London Ambulance Service
The London Ambulance Service is a NHS trust responsible for operating ambulances and answering and responding to urgent and emergency medical situations within the London region of England. The service responds to 999 and 111 phone calls, providing triage and advice to enable an appropriate level of response, it is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is under the leadership of chief executive Garrett Emmerson; the service employs around 4,500 staff. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in the UK has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; the LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, over 1 million incidents in 2015/16.
Incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16. All 999 calls from the public are answered at one of the two Emergency Operations Centres in Waterloo or Bow who dispatch and allocate the appropriate resources. To assist, the service's command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for London's Metropolitan Police; this means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the resources allocated to the job. In 1818, a Parliamentary Select Committee had recommended that provision be made for carrying infectious patients in London "which would prevent the use of coaches or sedan chairs" but nothing was done. In 1866, a Hospital Carriage Fund provided six carriages to hospitals in the metropolitan area, for the use of patients suffering from smallpox or other infectious diseases, provided that they pay for the hire of the horses; the first permanent ambulance service in London was established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in 1879, when a new Poor Law Act empowered them "to provide and maintain carriages suitable for the conveyance of persons suffering from any infectious disorder".
The first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn "land ambulances", putting the whole of London within three miles of one of them; each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. A fleet of four paddle steamer "river ambulances" transported smallpox patients along the River Thames to Deptford, where they could be quarantined on hospital ships, departing from three special wharves at Rotherhithe and Fulham. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897 and extended in 1904. In 1902, the MAB introduced a steam in 1904, their first motor ambulance; the last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912. Although the MAB was supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it also carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
The Metropolitan Ambulance Act, 1909, empowered the London County Council to establish an emergency ambulance service, but this was not established until February 1915 and was under the control of the chief of the London Fire Brigade. In 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to employ women drivers, due to the number of men who had volunteered for military service. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed by women. By 1930, the MAB was the largest user of civil ambulance services in the world, however the Local Government Act 1929 meant that work of the MAB was taken over by the London County Council, which took charge of the modern fleet of 107 MAB motor ambulances, together with 46 ambulances which were run by local Poor law unions. Taken with the 21 ambulances operated by the LCC, this provided a comprehensive service for all kinds of illness and accident, under the direction of the Medical Officer of Health for the County of London; the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932.
During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries women, from all walks of life. They ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, commemorates their wartime service. In 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them; the present-day London Ambulance Service was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of nine existing services in the new county of Greater London, in 1974, after a reorganisation of the NHS, the LAS was transferred from the control of local government to the South West Thames Regional Health Authority. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority and became an NHS trust. In late 2017 LAS adopted the Ambulance Response Program which altered the targets for response times to reflect patient outcomes by removing hidden waiting times after a successful trial by the Yorkshire Ambulance Service, West Midlands Ambulance Service and South Western Ambulance Service.
As an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes; the chief executive and Chief
Royal London Hospital
The Royal London Hospital is a large teaching hospital in Whitechapel, London. It is part of Barts Health NHS Trust; the Royal London provides district general hospital services for the City and Tower Hamlets and specialist tertiary care services for patients from across London and elsewhere. There are 110 wards and 26 operating theatres at the Royal London Hospital; the new building opened in February 2012. The Royal London was founded in September 1740 and was named the London Infirmary; the name changed to the London Hospital in 1748, in 1990 to the Royal London Hospital. The first patients were treated at a house in Featherstone Street, Moorfields. In May 1741, the hospital moved to Prescot Street, remained there until 1757 when it moved to its current location on the south side of Whitechapel Road, Whitechapel, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets; the hospital's roof-top helipad is the London's Air Ambulance operating base. The helicopter is stored overnight at RAF Northolt. By the middle of the 18th century there were five voluntary hospitals in London which provided free medical care to those who could not afford it.
However, none was located in the east of the City, where it could have served the comparatively impoverished and growing population there. The institution, to become the Royal London Hospital was founded on 23 September 1740, when seven gentlemen met in the Feathers Tavern in Cheapside in the City of London to subscribe to the formation of an "intended new infirmary". On 3 November, the London Infirmary opened in a house on Featherstone Street, Moorfields; the staff consisted of one surgeon and apothecary. In May 1741, the hospital moved to larger premises in Prescot Street, at that time in an exceedingly bad district; the following year, 2nd Duke of Richmond was persuaded by the hospital's surgeon, John Harrison, to become the first President of the new hospital. The name changed to the London Hospital around 1748; the houses at Prescot Street were in an unfit state for use by 1744. A subscription fund for a new building was opened, the current site was acquired at Whitechapel Mount; the next year, the trustees of the charity acquired a royal charter so that they could constitute themselves as a legal entity.
Medical students had been recorded as studying under the staff of the London Hospital as private pupils since the year it had begun, however it was not until 1785 that the London Hospital Medical College was founded. Private medical schools had been long established, but the London College was the first medical school in England and Wales organised in connection with a hospital, it amalgamated in 1995 with St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, under the aegis of Queen Mary and Westfield College to become St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry. Joseph Merrick, known as the "Elephant Man", was admitted to the hospital in 1886 and spent the last few years of life there, his mounted skeleton is housed at the medical school, but is not on public display. In the late 1890s, Edith Cavell, who helped some 200 Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during the First World War and worked as a nurse at the hospital. In the early part of the twentieth century the hospital sent out 160 nurses to work unsupervised in private houses.
This earned £4,000 a year, a profit of £1,700. In 1990 the Queen visited the hospital and added "Royal" to the name, to celebrate the 250th anniversary of its founding; the present School of Nursing and Midwifery was formed in 1994 by the merger of the schools from St Bartholomew's Hospital and the Royal London Hospital to become the St Bartholomew School of Nursing & Midwifery. Prior to this, the school of nursing was known as the Princess Alexandra College of Nursing and Midwifery. In 1995 the new Nursing School was incorporated into London. In March 2005 planning permission was granted for the redevelopment and expansion of the Royal London Hospital; the scheme was procured under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 2006. Sited on the grounds of the existing hospital, the works involved the replacement of certain of the hospital's old facilities, some of which date back to when the hospital moved to its existing site in 1757; the works involved the creation of a new trauma and emergency care centre and substantial new renal and paediatric facilities.
These works, which were designed by HOK and undertaken by Skanska at a cost of £650 million, were completed in 2015. The old hospital buildings are being converted into a new civic centre for Tower Hamlets Council; the Royal London has a museum, located in the crypt of a 19th-century church. It is open to the public free of charge; the museum covers the history of the hospital since its foundation in 1740 and the wider history of medicine in the East End. It is a member of the London Museums of Medicine, it includes works of art, surgical instruments and nursing equipment, medals and books. There is a forensic medicine section which includes original material on Jack the Ripper, Dr Crippen and the Christie murders. There are displays on Joseph Merrick and former H
Greater London is a ceremonial county of England, located within the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, located within the region but is separate from the county; the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is the principal local authority for the City of London, with a similar role to that of the 32 London borough councils. Administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986; the county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963. The area was re-established as a region in 1994; the Greater London Authority was formed in 2000. The region had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census.
The Greater London Built-up Area is used in some national statistics and is a measure of the continuous urban area and includes areas outside the administrative region. The term Greater London has been and still is used to describe different areas in governance, statistics and common parlance. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London and the much wider Greater London; this arrangement has come about because as the area of London grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London with the surrounding metropolitan area, its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965; the term Greater London was used well before 1965 to refer to the Metropolitan Police District, the area of the Metropolitan Water Board, the London Passenger Transport Area and the area defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation.
The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916. One of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. Although the London County Council was created covering the County of London in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area West Ham and East Ham, many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estates, were outside its boundaries; the LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue; the LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties. Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority; the Commission made its report in 1923.
Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. Reform of local government in the County of London and its environs was next considered by the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, chaired by Sir Edwin Herbert, which issued the'Herbert Report' after three years of work in 1960; the commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right. Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the administrative counties of Middlesex and London, including the City of London, where the London County Council had limited powers, absorbing parts of Essex, Hertfordshire and Surrey. Greater London had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils.
The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London formed the London region in 1994; the London referendum, 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. In 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary; the 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson; the 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan. Greater London includes the most associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers and includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a similar way to the city's parks.
The closest and furthest boundaries are with Essex to the northeast between Sewardstonebury next to Epping Forest and Chingford and with the Mar
Gareth Davies (doctor)
Doctor Gareth Davies is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine and Pre-hospital Emergency Medicine, working for the NHS at the Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel. He is best known for his role as lead doctor of the flight crew for the London Air Ambulance and has been seen many times on the BBC documentary television series Trauma, Trauma Uncut and An Hour to Save Your Life He has made an appearance as a mentor in an episode of the CBBC series Hero Squad, on Channel 5's Trauma Doctors. Davies was born and grew up in Douglas on the Isle of Man off the north-west coast of England, famous for its Isle of Man TT motorcycle racing event. From a early age Gareth had been interested in motor sport and saw the consequences when people fell off their bikes, he would follow ambulances to the scenes of these accidents to see what care was provided for those who were hurt, noting the advanced medical help required. On From the Top: Gareth Davies, an educational program broadcast on Channel 4, Gareth recalled watching a television program from the U.
S. at the age of 16: "It was about these firemen who delivered medical care as firemen, they called themselves paramedics and that I thought was fantastic!" He formed a goal to become a paramedic. At that time paramedicine was in its infancy, so his options were either to go into the fire service and try and do medicine, or pursue medical training, he chose the latter, hoping that one day he would be able to treat people at the roadside in a paramedic capacity. After his A-levels Davies completed five years of medical training at Sheffield Medical School. On the day of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, Gareth Davies was mobilised by London Ambulance Service along with the rest of the London HEMS team, he was deployed at Aldgate where he was the Medical Incident Officer, re-deployed with others to Kings Cross. His work on that day led to him being nominated for the Great Briton Award in 2005 under the category of Public Life, although the title was awarded to Sebastian Coe for his efforts in bringing the Olympics to London in 2012.
In addition to his NHS duties, he serves as the Medical Director of London's Air Ambulance Ltd and as a director of a number of other companies including London Air Ambulance Trading Ltd, UK HEMS Ltd, EMSC Ltd and Medical Excellence Ltd. Official Website of London's Air Ambulance Personal profile of Dr. Gareth Davies
2017 London Bridge attack
On 3 June 2017, a terrorist vehicle-ramming and stabbing took place in London, England. A van was deliberately driven into pedestrians on London Bridge before crashing on the south bank of the River Thames, its three occupants ran to the nearby Borough Market area and began stabbing people in and around restaurants and pubs. The attackers were Islamists inspired by Islamic State, they were shot dead by Metropolitan Police officers and were found to be wearing fake explosive vests. Eight people were killed and 48 were injured, including members of the public and four unarmed police officers who attempted to stop the assailants; the attack happened three months after a similar vehicle-ramming and stabbing attack at Westminster Bridge in London. In March, five people were killed in a combined knife attack at Westminster. In late May, a suicide bomber killed 22 people at an Ariana Grande concert at Manchester Arena. After the Manchester bombing, the UK's terror threat level was raised to "critical", its highest level, until 27 May, when it was lowered to severe.
The attack was carried out using a white Renault van hired earlier on the same evening in Harold Hill, Havering by Khuram Butt. He had intended to hire a 7.5 tonne lorry, but was refused due to his failure to provide payment details. The attackers were armed with 12-inch kitchen knives with ceramic blades, which they tied to their wrists with leather straps, they prepared fake explosive belts by wrapping water bottles in grey tape. At 21:58 BST on Saturday 3 June 2017, the van was identified to have travelled south across London Bridge, returned six minutes crossing over the bridge northbound, making a U-turn at the northern end and driving southbound across the bridge, it hit multiple pedestrians, killing three. Witnesses said. 999 emergency calls were first recorded at 22:07. The van was found to contain 13 wine bottles containing flammable liquid with rags stuffed in them along with blow torches. An Australian nurse, Kirsty Boden, was fatally stabbed whilst attempting to help victims at the bridge.
After the van crashed on Borough High Street, the three attackers ran to Stoney Street adjoining Borough Market, where they stabbed four people in the Boro Bistro pub. Members of the public threw chairs at the attackers. Witnesses claimed that the attackers were shouting "This is for Allah". People in and around a number of other restaurants and bars along Stoney Street were attacked. A Romanian baker hit one of the attackers over the head with a crate before giving shelter to 20 people inside a bakery inside Borough Market. A British Transport Police officer received multiple stab wounds and temporarily lost sight in his right eye; the three attackers were shot dead by armed officers from the City of London and Metropolitan police services eight minutes after the initial emergency call was made. CCTV footage showed the three attackers in Borough Market running at the armed officers. A total of 46 rounds were fired by three City of five Metropolitan Police officers; the Metropolitan Police issued'Run, Tell' notices, asked for the public to remain calm and vigilant.
All buildings within the vicinity of London Bridge were evacuated, London Bridge and Bank Underground stations were closed at the request of the police. The mainline railway stations at London Bridge, Waterloo East, Charing Cross and Cannon Street were closed; the Home Secretary approved the deployment of a military counter terrorist unit from the Special Air Service. The helicopters carrying the SAS landed on London Bridge to support the Metropolitan Police because of concerns that there might be more attackers at large; the Metropolitan Police Marine Policing Unit dispatched boats on the River Thames, with assistance from the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, to contribute to the evacuation of the area and look for any casualties who might have fallen from the bridge. A stabbing incident took place in Vauxhall at 23:45 BST, causing Vauxhall station to be closed. At 01:45 BST on 4 June, controlled explosions took place to make safe the attackers' bomb vests, which were found to be fake. An emergency COBR meeting was held on the morning of 4 June.
London Bridge mainline railway and Underground stations remained closed throughout 4 June, while Borough tube station reopened that evening. A cordon was established around the scene of the attack. London Bridge station reopened at 05:00 on Monday 5 June. Mayor of London Sadiq Khan said that there was a surge of anti-Muslim hate crimes and Islamophobia following the attack. New security measures were implemented on eight central London bridges following the attack to reduce the likelihood of further vehicle attacks, with concrete barriers installed; the barriers have been criticised by cyclists for causing severe congestion in cycle lanes during peak hours. Borough Market reopened on 14 June. Eight civilians died: one Spaniard, one Briton, two Australians, one Canadian and three French citizens were killed by the attackers, the three attackers themselves were killed by armed police. 48 people were injured in the attack, including one New Zealander, two Australians, two Germans and four French citizens.
One body was pulled from the Thames near Limehouse several days after the attack. Three of the fatalities were caused in the initial vehicle-ramming attack, while the remaining five were stabbed to death. Four police officers were among those injured in the attack. A British Transport Police officer was stabbed and suffered serious
The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is 117 miles long encircling all of Greater London, England. An ambitious concept to build four concentric ring roads around London was first mooted in the 1960s. A few sections of the outer two rings were constructed in the early 1970s, but the plan was abandoned and the sections were integrated to form a single ring which became the M25, aka London Ring Road completed in 1986, it is one of the busiest of the British motorway network: the stretch between Junctions 14 and 15 outside Heathrow Airport records the highest number of daily traffic counts on the British strategic road network with the average flow in 2017 of 211,059 counts. This compares to 197,219 counts measured on the M1 motorway between junction 7 and 8 outside Hemel Hempstead in 2014, 195,325 counts measured on the M60 motorway between junctions 12 and 13 in Western Manchester in 2014; the M25, plus the short non-motorway A282 which joins the two ends of the M25 across the River Thames using the Dartford Crossing, is Europe's second longest orbital road after the Berliner Ring, 122 miles.
Built wholly as a dual three-lane motorway, much of the motorway has been widened: to dual four lanes for half, to a dual five-lanes section between junctions 12 and 14 and a dual six-lane section between junctions 14 and 15. Further widening is in progress of minor sections with plans for managed motorways in many others. To the east of London the two ends of the M25 are joined to complete a loop by the non-motorway A282 Dartford Crossing of the River Thames between Thurrock and Dartford; this crossing, which consists of twin two-lane tunnels and the four-lane QE2 bridge, is named Canterbury Way. Passage across the bridge or through the tunnels is subject to a toll, its level depending on the kind of vehicle; this stretch being non-motorway, it allows traffic, including that not permitted to use motorways, to cross the River Thames east of the Woolwich Ferry. However, in 2017 Highways England published plans to build another motorway-grade Thames tunnel to the east of Gravesend and Grays, the Lower Thames Crossing, in order to relieve congestion on the A282 Dartford Crossing and connect the M25 at North Ockendon in Essex with the M2 in Kent.
At Junction 5, the clockwise carriageway of the M25 is routed off the main north–south dual carriageway onto the main east–west dual carriageway with the main north–south carriageway becoming the A21. In the opposite direction, to the east of the point where the M25 diverges from the main east–west carriageway, that carriageway become the M26 motorway; the radial distance from London varies from 12.5 miles in Potters Bar to 19.5 miles in Byfleet. Three Greater London boroughs have realigned their boundaries to the M25 for minor stretches. Major towns listed as destinations, in various counties, adjoin the M25. North Ockendon is the only settlement of Greater London situated outside the M25. In 2004, following an opinion poll, the London Assembly mooted for consultation alignment of the Greater London boundary with the M25. "Inside the M25" and "outside/beyond the M25" are colloquial, looser alternatives to "Greater London" sometimes used in haulage. The Communications Act 2003 explicitly uses the M25 as the boundary in requiring a proportion of television programmes to be made outside the London area.
Two motorway service areas are on the M25, two others are directly accessible from it. Those on the M25 are Clacket Lane between junctions 5 and 6 and Cobham between junctions 9 and 10; those directly accessible from it are South Mimms off junction 23 and Thurrock off junction 31. Cobham services opened on 13 September 2012; the M25 was unlit except for sections around Heathrow, major interchanges and Junctions 23–30. Low pressure sodium lighting was the most prominent technology used, but widening projects from the 1990s onwards have all used high-pressure sodium lighting and this has diminished the original installations. By 2014 only one significant stretch was still SOX-lit and the units were removed the same year; the motorway passes through five counties. Junctions 1A–5 are in Kent, 6–14 are in Surrey, 15–16 are in Buckinghamshire, 17–25 are in Hertfordshire, 26–31 are in Essex. Policing of the road is carried out by an integrated policing group made up of the Metropolitan, Thames Valley, Kent and Surrey forces.
The M25 is one of Europe's busiest motorways. In 2003, a maximum of 196,000 vehicles a day were recorded on the motorway just south of London Heathrow Airport between junctions 13 and 14; the idea of an orbital road around London was first proposed early in the 20th century. An outer orbital road around London had first been proposed in 1913, was re-examined as a motorway route in Sir Charles Bressey's and Sir Edwin Lutyens' The Highway Development Survey, 1937. Sir Patrick Abercrombie's County of London Plan, 1943 and Greater London Plan, 1944 proposed a series of five roads encircling the capital; the northern sections of the M25 follow a similar route to the World War II Outer London Defence Ring, a concentric series of tanks and pillboxes designed to slow down a potential Ger
2017 Westminster attack
On 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack took place outside the Palace of Westminster in London, seat of the British Parliament. The attacker, 52-year-old Briton Khalid Masood, drove a car into pedestrians on the pavement along the south side of Westminster Bridge and Bridge Street, injuring more than 50 people, four of them fatally, he crashed the car into the perimeter fence of the Palace grounds and ran into New Palace Yard, where he fatally stabbed an unarmed police officer. He was shot by an armed police officer and died at the scene. Police treated the attack as "Islamist-related terrorism". Masood said in a final text message that he was waging jihad in revenge for Western military action in Muslim countries in the Middle East. Amaq News Agency, linked to Islamic State, said the attacker answered the group's calls to target citizens of states that are fighting against it, though the claim was questioned by the UK police and government. Police believe Masood acted alone. Prior to the attack, the UK Threat Level for terrorism in the country was listed at "severe", meaning an attack was "highly likely".
There had not been a killing at the Palace of Westminster since the assassination of Airey Neave by the Irish National Liberation Army in 1979, which took place close to New Palace Yard, during the Northern Ireland conflict. The previous terrorist attack to have caused multiple casualties on the British mainland had been the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Shortly before the attack, a division had been called in the House of Commons. At 14:40 local time on 22 March 2017, a grey Hyundai Tucson, hired in Birmingham, was driven at up to 76 miles per hour into pedestrians along the pavement on the south side of Westminster Bridge and Bridge Street, causing multiple casualties. One of the victims, a Romanian tourist, was thrown by the car's impact over the parapet of the bridge into the River Thames below. Having been knocked unconscious and sustained severe injuries from the fall, she was rescued by the crew of a river cruise and brought aboard a London Fire Brigade boat, she died in hospital from her injuries.
The car continued, crashed into railings on Bridge Street at the north perimeter of the Palace of Westminster. Masood, wearing black clothes, got out of the car and ran around the corner into Parliament Square and through the open Carriage Gates where he fatally stabbed an unarmed police officer, PC Keith Palmer. An armed police officer witnessed the stabbing, shot Masood dead; the entire attack, from start to finish, lasted 82 seconds. Despite attempts to resuscitate him, Masood died at the scene having been hit by all 3 shots fired by police; the first bullet, which struck his upper torso, was believed to be the cause of death. Passers-by, including MP Tobias Ellwood and paramedics, attempted to revive PC Palmer without success. Police confirmed that PC Palmer had been wearing a protective vest, which did not appear to have been punctured in the attack. Theresa May, the Prime Minister, in the Commons for a vote, was evacuated by her security team in the Prime Ministerial car, taken to 10 Downing Street.
Additional armed police officers arrived, including Counter Terrorist Specialist Firearms Officers who were on scene within 6 minutes. An air ambulance from London HEMS attended the scene. Parliament was suspended and MPs remained in the Commons debating chamber as a precaution. Parliamentary staff were confined to their offices; some were evacuated to Westminster Abbey. The Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales suspended their proceedings that afternoon; the UK government's emergency Cabinet Office Briefing Room committee, chaired by the Prime Minister, met in response to the attack. It was decided. Six people, including the attacker, died as a result of the incident, around 50 others were injured, some of them severely. Of the five people killed by the attacker, three were British nationals. One of the dead was a female teacher, believed to have been walking along the bridge to pick up her children from school. A tourist from the United States died; the police officer killed was PC Keith Palmer, 48, an unarmed police officer, on duty with the Parliamentary and Diplomatic Protection command.
Palmer had 15 years of experience in the Metropolitan Police Service. The fourth victim was a 75-year-old man from Clapham in south-west London, hit by the car and died in hospital after his life support was switched off. A fifth victim, a 31-year-old female tourist from Romania, fell into the Thames during the attack, her Romanian boyfriend, who had planned to propose marriage during their trip to London, was injured during the attack. A dozen people received serious injuries, some described as "catastrophic", eight others were treated for less serious injuries at the scene. Injured members of the public were taken to St Thomas' Hospital, located across Westminster Bridge in Lambeth, to King's College Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, the Royal London Hospit