London King's Cross railway station
King's Cross railway station known as London King's Cross, is a passenger railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden, on the edge of Central London. It is in the London station group, one of the busiest stations in the United Kingdom and the southern terminus of the East Coast Main Line to North East England and Scotland. Adjacent to King's Cross station is St Pancras International, the London terminus for Eurostar services to continental Europe. Beneath both main line stations is King's Cross St. Pancras tube station on the London Underground; the station was opened in Kings Cross in 1852 by the Great Northern Railway on the northern edge of Central London to accommodate the East Coast Main Line. It grew to cater for suburban lines and was expanded several times in the 19th century, it came under the ownership of the London and North Eastern Railway as part of the Big Four grouping in 1923, who introduced famous services such as the Flying Scotsman and locomotives such as Mallard. The station complex was redeveloped in the 1970s, simplifying the layout and providing electric suburban services, it became a major terminus for the high-speed InterCity 125.
As of 2018, long-distance trains from King's Cross are run by London North Eastern Railway to Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central via York and Newcastle. In addition, Great Northern runs suburban commuter trains around north London. In the late 20th century, the area around the station became known for its seedy and downmarket character, was used as a backdrop for several films as a result. A major redevelopment was undertaken in the 21st century, including restoration of the original roof, the station became well known for its association with the Harry Potter books and films the fictional Platform 9¾; the station stands on the London Inner Ring Road at the eastern end of Euston Road, next to the junction with Pentonville Road, Gray's Inn Road and York Way, in what is now the London Borough of Camden. To the west, at the other side of Pancras Road, is St Pancras railway station. Several London bus routes, including 10, 30, 59, 73, 91, 205, 390, 476 pass in front of or to the side of the station.
King's Cross is spelled both without an apostrophe. King's Cross is used in signage at the Network Rail and London Underground stations, on the Tube map and on the official Network Rail webpage, it featured on early Underground maps, but has been used on them since 1951. Kings X, Kings + and London KX are abbreviations used in space-limited contexts; the National Rail station code is KGX. The area of King's Cross was a village known as Battle Bridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet known as Broad Ford Bradford Bridge; the river flowed along what is now the west side of Pancras Road until it was rerouted underground in 1825. The name "Battle Bridge" is linked to tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Celtic British Iceni tribe led by Boudica. According to folklore, King's Cross is the site of Boudica's final battle and some sources say she is buried under one of the platforms. Platforms 9 and 10 have been suggested as possible sites. Boudica's ghost is reported to haunt passages under the station, around platforms 8–10.
King's Cross station was built in 1851–52 as the London terminus of the Great Northern Railway, was the fifth London terminal to be constructed. It replaced a temporary station next to Maiden Lane, constructed with the line's arrival in London in 1850; the station took its name from the King's Cross building, a monument to King George IV that stood in the area and was demolished in 1845. Construction was on the site of a smallpox hospital and it replaced a temporary terminus at Maiden Lane that had opened on 7 August 1850. Plans for the station were made in December 1848 under the direction of George Turnbull, resident engineer for constructing the first 20 miles of the Great Northern Railway out of London; the station's detailed design was by Lewis Cubitt, the brother of Thomas Cubitt, Sir William Cubitt. The design comprised two great arched train sheds, with a brick structure at the south end designed to reflect the arches behind, its main feature was a 112-foot high clock tower that held treble and bass bells, the latter weighing 1 ton 9 cwt.
In size, it was inspired by the 200 yards long Moscow Riding Academy of 1825, leading to its built length of 268 yards. The station, the biggest in England, opened on 14 October 1852, it had one arrival and one departure platform, the space between was used for carriage sidings. The platforms have been reconfigured several times, they have been numbered 1 to 8 since 1972. Suburban traffic grew with the opening of stations at Hornsey in 1850, Holloway Road in 1856, Wood Green in 1859 and Seven Sisters Road in 1861. Midland Railway services to Leicester via Hitchin and Bedford began running from King's Cross on 1 February 1858. More platforms were added in 1862. In 1866, a connection was made via the Metropolitan Railway to the London and Dover Railway at Farringdon, with goods and passenger services to South London via Herne Hill. A separate suburban station to the west of the main building, housing platforms 9–11 as of 1972 and known initi
London Buses route 23
London Buses route 23 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Westbourne Park station and Hammersmith, it is operated by Tower Transit. Route 23 was introduced on 18 July 1992 between Westbourne Park station and Liverpool Street bus station from First CentreWest's Westbourne Park garage. On 14 November 2003, Alexander ALX400 bodied Dennis Trident 2s replaced the AEC Routemasters that had operated it since its inception. In January 2009, the route's peak frequency was reduced from twelve buses per hour to ten, as part of Transport for London's policy of reducing the number of buses using Oxford Street in order to reduce congestion and pollution by 10% in 2009 and a further 10% in 2010; the off-peak service operated at this frequency. On 5 January 2009, a bus operating on the route crashed into a shop in Westbourne Grove after swerving to avoid a van, injuring ten people. In 2009, Transport for London decided not to proceed with a possible change of the eastbound route in the Elgin Crescent area, following a consultation with residents and local interest groups.
The proposal would have routed the eastbound 23 along Ladbroke Gardens instead of Elgin Crescent, while routes 52 and 452 would continue to run along Elgin Crescent in both directions. The most common benefit stated amongst supporters was fewer buses along the overcrowded Elgin Crescent. First London had retained route 23 with a new contract starting on 13 November 2010 and was included in the sale of First London's Westbourne Park garage to Tower Transit on 22 June 2013. Tower Transit retained route 23 with a new contract starting on 14 November 2015. On 30 September 2017 route 23 was withdrawn between Liverpool Street bus station. On 24 November 2018 as part of a programme to reduce the number of bus routes traversing Oxford Street, the section of route 23 between Marble Arch and Aldwych was diverted to Hammersmith replacing route 10. Radio presenter Geoff Lloyd featured the route in the show Boring? The number 23 bus? Never! at the Boring Conference in December 2010. Route 23 operates via these primary locations: Westbourne Park station Ladbroke Grove Sainsbury's Ladbroke Grove station Paddington station Marble Arch station Hyde Park Corner station Knightsbridge station Royal Albert Hall Kensington Palace High Street Kensington station Kensington Olympia station Brook Green Hammersmith Broadway Hammersmith bus station for Hammersmith tube stations Media related to London Buses route 23 at Wikimedia Commons
London Buses route 73
London Buses route 73 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Stoke Newington and Oxford Circus, it is operated by Arriva London. Route 73 commenced on 30 November 1914, ran from King's Cross to Barnes via Euston Road, Tottenham Court Road, Oxford Street, Knightsbridge and Hammersmith. By 1949, the route had been extended at both ends to operate from Stoke Newington to Richmond, it was extended further west to Hounslow on 26 November 1958, replacing route 33. This latter route was reinstated between Hammersmith and Richmond in 1966, with route 73 curtailed at Hammersmith on weekdays, continuing to Richmond on Saturdays and Hounslow on Sundays; the weekend service was cut back to Twickenham in October 1978, back to Hammersmith in September 1982. On 13 August 1988, the route was diverted at Hyde Park Corner to Victoria bus station, being replaced by route 10 west of Hyde Park Corner. In August 1994, the route—at the time operated by Leaside Buses—was used to test satellite monitoring of buses in an effort to reduce bunching.
On 4 September 2004, route 73 was converted to one-man operation, with the AEC Routemasters replaced by Mercedes-Benz O530G articulated buses. This change was intended to decrease boarding times. Fare evasion on the route increased after the introduction of articulated vehicles, leading some passengers to nickname the route'seventy-free'; the route was used to test the iBus system in 2007. On 3 September 2011, Arriva London commenced a new contract with operation transferred to Stamford Hill garage and the route converted back to double-deck operation with 20 hybrid Wright Eclipse Gemini 2-bodied Volvo B5LHs and the balance diesel Wright Gemini 2-bodied VDL DB300s; the route was discontinued between Stoke Newington. In December 2012, route 73 was converted to full hybrid operation with Wright Eclipse Gemini 2-bodied Volvo B5LHs. New Routemasters were introduced on 16 May 2015; the bus route passes many tourist attractions such as Marble Arch, the British Library and Clissold Park. The Daily Telegraph called the route one of the "best routes for sightseeing on a shoestring".
In August 2014, two buses on the route were fitted with equipment designed to enhance bus drivers' awareness of pedestrians and cyclists as part of a six-week trial. The route was chosen because it was "most to encounter packed seas of distracted shopping people and cyclists". Route 73 was withdrawn between Oxford Circus and Victoria on 17 June 2017, with route 390 replacing the withdrawn section. Route 73 operates via these primary locations: Stoke Newington Common Newington Green Essex Road station Angel station King's Cross station St Pancras station Euston bus station for Euston station Euston Square station Warren Street station Goodge Street station Tottenham Court Road station Oxford Circus Holles Street Media related to London Buses route 73 at Wikimedia Commons Timetable
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. It was formed following the Greater London Authority Act 1999 that transferred control of bus services in Greater London and its surrounding areas from the UK Government's London Regional Transport to TfL, controlled by the locally elected Mayor of London. Transport for London's key areas of direct responsibility through London Buses are the following: planning new bus routes revising existing bus routes specifying service levels monitoring service quality management of bus stations and bus stops assistance in'on ground' set up of diversions, bus driver assistance in situations over and above job requirements, for example Road Accidents providing information for passengers in the form of timetables and maps at bus stops and online, an online route planning service producing leaflet maps, available from Travel Information Centres, libraries etc. and as online downloads. Operating CentreComm London Buses' 24‑hour command-and-control centre based in Southwark All bus operations are undertaken under a tendering system in which operators bid for routes in return for a set price per route operated.
Contracts are for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met. Routes are set up, controlled and tendered out by Transport for London and they provide day to day assistance via CentreComm which coordinates a large scale network of Network Traffic Controllers to help with any traffic issues that may occur. Operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, the pricing is announced on new tenders. London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps; some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers. In 2002, TfL introduced the first "spider" maps. Rather than attempting to cover the entire city, these maps are centred on a particular locality or bus station, convey the route information in the schematic style of Harry Beck's influential Tube map, capitalising on TfL's iconic style of information design; the arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname "spider" maps, although TfL refer to them on their website as route maps.
The maps are displayed at most major bus stops, can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London. East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. LBL was formed on 1 April 1985 as part of the privatisation of London bus services, acted as an arm's-length subsidiary of TfL's precursor organisation, London Regional Transport, holding twelve bus operating units and other assets; the operating units were sold off in 1994/95, their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses. After 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL, it was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a chinese wall from LBSL, acted as a London bus operator by proxy. The local bus network in London is one of the most comprehensive in the world.
Over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys. Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, but Day Bus passes were re-introduced on 2 January 2015. Single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. From 2000, the flat fare was higher for journeys in Zone 1 than in outer zones, although from 2004 this difference was eliminated, the change coinciding with the introduction of Oyster card flat fares. With Oyster pay as you go, users are charged a set amount for single journeys, although there is a "daily cap", which limits the maximum amount of money that will be deducted from the balance, regardless of how many buses are taken that day. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card.
Passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult. Children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard. Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfL's Travel Information Centres. There are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18; the Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, those with a disability, to travel free at any time on buses and TfL's rail services. People who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Bus services in London are operated by Abellio London, Arriva London, CT Plus, Go-Ahead London, London Sovereign, London United, Quality Line, Stagecoach London, Sullivan Buses, Tower Transit and Uno.
Each company has its own operating code, every bus garage in London has its own garage
The Alexander ALX400 is a 2-axle double-decker bus body built by Walter Alexander Coachbuilders. It was one of the ALX-series bodywork, all of which featured the same designs on the front and rear panels that were designed for the new generation of low-floor bus chassis produced since the late 1990s. Released in 1997, it replaced the aging Alexander R-series bodies and was fitted to numerous chassis, including the Dennis/TransBus Trident, the DAF/VDL DB250LF and the Volvo B7TL, it proved a big success with national operators. From its introduction until 2006, it had been the favoured 2-axle double-decker bus model for the Stagecoach Group; the ALX400 was a big hit with Dublin Bus of Ireland, which ordered 658 between 2000 and 2006. 648 of them were fitted on Volvo B7TL chassis, AV 1-448 were Volvo B7TL chassis, AX 449-648 were on B7TL MKII chassis. During 2003 an order was placed for 10 TransBus Trident/ALX 400 versions known as DT 1-10 to compare against the AV class with a view to splitting future orders.
Most of these featured 76 seat single door bodies although there were various seating capacities for on a small minority used and rail/airport services. Summerhill based. Various seating configurations were available, with Transport for London specification models fitted with a central exit door. There are 45 seats on the upper deck, between 17 and 22 seats on the lower deck. Longer models for use elsewhere have up to 47 seats on the upper deck, 24 below with a central door. Stagecoach subsidiaries outside London have ALX400s on long-wheelbase Dennis Trident chassis, fitted with 51 seats upstairs and 28 downstairs. In late 2005 Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro400 model, intended as a replacement for the ALX400, but in 2006, new ALX400s were still entering service with Arriva. Despite the bulk of the 2006 Stagecoach double-decker bus order favouring the Enviro400 model chosen by London operator Metroline, in March 2006 Dublin Bus placed a repeat order for 100 of the type on Volvo B7TL chassis.
Production of the ALX400 bodywork ceased after the delivery of these 100 ALX400-bodied Volvo B7TL in late 2006. It was announced in 2014 that Arriva London's DLA1 the first built ALX400 and London's first low floor double decker is to be transferred to the London Transport Museum Depot to be added to the collection of the London Transport historic bus collection. List of buses ALX400 flickr gallery
Hyde Park Corner tube station
Hyde Park Corner is a London Underground station near Hyde Park Corner in Hyde Park. It is between Knightsbridge and Green Park on the Piccadilly line; the station was opened by the Great Northern and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. The original, Leslie Green-designed station building still remains to the south of the road junction, notable by its ox-blood coloured tiles; the building was taken out of use when the station was provided with escalators in place of lifts and a new sub-surface ticket hall that came into use on 23 May 1932 although an emergency stairway provides a connection to the platforms. The lift shafts are now used to provide ventilation; the 1932 station had showcases inset to the walls that showed a series of diamoras depicting the development of the London bus – long gone, some of the scale models survive in the LT Museum Collections. When the station was rebuilt with escalators the adjacent little-used station at Down Street to the east was taken out of use, it is one of the few stations which have no associated buildings above ground, the station being underground.
The current entrance to the station is accessed from within the pedestrian underpass system around the Hyde Park Corner junction. When the central section of the Piccadilly line is closed, the station becomes the terminus of the western part due to the presence of a crossover tunnel to the east of the station. London Buses routes 2, 9, 13, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 36, 38, 52, 74, 137, 148, 390, 414 and night routes N9, N16, N19, N22, N38 and N74 serve the station. Green Line Coaches routes 701 and 702 serve the station