Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States. The system was operated by various companies under the names Southern Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Company and Southern Pacific Transportation Company; the original Southern Pacific began in 1865 as a land holding company. The last incarnation of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, was founded in 1969 and assumed control of the Southern Pacific system; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and merged with their Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific Transportation Company was the surviving railroad as it absorbed the Union Pacific Railroad and changed its name to "Union Pacific Railroad"; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company is now the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific legacy founded hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson and elsewhere.
In the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This telecommunications network became part of Sprint, a company whose name came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony; the original Southern Pacific, Southern Pacific Railroad, was founded as a land holding company in 1865 acquiring the Central Pacific Railroad through leasing. By 1900, the Southern Pacific system was a major railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad, it extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento. Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. Other subsidiaries included the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at 328 miles, the 1,331-mile Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico, a variety of 3 ft narrow gauge routes.
The SP was the defendant in the landmark 1886 United States Supreme Court case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, interpreted as having established certain corporate rights under the Constitution of the United States; the Southern Pacific Railroad was replaced by the Southern Pacific Company and assumed the railroad operations of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1929, Southern Pacific/Texas and New Orleans operated 13,848 route-miles not including Cotton Belt, whose purchase of the Golden State Route circa 1980 nearly doubled its size to 3,085 miles, bringing total SP/SSW mileage to around 13,508 miles. In 1969, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was established and took over the Southern Pacific Company. By the 1980s, route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles due to the pruning of branch lines. In 1988, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was taken over by Rio Grande Industries, the parent company that controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Rio Grande Industries did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad together, but transferred direct ownership of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad to the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, allowing the combined Rio Grande Industries railroad system to use the Southern Pacific name due to its brand recognition in the railroad industry and with customers of both the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.
A long time Southern Pacific subsidiary, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway was marketed under the Southern Pacific name. Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, the total length of the D&RGW/SP/SSW system was 15,959 miles. Rio Grande Industries was renamed Southern Pacific Rail Corporation. By 1996, years of financial problems had dropped Southern Pacific's mileage to 13,715 miles; the financial problems caused the Southern Pacific Transportation Company to be taken over by the Union Pacific Corporation. The Union Pacific Corporation merged the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway and the SPCSL Corporation into their Union Pacific Railroad, but did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company into the Union Pacific Railroad. Instead, the Union Pacific Corporation merged the Union Pacific Railroad into the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1998; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company became the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad.
Like most railroads, the SP painted most of its steam locomotives black during the 20th century, but after 1945 SP painted the front of the locomotive's smokebox silver (almost
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. Chartered in February 1859, the railroad reached the Kansas-Colorado border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado, in 1876. To create a demand for its services, the railroad set up real estate offices and sold farm land from the land grants that it was awarded by Congress. Despite the name, its main line never served New Mexico, as the terrain was too difficult; the Santa Fe was a pioneer in intermodal freight transport, an enterprise that included a tugboat fleet and an airline. Its bus line extended passenger transportation to areas not accessible by rail, ferryboats on the San Francisco Bay allowed travelers to complete their westward journeys to the Pacific Ocean; the AT&SF was the subject of a popular song, Harry Warren and Johnny Mercer's "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe", written for the film, The Harvey Girls. The railroad ceased operations on December 31, 1996, when it merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway was chartered on February 11, 1859, to join Atchison and Topeka, with Santa Fe, New Mexico. In its early years, the railroad opened Kansas to settlement. Much of its revenue came from wheat grown there and from cattle driven north from Texas to Wichita and Dodge City by September 1872. Rather than turn its survey southward at Dodge City, AT&SF headed southwest over Raton Pass because of coal deposits near Trinidad and Raton, New Mexico; the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad was aiming at Raton Pass, but AT&SF crews arose early one morning in 1878 and were hard at work with picks and shovels when the D&RGW crews showed up for breakfast. At the same time the two railroads had a series of skirmishes over occupancy of the Royal Gorge west of Cañon City, Colorado. Federal intervention prompted an out-of-court settlement on February 2, 1880, in the form of the so-called "Treaty of Boston", wherein D&RG was allowed to complete its line and lease it for use by Santa Fe.
D&RG paid an estimated $1.4 million to Santa Fe for its work within the Gorge and agreed not to extend its line to Santa Fe, while Santa Fe agreed to forego its planned routes to Denver and Leadville. Building across Kansas and eastern Colorado was simple, with few natural obstacles, but the railroad found it economically impossible because of the sparse population, it set up real estate offices in the area and promoted settlement across Kansas on the land, granted to it by Congress in 1863. It offered discounted fares to anyone. AT&SF reached Albuquerque in 1880. In March 1881 AT&SF connected with the Southern Pacific at Deming, New Mexico, forming the second transcontinental rail route; the railroad built southwest from Benson, Arizona, to Nogales on the Mexican border where it connected with the Sonora Railway, which the AT&SF had built north from the Mexican port of Guaymas. AT&SF purchased the Southern California Railway on Jan. 17, 1906. The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was chartered in 1866 to build west from Springfield, along the 35th parallel of latitude to a junction with SP at the Colorado River.
The infant A&P had no rail connections. The line, to become the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway would not reach Springfield for another four years, SP did not build east from Mojave to the Colorado River until 1883. A&P started construction in 1868, built southwest into what would become Oklahoma, promptly entered receivership. In 1879 A&P struck a deal with the Santa Frisco railroads to construct a rail line for each; the railroads would jointly own the A&P railroad west of Albuquerque. In 1883 A&P reached Needles, where it connected with an SP line. A&P built a line between Tulsa, Oklahoma and St. Louis, Missouri for the Frisco, but the Tulsa-Albuquerque portion remained unbuilt; the Santa Fe began to expand: a line from Barstow, California, to San Diego in 1885 and to Los Angeles in 1887. By January 1890, the entire system consisted of some 7,500 miles of track; the Panic of 1893 had the same effect on the AT&SF. In 1895 AT&SF sold the Frisco and the Colorado Midland and wrote off the losses, but it still retained control of the A&P.
The Santa Fe Railway still wanted to reach California on its own rails, the state of California eagerly courted the railroad to break SP's monopoly. In 1897 the railroad traded the Sonora Railway of Mexico to SP for their line between Needles and Barstow, giving AT&SF its own line from Chicago to the Pac
Union Oil Company of California, dba Unocal is a company, a major petroleum explorer and marketer in the late 19th century, through the 20th century, into the early 21st century. It was headquartered in El Segundo, United States. Unocal was involved in global energy projects. Unocal was one of the key players in the CentGas consortium, which attempted to build the Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline to run from the Caspian area, through Afghanistan, to the Indian Ocean, at a time after the recent Taliban siege of Kabul in 1996. On August 10, 2005, Unocal merged its entire upstream petroleum business with Chevron Corporation and became a wholly owned subsidiary. Unocal has now ceased operations as an independent company, but continues to conduct many operations as Union Oil Company of California, a Chevron company. Since 1990, Unocal continues to have strong presence in the downstream petroleum business with their technical collaborators M/s Raaj Unocal Lubricants Ltd for manufacture and marketing of their lubricating products in Asia.
Raaj Unocal Lubricants Ltd continues the legacy of Unocal 76 in the downstream petroleum business and has intellectual property rights of the brand since 1994. The Union Oil Company of California was founded on October 17, 1890, in Santa Paula, California, by Lyman Stewart, Thomas Bard, Wallace Hardison, it was a merger of three Southern Californian oil companies: the Sespe Oil Company and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company and the Hardison and Stewart Oil Company. All three were notable as being unaffiliated with Standard Oil. Union Oil moved its headquarters to Los Angeles, in 1901; the original headquarters in Santa Paula is a California Historical Landmark. About 1910, Union Oil made a strategic alliance with the Independent Producers Agency, a group of small oil producers, to build pipelines from the Kern County oil fields to Union Oil facilities on the Pacific coast; this gave the independent producers an alternative to what they perceived as the low prices paid by Standard Oil and the high freight rates charged by the railroads to move crude oil.
It gave Union access to a large volume of crude oil. The situation was fictionalized in the 2007 film There Will Be Blood. In 1919, the Union Oil Company of Delaware was incorporated as a holding company for the Union Oil Company of California. In 1920, Union Oil purchased the Central Petroleum Company from the Texas Company. In 1922, the Union Oil Associates, Inc. was incorporated in California as a holding company to prevent control of the Union Oil Company of California passing to foreign interests after the merger of the Union Oil Company of Delaware with Royal Dutch Company. In 1961 Union entered into the Indonesian oil market. Henry L. Brandon, Union's Vice President of International Development wrote a "contract of work" arrangement, a first for Indonesia. In a speech on Indonesian Independence Day in August, 1961 President Sukarno talked at some length about "production sharing", which included language written into the contract by Union executives; the company expanded to national status in 1965, when Union Oil merged with the Pure Oil Company, headquartered in what was Palatine and now Schaumburg, Illinois.
Over the next two decades, Union became the major oil producer in southern Alaska and a major natural gas producer in the Gulf of Mexico. The company was reorganized in 1983, Union Oil Company of California became an operating subsidiary of a new Delaware-based holding company, Unocal Corporation. In 1985, Mesa Petroleum, controlled by billionaire T. Boone Pickens, attempted a takeover of Unocal Corp. that resulted in the Delaware Supreme Court landmark decision Unocal v. Mesa Petroleum, which upheld Unocal's takeover defense. All operations are conducted by Union Oil Company of California. In 1977, Unocal acquired The Molybdenum Corporation of America. Among the assets acquired was Mountain Pass rare earth mine, a world's largest producer of rare earth elements. In 1989, Unocal placed its midwest refining and marketing assets, including Union's 150,000-barrel-per-day refinery in Lemont, into a 50/50 joint venture with Petróleos de Venezuela, S. A.. The joint venture, known as the Uno-Ven Company, was headquartered in Arlington Heights and comprising employees from Union Oil's Schaumburg, division headquarters and Lemont, refinery.
The joint venture was dissolved in 1997, with P. D. V. S. A. Receiving full ownership. During the life of the joint venture, the familiar Union 76 brand name continued in full force. At the termination of the joint venture, most stations were converted to Citgo, controlled by P. D. V. S. A. In 1990, Unocal entered into a technical collaboration with a multimillion-dollar business house of India M/s Raaj Unocal Lubricants Limited flagship company of Rajgarhia group of Industries via their chairman Late Shri K. L Rajgarhia to market Unocal range of Lubricants and greases in India. Unocal subsequently under the provisions of their collaboration agreement granted permission of transferring IP rights to the brand name "UNOCAL 76", "76", "UNOCAL" both collectively and separately to M/s Raaj Unocal Lubricants Limited for Asia to protect their IP rights due to non existence of a bilateral agreement between USA and INDIA on IP rights. In 1997, Unocal sold its western United States refining and marketing operations to Tosco Corporation, including the rights to the Union 76 brand for refining and marketing.
Tosco was acquired by Phillips Petroleum, which merged with Conoco to form ConocoPhillips. In April 2005, the United States oil company Chevron made an offer to acquire Unocal, which
Lomita is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 20,256 at the 2010 census, up from 20,046 at the 2000 census; the word "lomita" is Spanish for "little knoll". Lomita was part of Rancho San Pedro, granted by the Spanish Empire to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III of Spain in 1784. Lomita established a sister city relationship with Takaishi, Japan in October 1981. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all of, land. Lomita spanned 7 square miles. However, over time, much of this area was annexed by neighboring cities. A notable example is "Lomita Fields", now Zamperini Field. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Lomita has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Lomita had a population of 20,256. The population density was 10,601.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lomita was 11,987 White, 1,075 African American, 174 Native American, 2,923 Asian, 140 Pacific Islander, 2,680 from other races, 1,277 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,652 persons. The Census reported that 20,089 people lived in households, 57 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 110 were institutionalized. There were 8,068 households, out of which 2,479 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,409 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,160 had a female householder with no husband present, 481 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 491 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 55 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,420 households were made up of individuals and 822 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 5,050 families; the population was spread out with 4,378 people under the age of 18, 1,743 people aged 18 to 24, 5,699 people aged 25 to 44, 5,904 people aged 45 to 64, 2,532 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males.
There were 8,412 housing units at an average density of 4,402.5 per square mile, of which 3,738 were owner-occupied, 4,330 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.7%. 9,183 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 10,906 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Lomita had a median household income of $60,398, with 12.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,046 people, 8,015 households, 5,033 families residing in the city; the population density was 10,572.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,295 housing units at an average density of 4,375.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.16% White, 4.18% African American, 0.70% Native American, 11.41% Asian, 0.52% Pacific Islander, 10.79% from other races, 6.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.20% of the population. There were 8,015 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families.
30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 34.2% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $51,360, the median income for a family was $53,003. Males had a median income of $41,582 versus $31,353 for females; the per capita income for the city was $27,748. About 9.3% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Fire protection in Lomita is provided by the Los Angeles County Fire Department with ambulance transport by McCormack Ambulance; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Lomita Station in Lomita.
The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Torrance Health Center in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles, near Torrance and serving Lomita. In the California State Legislature, Lomita is in the 26th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Allen, in the 66th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Al Muratsuchi. In the United States House of Representatives, Lomita is in California's 43rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Maxine Waters; the United States Postal Service Lomita Post Office is located at 25131 Narbonne Avenue. Lomita Railroad Museum, opened in 1966 by Irene Lewis, is a small museum in Lomita devoted to the steam-engine period of railroading. Mrs. Lewis, along with her husband Martin, operated "Little Engines of Lomita", which sold kits for live steam-engine locomotives, her engines appeared in movies, including "The Greatest Show on Earth" and "Von Ryans Express". This operation inspired Mrs. Lewi
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of