Bodmin is a civil parish and historic town in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated south-west of Bodmin Moor; the extent of the civil parish corresponds closely to that of the town so is urban in character. It is bordered to the east by Cardinham parish, to the southeast by Lanhydrock parish, to the southwest and west by Lanivet parish, to the north by Helland parish. Bodmin had a population of 14,736 as of the 2011 Census, it was the county town of Cornwall until the Crown Courts moved to Truro, the administrative centre. Bodmin was in the administrative North Cornwall District until local government reorganisation in 2009 abolished the District; the town is part of the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, represented by Scott Mann MP. Bodmin Town Council is made up of sixteen councillors; each year, the Council elects one of its number as Mayor to serve as the town's civic leader and to chair council meetings. Bodmin lies in the east of south-west of Bodmin Moor, it has been suggested that the town's name comes from an archaic word in the Cornish language "bod" and a contraction of "menegh".
The "monks' dwelling" may refer to an early monastic settlement instituted by St. Guron, which St. Petroc took as his site. Guron is said to have departed to St Goran on the arrival of Petroc; the hamlets of Cooksland and Turfdown are in the parish. St. Petroc founded a monastery in Bodmin in the 6th century and gave the town its alternative name of Petrockstow; the monastery was deprived of some of its lands at the Norman conquest but at the time of Domesday still held eighteen manors, including Bodmin and Rialton. Bodmin is one of the oldest towns in Cornwall, the only large Cornish settlement recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. In the 15th century the Norman church of St Petroc was rebuilt and stands as one of the largest churches in Cornwall. Built at that time was an abbey of canons regular, now ruined. For most of Bodmin's history, the tin industry was a mainstay of the economy; the name of the town derives from the Cornish "Bod-meneghy", meaning "dwelling of or by the sanctuary of monks".
Variant spellings recorded include Botmenei in 1100, Bodmen in 1253, Bodman in 1377 and Bodmyn in 1522. The Bodman spelling appears in sources and maps from the 16th and 17th centuries, most notably in the celebrated map of Cornwall produced by John Speed but engraved by the Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius the Elder in Amsterdam in 1610, it is unclear whether the Bodman spelling signifies any historical or monastic connection with the ancient settlement of Bodman at the western end of the Bodensee in the German province of Baden. An inscription on a stone built into the wall of a summer house in Lancarffe furnishes proof of a settlement in Bodmin in the early Middle Ages, it has been dated from the 6th to 8th centuries. Arthur Langdon records three Cornish crosses at Bodmin. There is Carminow Cross at a road junction southeast of the town; the Black Death killed half of Bodmin's population in the mid 14th century. Bodmin was the centre of three Cornish uprisings; the first was the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 when a Cornish army, led by Michael An Gof, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer from Bodmin, marched to Blackheath in London where they were defeated by 10,000 men of the King's army under Baron Daubeny.
In the autumn of 1497, Perkin Warbeck tried to usurp the throne from Henry VII. Warbeck was proclaimed King Richard IV in Bodmin but Henry had little difficulty crushing the uprising. In 1549, allied with other rebels in neighbouring Devon, rose once again in rebellion when the staunchly Protestant Edward VI tried to impose a new Prayer Book; the lower classes of Cornwall and Devon were still attached to the Roman Catholic religion and again a Cornish army was formed in Bodmin which marched across the border into Devon to lay siege to Exeter. This became known as the Prayer Book Rebellion. Proposals to translate the Prayer Book into Cornish were suppressed and in total 4,000 people were killed in the rebellion; the Borough of Bodmin was one of the 178 municipal boroughs which under the auspices of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 was mandated to create an electable council and a Police Watch Committee responsible for overseeing a police force in the town. The new system directly replaced the Parish Constables that had policed the borough since time immemorial and brought paid and accountable law enforcement for the first time.
Bodmin Borough Police was the municipal police force for the Borough of Bodmin from 1836 to 1866. The creation of the Cornwall Constabulary in 1857 put pressure on smaller municipal police forces to merge with the county; the two-man force of Bodmin came under threat immediately, but it would take until 1866 for the Mayor of Bodmin and the Chairman of the Police Watch Committee to agree on the terms of amalgamation. After a public enquiry, the force was disbanded in January 1866 and policing of the borough was deferred to the county from thereon; the song "Bodmin Town" was collected from the Cornishman William Nichols at Whitchurch, Devon, in 1891 by Sabine Baring-Gould who published a version in his A Garland of Country Song. The existing church building is
The Pentewan Railway was a British, 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge railway in Cornwall, England. It was built as a horse-drawn tramway carrying china clay from St Austell to a new harbour at Pentewan, was opened in 1829. In 1874 the line was strengthened for locomotive working, it succumbed to more efficient operation at other ports and closed in 1918. Tin mining had been the dominant industry in much of Cornwall in the eighteenth century, but that work was declining by the 1830s. China clay had been discovered in the area north and west of St Austell, in Cornwall, Charles Rashleigh was prominent in developing the industry; the harbour was south-east of St Austell town and the principal sources of the mineral were to the north west, that the china clay had to be conveyed on packhorses through the centre of the town. In 1820 Sir Christopher Hawkins purchased land at Pentewan at the mouth of the St Austell river, he constructed a harbour there, it was completed in 1826 at a cost of £22,000. In 1827 a prospectus for a railway was published by him.
Tenders for the construction of the line were invited on 26 September 1829. There were no substantial engineering difficulties and the line was announced as open nine months on 1 July 1830. Hawkins appears to have managed the operation through a Pentewan Harbour Company; the new railway was built to 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge. There had been no other edge railway of that gauge, it was the third public railway in Cornwall, after the Poldice Tramway and the Redruth and Chasewater Railway. The northern part was on a steep gradient falling towards the harbour, so that loaded wagons could be gravitated. Output of china clay in Cornwall increased at this time, from 12,790 tons in 1826 to 20,784 tons in 1838; the Pentewan Railway handled about a third of the traffic at first, but this declined to about a tenth in 1838. In 1833 a coal yard and siding were built at London Apprentice to serve the tin mine at Polgooth. In time the line serviced a number of small mica works and other industries along the line, including the St Austell gas works, for which it provided coal.
Coal was brought in to the mica kilns, as well as to St Austell. Baltic timber was taken from Pentewan to St Austell for making barrels. There appears to have been a limited passenger service on the line from 1830, but few details survive. An early account quotes the fare as 3d. There was no formal timetabled train service, it is that persons were conveyed on an ordinary wagon on request. A sixteen-seat saloon carriage was built in 1875, but its use was confined to the Hawkins family. In August 1881 the children of St Austell Workhouse, were taken to Pentewan on the trucks for their annual treat, paid for by Mr Arthur Coode. From 1883 free Sunday School excursions to Pentewan took place, these appear to have become a regular event on the line; the passenger were conveyed in the clay wagons While the line had been a pioneer, technological progress meant that lines built were more efficient. The Cornwall Railway opened between Plymouth and Truro in 1859 using steam locomotives, soon became the dominant land transport medium in the district.
Silting of Pentewan Harbour had been a recurrent problem. In 1874 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorising the use of locomotive traction on the Pentewan line, extensions northwards into the china clay fields; this ambitious scheme changed the name of the owning company to the St Austell and Pentewan Railway Harbour and Dock Company with capital of £50,000. Strengthening of the track had already taken place, indeed the use of locomotives had been implemented: an 0-6-0 tender engine, Pentewan had arrived in 1874. On 1 January 1876 the Cornwall Railway was taken over by the Great Western Railway and the larger company directed china clay traffic to its harbour at Fowey, providing better facilities and a more efficient transport link from connected china clay pits; the impact on the Pentewan traffic was dramatic. The £50,000 capital of the expanding Pentewan company had only been authorised by Parliament, few subscribers came forward with the money: by 1880 only £11,824 had been forthcoming by 1880, profits from current operations were inadequate to pay the ground rent.
Symons summarised the story of the line, writing in 1884. It was intended to work it by locomotives, but the opposition of Mr. Hawkins, a landowner, prevented it, its chief use is for the conveyance of china clay to Pentewan. This collapse seems to have been followed by a boom, for in 1882 45,270 tons were carried, generated a profit of £1,206; this buoyancy enabled the replacement of the original locomotive Pentewan with a new, machine, named Trewithan in 1886. At the same time there were renewed proposals to extend the line northwards and to electrify it, using a central live rail; this seems a huge leap of faith: at the time only Volk's Electric Railway and the 3 ft narrow gauge railways at the Giant's Causeway Tramway and the Bessbrook and Newry Tramway had been equipped with electric traction
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Cornwall Council is the unitary authority for the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom, not including the Isles of Scilly, which has its own council. The council, its predecessor Cornwall County Council, has a tradition of large groups of independent councillors, having been controlled by independents in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the 2013 elections, it is run by an Independent-Liberal Democrat coalition. Cornwall Council provides a wide range of services to more than half a million Cornish residents. In 2014 it had an annual budget of more than £1 billion and was the biggest employer in Cornwall with a staff of 12,429 salaried workers, it is responsible for services including: schools, social services, rubbish collection, roads and more. Before April 2009, Cornwall was administered as a non-metropolitan county by the Cornwall County Council with six districts, Carrick, North Cornwall and Restormel; the Council of the Isles of Scilly still remains a separate unitary authority. On 5 December 2007, the Government confirmed that Cornwall was one of five councils that would move to unitary status.
This was enacted by statutory instrument as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, The changes took effect on 1 April 2009. On that date the six districts and Cornwall County Council were abolished and were replaced by Cornwall Council; the council has 123 councillors, the independent Local Government Boundary Commission for England is proposing that Cornwall Council should have 87 councillors in future. On the creation of the new unitary authority it was decided that the name of the new council would be Cornwall Council; the Council logo features a Cornish chough and the 15 Cornish golden bezants on a black field as used in the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall. The campaign for Cornish devolution began in 2000 with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention, a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. In 2009, Liberal Democrat MP Dan Rogerson introduced a bill in parliament seeking to take power from Whitehall and regional quangos and pass it to the new Cornwall Council, with the intention of transforming the new council into an assembly along the lines of National Assembly for Wales.
In November 2010, British Prime Minister David Cameron suggested in comments to the local press that his government would "devolve a lot of power to Cornwall - that will go to the Cornish unitary authority." In 2011, the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg said he would meet a cross party group, including the six Cornish MPs, to look at whether more powers could be devolved to Cornwall. The subsequent Localism Act 2011 was expected to achieve this but it proved incapable. However, the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016 is intended to devolve some powers to Cornwall Council, helping to bring social and care services together, giving control over bus services and local investment. Among the services provided by the council is a public library service which consists of a main library in Truro and smaller libraries in towns and some villages throughout Cornwall. There are the following special libraries: Cornwall Learning Library, Cornish Studies Library, the Education Library Service, the Performing Arts Library, as well as a mobile library service based at Threemilestone.
Cornwall Council is promoting ten cultural projects as part of a five-year culture strategy. One project is the development of a National Theatre of Cornwall, a collaboration of the Hall for Cornwall, Kneehigh Theatre, Eden Project and Wildworks. Cornwall Council has based its idea on the successful National Theatres of Wales. Another of the projects is the proposed creation of a National Library of Cornwall to resolve inadequacies with the current storage of archives, it is hoped that this will bring some important documents concerning Cornish history back to Cornwall as well as providing better public access to those records held. Cornwall Council is involved in the project to build a Stadium for Cornwall. Cornwall Council backs the campaign for the Cornish to be recognised as a National Minority in the UK; the council's chief executive Kevin Lavery wrote a letter to the Government in 2010, writing, "Cornwall Council believes that the UK Government should recognise the Cornish as a national minority under the terms of the Framework Convention."
Adding that, "Cornwall Council believes that the Government's current restricted interpretation is discriminatory against the Cornish and contradicts the support it gives to Cornish culture and identity through its own departments." Cornwall Council's support was reaffirmed as council policy in 2011 with the publication of the Cornish National Minority Report 2, signed and endorsed by the leaders of every political grouping on the council. The council took an active role in the promotion of the options for registering Cornish ethnicity and national identity on the 2011 UK Census; the Cornish people were recognised as a National Minority by the British Government on 24 April 2014 and incorporated into the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities giving the Cornish the same status as the United Kingdom's other Celtic peoples, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. Since 2008 Cornwall Council and the former county council, together with Cornwall Enterprise, Cornwall Sustainable Energy Partnership, have been involved with a Protocol of Cooperation between Cornwall and the Conseil général du Finistère in Brittany.
The protocol aims to allow the two regions to work more on topics of common interest and engage in a knowledge exchange with the possibility of jointly applying for European fun
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Polgooth is a former mining village in south Cornwall, United Kingdom. It lies in the parish of St Mewan and in the parish of St Ewe; the nearest town is St Austell two miles to the north-east. Antiquarians once claimed that the mines of Polgooth had supplied Phoenician traders with tin 3000 years ago, but in fact the earliest historical record is a list compiled in 1593, in which several well-established Polgooth workings were named. At that time and subsequently, the mines were owned by the Edgcumbe family. By the eighteenth century, Polgooth was celebrated as the "greatest tin mine in the world" and the richest mine in the United Kingdom. To pump water from the workings an early 50-inch Newcomen steam engine was erected in 1727 by Joseph Hornblower, superseded in 1784 by a 58-inch Boulton & Watt steam engine and in 1823 by an 80-inch William Sims engine. In 1822, Polgooth was the birthplace of geologist John Arthur Phillips. In the late eighteenth century shareholders or'adventurers' in the mines included the engineers James Watt and Matthew Boulton, the industrialist John Wilkinson, local entrepreneur Charles Rashleigh, landowner Lord Henry Arundell, the potters Josiah and John Wedgwood.
By 1800, over 1000 people were employed at Polgooth though, judging by a contemporary visitor, not in the most cheerful of conditions: "The shafts...are scattered over a considerable extent of sterile ground, whose dreary appearance, the sallow countenances of the miners, concur to excite ideas of gloom and melancholy." In the nineteenth century and periodic slumps in tin prices led to several cycles of closures and reopenings. In 1836, a new mine known as South Polgooth opened to the west of the village, producing not only tin, but copper, wolfram and zinc. However, falling prices meant that by 1894 mining at Polgooth came to an end, though some little work continued at South Polgooth till 1916 and the spoil heaps were picked over till 1929; the village of Polgooth grew up amongst the mines. In 1824, a travel guide noted that "The whole surface of the country in vicinity, has been disfigured, presents a gloomy aspect... The immense piles of earth, which have been excavated and thrown up, have quite a mountainous appearance: roads have been formed in several directions leading to the places or shafts, where the miners are at work.
Many of these cottages were grouped in small settlements in and around the mines. These only coalesced into a single village in the nineteenth century, when most of the mine workings had moved onto the surrounding hillsides. Following the end of mining, Polgooth's population dropped and the village became a agricultural, rural settlement. More from the 1960s onwards, large numbers of bungalows and suburban houses have been built, thanks to the proximity of St Austell and the south Cornish coast. Tregongeeves Farm on the northern edge of the village was home to Loveday Hambly, dubbed "the Quaker saint of Cornwall". George Fox, founder of the Religious Society of Friends, stayed at the farm in 1656, 1663, 1668 when meetings of Cornish Quakers were held there; the Quaker Burial Ground nearby was donated for that purpose in 1706 by Richard Edgcumbe, 1st Baron Edgcumbe to the Quaker Thomas Lower, though much of the ground was destroyed by road-widening in the 1960s. Tregongeeves farmhouse was rebuilt in the nineteenth century and the farm buildings have now been converted to'holiday cottages'.
John Wesley, founder of Methodism, preached at Polgooth in 1755. A Wesleyan Meeting House was subsequently built in the village and enlarged as a Methodist chapel; the latter has now been demolished. Many of the older buildings in the village were built from elvan stone, quarried locally until the 1920s; the Polgooth Inn dates back to the sixteenth century and is still extant, though the present building is nineteenth century. The old count house survives, as does one of the old engine houses and a stamping mill plus several mining cottages. In 2000 the prime minister Tony Blair visited Polgooth Post Office for a photo opportunity, to the bemusement of several residents. Trewoon – village in St Mewan Parish, St Austell Media related to Polgooth at Wikimedia Commons