, after some years in the lower house, was elected State senator, in which capacity he served for 18 consecutive years. He was one of the framers of the constitution of Illinois. Little was left to the children after the death of Senator Whiting, in 1889; the mother died in 1875. Whiting, the only daughter, was educated under private tuition and by her parents, she attended the Mount Carroll Seminary in Illinois. Books and periodicals abounded in the family home with the best literature of the world available to her, she inherited from her mother much of the temperament of the mystic and the visionary, her bent was always towards books and the world of thought.
Whiting went to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1876, to pursue a career in journalist, remaining there for three years. In the spring of 1879, through the acceptance of two papers on Margaret Fuller, Murat Halstead gave Whiting a place on his paper, the Cincinnati Commercial. After a year in Cincinnati, she went, in the summer of 1880, to Boston, where she soon began to work for the Boston Evening Traveller as an art writer. To her writing on the art exhibitions and studio work in Boston and New York City, she added various miscellaneous contributions. In 1885, she was made the literary editor of the Traveller. In 1890, she resigned her place on the Traveller, three days after, she became the editor-in-chief of the Boston Budget. In that paper, she did the literary reviews and a "Beau Monde" column. Whiting passed part of 1896 to 1900 in Europe, principally in Paris, Rome and London, again part of 1903, 1905, 1906-7, she was the author of 3 volumes. 1st, 2d and 3d series. For several years, she lived in Boston.
She was interested in Theosophy. Whiting died April 30, 1942. Reynolds, Francis J. ed.. "Whiting, Lilian". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. Who's who in America. Marquis Who's Who; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Logan, Mrs. John A.. The Part Taken by Women in American History. Perry-Nalle publishing Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Willard, Frances Elizabeth. A Woman of the Century: Fourteen Hundred-seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of Leading American Women in All Walks of Life. Moulton. Commire, Anne. Women in World History: Vict-X. Yorkin Publications. ISBN 978-0-7876-4075-0. Works by or about Lilian Whiting at Internet Archive Works by Lilian Whiting at Project Gutenberg Works by Lilian Whiting at LibriVox
American Bar Association
The American Bar Association, founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, the formulation of model ethical codes related to the legal profession; the ABA has 410,000 members. Its national headquarters are in Illinois. C; the ABA was founded on August 21, 1878, in Saratoga Springs, New York, by 75 lawyers from 20 states and the District of Columbia. According to the ABA website, The legal profession as we know it today existed at that time. Lawyers were sole practitioners who trained under a system of apprenticeship. There was no national code of ethics; the purpose of the original organization, as set forth in its first constitution, was "the advancement of the science of jurisprudence, the promotion of the administration of justice and a uniformity of legislation throughout the country...."In 1918 the first women were admitted to the ABA – Judge Mary Belle Grossman of Cleveland and Mary Florence Lathrop of Denver.
The ABA did not allow African-Americans to join until 1943. This discrimination by the ABA led in 1937, of the National Lawyers Guild. Roberta Cooper Ramo was the first female President of the ABA from 1995–1996. In 2016 ABA introduced a new ethics rule prohibiting attorneys from using sexist and condescending terms; the ABA adopts "policy" on certain legislative and national issues, as voted on by its elected, 589-member House of Delegates. Its Board of Governors, with 44 members, has the authority to act for the ABA, consistent with previous action of the House of Delegates, when the House is not in session; the ABA president, elected to a one-year term, is chief executive officer of the association, while the appointed, longer-serving executive director works as chief operating officer. The conclusion of the ABA Annual Meeting, in August, is when a new president takes office, as well as when the main sessions of the House of Delegates take place; the Annual Meeting gives the general membership the opportunity to participate in educational programs and hear speakers address many issues.
In 2010, Jack L. Rives TJAG, was appointed Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer. One function of the ABA is its maintenance of a code of ethical standards for lawyers; the Model Code of Professional Responsibility and/or the newer Model Rules of Professional Conduct have been adopted in 49 states, the District of Columbia and the United States Virgin Islands. The exception is the State Bar of California. According to the ABA, it "provides law school accreditation, continuing legal education, information about the law, programs to assist lawyers and judges in their work, initiatives to improve the legal system for the public; the Mission of the American Bar Association is to be the national representative of the legal profession, serving the public and the profession by promoting justice, professional excellence and respect for the law." Since 1923, law schools which meet ABA standards are listed as "approved". ABA accreditation is important not only because it affects the recognition of the law schools involved, but it affects a graduate's ability to practice law in a particular state.
In most U. S. jurisdictions, graduation from an ABA-accredited law school is prerequisite towards being allowed to sit for that state's bar exam, for existing lawyers to be admitted to the bar of another state upon motion. States which recognize unaccredited schools within their borders will not recognize such schools from other jurisdictions for purposes of bar admission. For law students attending ABA-accredited schools, memberships are available for free. Students attending non-ABA accredited law schools are permitted to join the ABA as associate members. In June 2009, the ABA Journal reported that the ABA had been working "for months" to change its accreditation standard, where accreditation will be the result of what kind of lawyer an ABA law school produces as opposed to "input" measures such as faculty size and physical plant. In 2012 a non-profit organization called Law School Transparency called upon the ABA to provide meaningful statistics regarding the employment prospects and salary information of graduates of ABA accredited institutions.
On October 17, 2011, the ABA announced it was considering penalties, including loss of accreditation for schools that misreported their graduates employment data. Starting with the Class of 2011, ABA-accredited law schools were required to file Standard 509 Information Reports that included a host of data, ranging from LSAT scores of law students to bar passage rates of graduates. Employment information was filed separately to the Section. On December 12, 2011, despite the ongoing controversy surrounding law school accreditation standards and inability of law school graduates to service their educational debt, the ABA approved another law school. In 1995 the United States Department of Justice accused the ABA of violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act in its law school accreditation proceedings; the case was resolved with a consent decree. In 2006, the ABA acknowledged that it paid DOJ a $185,000 fine; the American Bar Association Center for Continuing Legal Education serves as the ce
A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps. In mathematics, tessellations can be generalized to a variety of geometries. A periodic tiling has a repeating pattern; some special kinds include regular tilings with regular polygonal tiles all of the same shape, semiregular tilings with regular tiles of more than one shape and with every corner identically arranged. The patterns formed by periodic tilings can be categorized into 17 wallpaper groups. A tiling that lacks a repeating pattern is called "non-periodic". An aperiodic tiling uses a small set of tile shapes. In the geometry of higher dimensions, a space-filling or honeycomb is called a tessellation of space. A real physical tessellation is a tiling made of materials such as cemented ceramic squares or hexagons; such tilings may be decorative patterns, or may have functions such as providing durable and water-resistant pavement, floor or wall coverings.
Tessellations were used in Ancient Rome and in Islamic art such as in the decorative geometric tiling of the Alhambra palace. In the twentieth century, the work of M. C. Escher made use of tessellations, both in ordinary Euclidean geometry and in hyperbolic geometry, for artistic effect. Tessellations are sometimes employed for decorative effect in quilting. Tessellations form a class of patterns in nature, for example in the arrays of hexagonal cells found in honeycombs. Tessellations were used by the Sumerians in building wall decorations formed by patterns of clay tiles. Decorative mosaic tilings made of small squared blocks called tesserae were employed in classical antiquity, sometimes displaying geometric patterns. In 1619 Johannes Kepler made an early documented study of tessellations, he wrote about semiregular tessellations in his Harmonices Mundi. Some two hundred years in 1891, the Russian crystallographer Yevgraf Fyodorov proved that every periodic tiling of the plane features one of seventeen different groups of isometries.
Fyodorov's work marked the unofficial beginning of the mathematical study of tessellations. Other prominent contributors include Aleksei Shubnikov and Nikolai Belov, Heinrich Heesch and Otto Kienzle. In Latin, tessella is a small cubical piece of stone or glass used to make mosaics; the word "tessella" means "small square". It corresponds to the everyday term tiling, which refers to applications of tessellations made of glazed clay. Tessellation in two dimensions called planar tiling, is a topic in geometry that studies how shapes, known as tiles, can be arranged to fill a plane without any gaps, according to a given set of rules; these rules can be varied. Common ones are that there must be no gaps between tiles, that no corner of one tile can lie along the edge of another; the tessellations created by bonded brickwork do not obey this rule. Among those that do, a regular tessellation has both identical regular tiles and identical regular corners or vertices, having the same angle between adjacent edges for every tile.
There are only three shapes that can form such regular tessellations: the equilateral triangle and regular hexagon. Any one of these three shapes can be duplicated infinitely to fill a plane with no gaps. Many other types of tessellation are possible under different constraints. For example, there are eight types of semi-regular tessellation, made with more than one kind of regular polygon but still having the same arrangement of polygons at every corner. Irregular tessellations can be made from other shapes such as pentagons, polyominoes and in fact any kind of geometric shape; the artist M. C. Escher is famous for making tessellations with irregular interlocking tiles, shaped like animals and other natural objects. If suitable contrasting colours are chosen for the tiles of differing shape, striking patterns are formed, these can be used to decorate physical surfaces such as church floors. More formally, a tessellation or tiling is a cover of the Euclidean plane by a countable number of closed sets, called tiles, such that the tiles intersect only on their boundaries.
These tiles may be any other shapes. Many tessellations are formed from a finite number of prototiles in which all tiles in the tessellation are congruent to the given prototiles. If a geometric shape can be used as a prototile to create a tessellation, the shape is said to tessellate or to tile the plane; the Conway criterion is a sufficient but not necessary set of rules for deciding if a given shape tiles the plane periodically without reflections: some tiles fail the criterion but still tile the plane. No general rule has been found for determining if a given shape can tile the plane or not, which means there are many unsolved problems concerning tessellations. Mathematically, tessellations can be extended to spaces other than the Euclidean plane; the Swiss geometer Ludwig Schläfli pioneered this by defining polyschemes, which mathematicians nowadays call polytopes. These are the analogues to polygons and polyhedra in spaces with more dimensions, he further defined the Schläfli symbol notation to make it easy to describe polytopes.
For example, the Schläfli symbol for an equilateral triangle is. The Schläfli notation makes it possible to describe tilings compactly. For example, a tiling of regular hexagons has three six-sided polygons at each vertex, so its Schläfli symbol is. Other methods exist for describing polygonal tilings; when the tessellation
Theatre of ancient Greece
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from 700 BC. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural and military power during this period, was its center, where it was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honored the god Dionysus. Tragedy and the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies; the word τραγῳδία, from which the word "tragedy" is derived, is a compound of two Greek words: τράγος or "goat" and ᾠδή meaning "song", from ἀείδειν, "to sing". This etymology indicates a link with the practices of the ancient Dionysian cults, it is impossible, however, to know with certainty how these fertility rituals became the basis for tragedy and comedy. The classical Greek valued the power of spoken word, it was their main method of communication and storytelling. Bahn and Bahn write, "To Greeks the spoken word was a living thing and infinitely preferable to the dead symbols of a written language."
Socrates himself believed that once something has been written down, it lost its ability for change and growth. For these reasons, among many others, oral storytelling flourished in Greece. Greek tragedy as we know it was created in Athens around the time of 532 BC, when Thespis was the earliest recorded actor. Being a winner of the first theatrical contest held in Athens, he was the exarchon, or leader, of the dithyrambs performed in and around Attica at the rural Dionysia. By Thespis' time, the dithyramb had evolved far away from its cult roots. Under the influence of heroic epic, Doric choral lyric and the innovations of the poet Arion, it had become a narrative, ballad-like genre; because of these, Thespis is called the "Father of Tragedy". Thus, Thespis's true contribution to drama is unclear at best, but his name has been given a longer life, in English, as a common term for performer — i.e. a "thespian." The dramatic performances were important to the Athenians – this is made clear by the creation of a tragedy competition and festival in the City Dionysia.
This was organized to foster loyalty among the tribes of Attica. The festival was created around 508 BC. While no drama texts exist from the sixth century BC, we do know the names of three competitors besides Thespis: Choerilus and Phrynichus; each is credited with different innovations in the field. Some is known about Phrynichus, he won his first competition between 511 BC and 508 BC. He produced tragedies on themes and subjects exploited in the golden age such as the Danaids, Phoenician Women and Alcestis, he was the first poet we know of to use a historical subject – his Fall of Miletus, produced in 493-2, chronicled the fate of the town of Miletus after it was conquered by the Persians. Herodotus reports that "the Athenians made clear their deep grief for the taking of Miletus in many ways, but in this: when Phrynichus wrote a play entitled "The Fall of Miletus" and produced it, the whole theatre fell to weeping, he is thought to be the first to use female characters. Until the Hellenistic period, all tragedies were unique pieces written in honour of Dionysus and played only once, so that today we have the pieces that were still remembered well enough to have been repeated when the repetition of old tragedies became fashionable.
After the Great Destruction of Athens by the Persian Empire in 480 BCE, the town and acropolis were rebuilt, theatre became formalized and an greater part of Athenian culture and civic pride. This century is regarded as the Golden Age of Greek drama; the centre-piece of the annual Dionysia, which took place once in winter and once in spring, was a competition between three tragic playwrights at the Theatre of Dionysus. Each submitted a satyr play. Beginning in a first competition in 486 BC each playwright submitted a comedy. Aristotle claimed that Aeschylus added the second actor, that Sophocles introduced the third; the Greek playwrights never used more than three actors based on what is known about Greek theatre. Tragedy and comedy were viewed as separate genres, no plays merged aspects of the two. Satyr plays dealt with the mythological subject matter of the tragedies, but in a purely comedic manner; the power of Athens declined following its defeat in the Peloponnesian War against the Spartans.
From that time on, the theatre started performing old tragedies again. Although its theatrical traditions seem to have lost their vitality, Greek theatre continued into the Hellenistic period. However, the primary Hellenistic theatrical form was not tragedy but'New Comedy', comic episodes about the lives of ordinary citizens; the only extant playwright from the period is Menander. One of New Comedy's most important contributions was its influence
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Scripps Ranch, San Diego
Scripps Ranch is an affluent community of San Diego, California in the northeastern part of that city. Its ZIP code is 92131, it is located east of Interstate 15, north of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, south of Poway. Scripps Ranch is a coastal/inland bedroom community within the City of San Diego. Miramar Reservoir offers recreational boating and fishing. A feature of Scripps Ranch is its landscaping, which includes many mature eucalyptus trees that are most apparent along Pomerado Road. Scripps Ranch was a 400-acre ranch owned by newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps, he expanded it to 1,200 acres. In October 2003, a section of south Scripps Ranch was devastated by the Cedar Fire, destroying over 300 homes. Two elected planning groups, advise the city on local land-use issues; the Scripps Ranch Civic Association acts as the de facto Community Town Council, meeting monthly and advising the city on all quality of life issues. The SRCA acts as the eyes and ears of the community, publishing a 70-80 page community newsletter every month, hand-delivered to 12,000 households by hundreds of volunteers.
The SRCA sponsors the community's annual 4th of July Parade, Spring Community Fair, Community Volunteer Recognition Night, Holiday Tree Lighting Ceremony, community clean-up / garage sale days. According to the San Diego County Assessor's Office's 2008 estimates, there were 32,476 people residing in the neighborhood, an increase of 15.9% from 2000. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 71% White, 15% Asian and Pacific Islander, 7.8% Hispanic, 3.7% from other races, 2.4% African American, and.01% American Indian. The neighborhood is diverse in age, with 27% under 18 and 8% over 65; the median age was 39.5. There were an average of 2.78 persons per household. The median household income was $144,438. Hitachi LG Electronics Mobile Communications USA Lockheed Martin MedImpact National University WD-40 Company Rhino Linings Corporation The community is served by the San Diego City Schools. Dingeman Elementary School E. B. Scripps Elementary School Innovations Academy Jerabek Elementary School Miramar Ranch Elementary School Thurgood Marshall Middle School Scripps Ranch High School Alliant International University John Paul the Great Catholic University National University Scripps Ranch Civic Association Newsletter Adam Brody, former resident Brandon Call, former resident Jacques Cesaire, defensive end, San Diego Chargers Drew Brees, New Orleans Saints, former resident Chris Chambers, wide receiver, San Diego Chargers, former resident Stephen Cooper, San Diego Chargers Terry Crews, former resident Ben Leber, Minnesota Vikings Shawne Merriman, All-Pro linebacker, San Diego Chargers, former resident Mary Murphy, choreographer.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal; the works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers; the term "symbolist" was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature and of art. Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism and Impressionism; the term "symbolism" is derived from the word "symbol" which derives from the Latin symbolum, a symbol of faith, symbolus, a sign of recognition, in turn from classical Greek σύμβολον symbolon, an object cut in half constituting a sign of recognition when the carriers were able to reassemble the two halves.
In ancient Greece, the symbolon was a shard of pottery, inscribed and broken into two pieces which were given to the ambassadors from two allied city states as a record of the alliance. Symbolism was a reaction against naturalism and realism, anti-idealistic styles which were attempts to represent reality in its gritty particularity, to elevate the humble and the ordinary over the ideal. Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the imagination, dreams; some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before becoming symbolists. Certain of the characteristic subjects of the Decadents represent naturalist interest in sexuality and taboo topics, but in their case this was mixed with Byronic romanticism and the world-weariness characteristic of the fin de siècle period; the Symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that preceded it. While being influenced by hermeticism, allowing freer versification, rejecting Parnassian clarity and objectivity, it retained Parnassianism's love of word play and concern for the musical qualities of verse.
The Symbolists continued to admire Théophile Gautier's motto of "art for art's sake", retained – and modified – Parnassianism's mood of ironic detachment. Many Symbolist poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine, published early works in Le Parnasse contemporain, the poetry anthologies that gave Parnassianism its name, but Arthur Rimbaud publicly mocked prominent Parnassians and published scatological parodies of some of their main authors, including François Coppée – misattributed to Coppée himself – in L'Album zutique. One of Symbolism's most colourful promoters in Paris was art and literary critic Joséphin Péladan, who established the Salon de la Rose + Croix; the Salon hosted a series of six presentations of avant-garde art and music during the 1890s, to give a presentation space for artists embracing spiritualism and idealism in their work. A number of Symbolists were associated with the Salon. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly.
Thus, they wrote in a metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moréas published the Symbolist Manifesto in Le Figaro on 18 September 1886; the Symbolist Manifesto names Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine as the three leading poets of the movement. Moréas announced that symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description", that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal." Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes. In a nutshell, as Mallarmé writes in a letter to his friend Cazalis,'to depict not the thing but the effect it produces'; the symbolist poets wished to liberate techniques of versification in order to allow greater room for "fluidity", as such were sympathetic with the trend toward free verse, as evident in the poems of Gustave Kahn and Ezra Pound.
Symbolist poems were attempts to evoke, rather than to describe. T. S. Eliot was influenced by the poets Jules Laforgue, Paul Valéry and Arthur Rimbaud who used the techniques of the Symbolist school, though it has been said that'Imagism' was the style to which both Pound and Eliot subscribed. Synesthesia was a prized experience. In Baudelaire's poem Correspondences mentions forêts de symboles – forests of symbols – Il est des parfums frais comme des chairs d'enfants,Doux comme les hautbois, verts comme les prairies,– Et d'autres, riches et triomphants,Ayant l'expansion des choses infinies,Comme l'ambre, le musc, le benjoin et l'encens,Qui chantent le