Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford, England. It is located 18 miles south-east of Central London, is situated adjacent to the London Borough of Bexley to its west. To its north, across the Thames estuary, is Thurrock in Essex, which can be reached via the Dartford Crossing; the town centre lies in a valley through which the River Darent flows, where the old road from London to Dover crossed: hence the name, from Darent + ford. Dartford became a market town in medieval times and, although today it is principally a commuter town for Greater London, it has a long history of religious and cultural importance, it is an important rail hub. Dartford is twinned with Hanau in Gravelines in France. Dartford lies within the area known as the London Basin; the low-lying marsh to the north of the town consists of London Clay, the alluvium brought down by the two rivers—the Darent and the Cray—whose confluence is in this area. The higher land on which the town stands, through which the narrow Darent valley runs, consists of chalk surmounted by the Blackheath Beds of sand and gravel.
As a human settlement, Dartford became established as a river crossing-point with the coming of the Romans. As a result, the town's main road pattern makes the shape of letter'T'; the Dartford Marshes to the north, the proximity of Crayford in the London Borough of Bexley to the west, mean that the town's growth is to the south and east. Wilmington is contiguous with the town to the south. Within the town boundaries there are several distinct areas: the town centre around the parish church and along the High Street; the open spaces are Central Park, alongside the river. Like most of the United Kingdom, Dartford has an oceanic climate. In prehistoric times, the first people appeared in the Dartford area around 250,000 years ago: a tribe of prehistoric hunter-gatherers whose exemplar is called Swanscombe Man. Many other archaeological investigations have revealed a good picture of occupation of the district with important finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age; when the Romans engineered the Dover to London road, it was necessary to cross the River Darent by ford, giving the settlement its name.
Roman villas were built along the Darent Valley, at Noviomagus, close by. The Saxons may have established the first settlement. Dartford manor is mentioned in the Domesday Book, compiled after the Norman conquest, it was owned by the king. During the medieval period Dartford was an important waypoint for pilgrims and travellers en route to Canterbury and the Continent, various religious orders established themselves in the area. In the 12th century the Knights Templar had possession of the manor of Dartford. In the 14th century, a priory was established here, two groups of friars—the Dominicans and the Franciscans—built hospitals here for the care of the sick. At this time the town became a important market town. Wat Tyler, of Peasants' Revolt fame, might well have been a local hero, although three other towns in Kent all claim and there are reasons to doubt the strength of Tyler's connection to Dartford, though the existence of a town centre public house named after him could give credence to Dartford's claim.
Dartford, cannot claim a monopoly on public houses named after Tyler. It is probable that Dartford was a key meeting point early in the Peasants' Revolt with a detachment of Essex rebels marching south to join Kentish rebels at Dartford before accompanying them to Rochester and Canterbury in the first week of June 1381. Although lacking a leader, Kentishmen had assembled at Dartford around 5 June through a sense of county solidarity at the mistreatment of Robert Belling, a man claimed as a serf by Sir Simon Burley. Burley had abused his royal court connections to invoke the arrest of Belling and, despite a compromise being proposed by bailiffs in Gravesend, continued to demand the impossible £300 of silver for Belling's release. Having left for Rochester and Canterbury on 5 June, the rebels passed back through Dartford, swollen in number, a week on 12 June en route for London. In the 15th century, two kings of England became part of the town's history. Henry V marched through Dartford in November 1415 with his troops after fighting the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
In March 1452, Duke of York, camped at the Brent with ten thousand men, waiting for a confrontation with King Henry VI. The Duke surrendered to the king in Dartford; the place of the camp is marked today by Dartford. The 16th century saw significant changes to the hitherto agrarian basis of the market in Dartford, as new industries began to take shape; the priory was destroyed in 1538 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and a new manor house was subsequently constructed by King Henry VIII. In 1545, Henry held a series of meetings of his Privy Council in the town, from 21 to 25 June 1545 Dartford was the seat
Fastway (bus rapid transit)
Fastway is a bus rapid transit network in Surrey and West Sussex, United Kingdom, linking Crawley with Gatwick Airport and Horley, the first to be constructed outside a major city. It uses specially adapted buses that can either be steered by the driver or operate as "self steering" guided buses along a specially constructed track. Fastway is operated by Metrobus, using Scania OmniCity, Wright StreetLite and Volvo B7RLE / Wright Eclipse 2 buses. Fastway aims to improve bus services in the Crawley and Horley area; the project included construction of new bus lanes, including guided bus lanes, construction of new bus waiting shelters and provision of electronic real-time passenger information and a fleet of new low-floor buses for Metrobus Construction work began in May 2002, was scheduled to be completed by June 2005. In October 2006, major work stopped, having completed around 60% of the planned work - 1.5 km guided and 5.8 km unguided bus lanes were constructed, of the planned 2.5 km guided and 8.8 km unguided lanes.
The planned 24 traffic lights and 11 roundabouts were changed to 40 traffic lights and 2 roundabouts. Phase 1 commenced in September 2003 between Bewbush and Gatwick, £50,000 over budget and four months behind schedule; the opening was attended by Tony McNulty MP, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport, local dignitaries. The service was extended from 21- to 24-hour operation in May 2004 and now runs every 7 minutes during the day and every 20–30 minutes in the early morning and Sunday. In July 2005 the project was more than £6 million over budget. An independent inquiry was launched to investigate the losses, led by a task force from East Sussex County Council; the results of the inquiry were published in December 2005. ESCC concluded West Sussex had shown a pattern of "ineffective accountability, ineffective risk management and a lack of clear ownership of the financial management responsibilities". On 27 August 2005 Fastway service 20 was introduced, running between Broadfield, Three Bridges, Manor Royal, Gatwick Airport and Langshott.
On Mondays to Saturdays it runs every 20 minutes during the day, every 30 minutes in the early morning and late evening and Sunday. Bus rapid transit was chosen to minimise startup costs, remove the need for public consultation exercises. Fastway is the first bus rapid transit system in the world to be built outside a major city by a partnership of local authorities and private companies with automatic vehicle location, pre-trip and in-trip passenger information and automatic traffic signal priority from the start. In June 2002 the official Fastway website was updated to show a cost of £27 million, with just under £10 million provided by the government. In September 2003, the Go-Ahead group withdrew their £3 million commitment to the project; the government increased its contribution to cover this as well as other rising costs, raising its contribution to £16.642 million. Route 10 is the most frequent service on the network, it operates from Bewbush, via Crawley bus station, to Gatwick Airport.
It runs every 6 minutes on weekdays and Saturdays, every 10 minutes on Sundays, every 30 minutes during the night. Route 20 operates from Broadfield, via Crawley town centre, Three Bridges railway station, Gatwick Airport and Horley town centre, to Langshott, it runs every 15 minutes Monday to every 30 minutes on Sundays. An overnight service operates only between Gatwick Airport and Broadfield, with frequencies of at least every 60 minutes. Route 100 is the longest route on the network, with services operating from Maidenbower, via Three Bridges railway station, Crawley town centre, Gatwick Airport and Horley town centre, to Redhill. Buses on this route run every 15 minutes on weekdays and Saturdays, every 30 minutes on Sundays, up to every 60 minutes overnight; the Fastway project was funded by a public-private partnership. The consortium included West Sussex County Council, Surrey County Council, Crawley Borough Council and Banstead Borough Council, BAA Gatwick, British Airways. There is support from the UK Department for Transport.
The project included a £3 million contribution by Metrobus, the bus operator, its parent company, the Go-Ahead Group, but this was withdrawn after construction had started, the money was replaced by West Sussex County Council. The projected cost started at £27 million and was revised to £32 million £35 million, with between £7.5 and £10 million from West Sussex County Council. The final cost of the scheme is still unknown, but has risen from the original estimates and was described as £6 million over budget Metrobus has stated that passenger figures are up 10%, with 35% of journeys being to and from Gatwick. One million passengers were carried in the first seven months of operation, it has been noted that, while successful at reducing road traffic, Fastway has not tackled gaps in the existing public transport network Pound Hill. On 31 October 2005 a Fastway bus travelling along Breezehurst Drive crashed into a terraced house. Two elderly residents were evacuated, the damage required the house to be demolished.
Four passengers suffered minor injuries. According to Metrobus, the bus involved in the incident was a Scania OmniCity bus number 550. Another accident was reported in the same place in 2008. A survey in 2006 showed average passenger numbers during the 7-9am peak were 5, one for each bus By 2008 as the system became established the West Sussex County Council indicated that bus use in Crawley had increased by 25% following quality improvements. List of guided busways and BRT systems in the United Kingdom
Gravesend is an ancient town in northwest Kent, situated 21 miles east-southeast of Charing Cross on the south bank of the Thames Estuary and opposite Tilbury in Essex. Located in the diocese of Rochester, it is the administrative centre of the Borough of Gravesham, its geographical situation has given Gravesend strategic importance throughout the maritime and communications history of South East England. A Thames Gateway commuter town, it retains strong links with the River Thames, not least through the Port of London Authority Pilot Station and has witnessed rejuvenation since the advent of High Speed 1 rail services via Gravesend railway station. Recorded as Gravesham in the Domesday Book of 1086 when it belonged to Odo, Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, the half-brother of William the Conqueror, its name derives from graaf-ham: the home of the reeve or bailiff of the lord of the manor. Another theory suggests that the name Gravesham may be a corruption of the words grafs-ham – a place "at the end of the grove".
Frank Carr asserts that the name derives from the Saxon Gerevesend, the end of the authority of the Portreeve. In the Netherlands, a place called's-Gravenzande is found with its name translating into "Sand belonging to the Count". The's is a contraction of the old Dutch genitive article des, translates into plain English as of the. In Brooklyn, New York, the neighbourhood of Gravesend is said by some to have been named for's-Gravenzande; the Domesday spelling is its earliest known historical record. The variation Graveshend can be seen in a court record of 1422, where Edmund de Langeford was parson, attributed to where the graves ended after the Black Death; the municipal title Gravesham was formally adopted in 1974 as the name for the new borough. Stone Age implements have been found in the locality since the 1900s, as has evidence of an Iron Age settlement at nearby Springhead. Extensive Roman remains have been found at nearby Vagniacae. Domesday Book recorded mills and fisheries here. Milton Chantry is dates from the early 14th century.
It was refounded as a chapel in 1320/21 on the original site of a former leper hospital founded in 1189. Gravesend has one of the oldest surviving markets in the country, its earliest charter dates from 1268, with town status being granted to the two parishes of Gravesend and Milton by King Henry III in its Charter of Incorporation of that year. The first Mayor of Gravesend was elected in 1268, although the first Town Hall was not built until 1573, being replaced in 1764 with a new frontage added in 1836. Although it ceased to be a town hall in 1968 when the new Gravesend Civic Centre was opened, it remains in use as Magistrates' Courts, in 2004, following a full refurbishment funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and grants from Kent County Council and Gravesham Borough Council, the Old Town Hall now thrives as a venue for weddings and private functions as well as community and public events. In 1380, during the Hundred Years' War, Gravesend suffered being sacked and burned by the Castilian fleet.
In 1401, a further Royal Charter was granted, allowing the men of the town to operate boats between London and the town. It became the preferred form of passage, because of the perils of road travel. On Gravesend's river front are the remains of a Tudor fort built by command of King Henry VIII in 1543. On 21 March 1617, John Rolfe and Rebecca with their two-year-old son, boarded a ship in London bound for the Commonwealth of Virginia, it is not known. Her funeral and interment took place on 21 March 1617 at the parish church of Gravesend; the site of her grave was underneath the church's chancel, though since the previous church was destroyed by fire in 1727 her exact resting place is unknown. Thomas Rolfe survived, but was placed under the supervision of Sir Lewis Stukley at Plymouth, before being sent to his uncle, Henry Rolfe whilst John Rolfe and his late wife's assistant Tomocomo reached America under the captaincy of Sir Samuel Argall's ship. At Fort Gardens is the New Tavern Fort, built during the 1780s and extensively rebuilt by Major-General Charles Gordon between 1865 and 1879: it is now Chantry Heritage Centre open-air, under the care of Gravesend Local History Society.
Journeys by road to Gravesend were quite hazardous, since the main London-Dover road crossed Blackheath, notorious for its highwaymen. Stagecoaches from London to Canterbury and Faversham used Gravesend as one of their "stages" as did those coming north from Tonbridge. In 1840 there were 17 coaches picking up and setting down passengers and changing horses each way per day. There were two coaching inns on what is now Old Road East: the Prince of the Lord Nelson. Post coaches had been plying the route for at least two centuries: Samuel Pepys records having stopped off at Gravesend in 1650 en route to the Royal Dockyards at Chatham. A permanent military presence was established in the town when Milton Barracks opened in 1862. Although a great deal of the town's economy continued to be connected with maritime trade, since the 19th century other major employers have been the cement and paper industries. From 1932 to 1956, an airport was located to t
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
Beddington is a suburban settlement in the London Borough of Sutton on the boundary with the London Borough of Croydon. Beddington is formed from a village of the same name which until early the 20th century still included land which became termed as Wallington; the BedZED low energy housing estate is, in non-ecclesiastical terms, in the neighbouring locality of Hackbridge. The latter was in the 13th century shown on local maps as Hakebrug, named after a bridge on the River Wandle; the locality has a landscaped wooded park at Beddington Park - known as Carew Manor. The population of Beddington according to the 2011 census is 21,044. Beddington forms part of the Carshalton and Wallington constituency, represented in Westminster by Liberal Democrat Tom Brake since 1997. Of the six councillors that Beddington elects to Sutton Council, three are Liberal Democrats and three are Independents; the village lay in Wallington hundred and until the 19th century was in secular and ecclesiastical terms a large parish in its own right.
Wallington was for centuries a manor in Beddington parish and although known as a shorthand for the area stretching from Cheam to Addington and from Chaldon to Mitcham. Wallington superseded Beddington's former area completely in the early 20th century; the settlement appears in the Domesday Book as Beddinton held by Robert de Watevile from Richard de Tonebrige and by Miles Crispin. Its Domesday Assets were: 6 hides, it rendered: £19 10s 0d per year to its feudal system overlords. In 1901 it consisted of 3,127.5 acres, of which 1,439 acres were arable land, 614 permanent grass and 45 woods. As this was before the expansion of Wallington, it extends on the south over the chalk downs at Roundshaw and northwards on to the London Clay. Lavender and medicinal herbs were grown commercially in the parish; the population in 1901 was 4,812. The parish was bounded on the north by Mitcham Common, the three parishes of Croydon and Mitcham met on the railway line by Beddington Lane station; the 1911 Victoria County History documents Beddington in the period of its shrinkage.
Wallington is now more urban than Beddington. In prehistoric times it appears to have been the more important place, since it gave its name to the hundred, it is possible that the Roman remains mentioned above may be a relic of a important place, that its name may preserve the memory of the Wealas, the Romanized Britons, whom the Suthrige found here when Britain was becoming England. In historical records, Wallington is not a place of importance. There was a chapel. In Bishop Willis's visitation of 1725 the chapel is described as used for a barn, no service having taken place, it was ruinous in the century and was pulled down in 1797. There were extensive common fields, as was usual in the parishes on the north side of the chalk range, they were inclosed under an Act of 1812. In 1835 a system of allotments was established. A few old houses remain at Wallington Corner, but none of these appear to date from earlier than the beginning of the 19th century. A parish hall was built at Wallington in 1888, following its church and parish being set up in 1867.
Holy Trinity Church school was built in 1896. Thus it came about. A static inverter plant of HVDC Kingsnorth stood here in the late 20th century; the Domesday Book mentions two Mills at Beddington, the current one is thought to have been the site of one of these. Once erroneously thought to have been owned in the late 16th century by Sir Walter Raleigh, an early 17th-century lease shows that it was in fact owned by the Carew family as a flour mill. In 1805 it was a snuff mill with a new owner, it changed hands several times before being burnt down and replaced by the current building in 1891-2 by Wallis & Co as a flour mill and bakery; the old - 18th century or earlier - mill house remains to this day. Beddington Park was the former manor house of the Carew family, lost to money lenders and bad debts by Charles Hallowell Hallowell Carew in the 1850s; the Domesday Book mentions two Beddington estates and these were united by Nicholas Carew to form Carew Manor in 1381. The Manor, once a medieval moated house, was home to the Royal Female Orphanage from 1866 until 1968.
It now contains Carew Manor School. In about 1591 Sir Walter Raleigh secretly, without royal permission, married one of Queen Elizabeth I's maids of honour, Elizabeth Throckmorton of Carew Manor. Raleigh spent time in the Tower of London for this and Elizabeth was expelled from the court but the marriage appears to have been a genuine love-match and survived the imprisonment. A popular story is that when Raleigh was beheaded by James I in 1618, Elizabeth claimed his embalmed head and kept it in a bag for the rest of her life, his body was buried in St Margaret's, after his wife's death 29 years Raleigh's head was returned to his tomb and interred at St. Margaret's Church. Local myths claim the head remains in Beddington park or was inherited by his son and buried with him; the Grade I listed great hall, containing a fine hammerbeam roof, surv
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family; the town is situated 21.7 miles west of Charing Cross, central London, 5.8 miles southeast of Maidenhead, 15.8 miles east of the county town of Reading. It is south of the River Thames, which forms its boundary with its smaller, ancient twin town of Eton; the village of Old Windsor, just over 2 miles to the south, predates what is now called Windsor by around 300 years. Windlesora is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the name originates from winch by the riverside. By 1110, meetings of the Great Council, which had taken place at Windlesora, were noted as taking place at the Castle – referred to as New Windsor to indicate that it was a two-ward castle/borough complex, similar to other early castle designs, such as Denbigh. By the late 12th century the settlement at Windelsora had been renamed Old Windsor.
The early history of the site is unknown, although it was certainly settled some years before 1070 when William the Conqueror had a timber motte and bailey castle constructed. The focus of royal interest at that time was not the castle, but a small riverside settlement about 3 miles downstream established from the 7th century. From about the 8th century, high status people started to visit the site and this included royalty. From the 11th century the site's link with king Edward the Confessor is documented, but again, information about his use of the place is scant. After the Norman conquest of England, royal use of the site increased because it offered good access to woodlands and opportunities for hunting – a sport which practised military skills. Windsor Castle is noted in the Domesday Book under the entry for Clewer, the neighbouring manor to Windsor. Although this might seem strange, it occurred because plans for the castle had changed since 1070, more land had been acquired in Clewer on which to site a castle town.
This plan was not actioned until the early 12th century. Henry I – according to one chronicle – had rebuilt it, this followed the Norman kings' actions at other royal sites, such as Westminster, where larger and more magnificent accommodation was thought necessary for the new dynasty. King Henry married his second wife after the White Ship disaster; the settlement at Old Windsor transferred to New Windsor during the 12th century, although substantial planning and setting out of the new town did not take place until c. 1170, under Henry II, following the civil war of Stephen's reign. At about the same time, the present upper ward of the castle was rebuilt in stone. Windsor Bridge is the earliest bridge on the Thames between Staines and Reading, built at a time when bridge building was rare, it played an important part in the national road system, linking London with Reading and Winchester, but by diverting traffic into the new town, it underpinned the success of its fledgling economy. The town of New Windsor, as an ancient demesne of the Crown, was a privileged settlement from the start having the rights of a'free borough', for which other towns had to pay substantial fees to the king.
It had a merchant guild from the early 13th century and, under royal patronage, was made the chief town of the county in 1277, as part of its grant of royal borough status by Edward I's charter. Somewhat unusually, this charter gave no new rights or privileges to Windsor but codified the rights which it had enjoyed for many years. Windsor's position as chief town of Berkshire was short-lived, however, as people found it difficult to reach. Wallingford took over this position in the early 14th century; as a self-governing town Windsor enjoyed a number of freedoms unavailable to other towns, including the right to hold its own borough court, the right of membership and some financial independence. The town accounts of the 16th century survive in part, although most of the once substantial borough archive dating back to the 12th century was destroyed in the late 17th century. New Windsor was a nationally significant town in the Middle Ages one of the fifty wealthiest towns in the country by 1332.
Its prosperity came from its close association with the royal household. The repeated investment in the castle brought London merchants to the town in the late 13th century and provided much employment for townsmen; the development of the castle under Edward III, between 1350–68, was the largest secular building project in England of the Middle Ages, many Windsor people worked on this project, again bringing great wealth to the town. Although the Black Death in 1348 had reduced some towns' populations by up to 50%, in Windsor the building projects of Edward III brought money to the town, its population doubled: this was a'boom' time for the local economy. People came to the town from every part of the country, from continental Europe; the poet Geoffrey Chaucer held the honorific post of'Clerk of the Works' at Windsor Castle in 1391. The development of the castle continued in the late 15th century with the rebuilding of St G
Carshalton is a town in the London Borough of Sutton, England. Part of Surrey, it is located 9.5 miles south-southwest of Charing Cross, situated in the valley of the River Wandle, one of the sources of, Carshalton Ponds in the middle of the village. Carshalton consists of a number of neighbourhoods; the main focal point, Carshalton Village, is visually picturesque. At its centre it has two adjoining ponds, which are overlooked by the Grade II listed All Saints Church on the south side and the Victorian Grove Park on the north side; the Grade II listed Honeywood Museum sits a few yards from the water. There are a number of other listed buildings, as well as three conservation areas, including one in the village. In addition to Honeywood Museum, there are several other cultural features in Carshalton, including the Charles Cryer Theatre and an art gallery in Oaks Park, it is home to the Sutton Ecology Centre, every year an environmental fair is held in Carshalton Park to the south of the village.
Carshalton is part of the Carshalton and Wallington parliamentary constituency formed in 1983. Tom Brake has been its MP since 1997; the combined population of the five wards comprising Carshalton was 45,525 at the 2001 census. A majority of the population of Carshalton is in the ABC1 social group. In the 2011 Census the wards had been merged into 3 with a total population of 29,917. To the south of the area now known as Carshalton, remains of artefacts dating from the Neolithic to the Iron Age have been found, suggesting that this was an early place of habitation. Prior to the Norman Conquest it is recorded that there were five manors in this location owned by five freemen; the village lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred. Carshalton appears in Domesday Book as Aultone, it was held by Goisfrid de Mandeville. Its domesday assets were: 3½ hides, it rendered £15 10s 0d. In the Domesday era there was a church and a water mill in Carshalton, still made up of a number of hamlets dotted around the area, as opposed to a single compact village.
In the Middle Ages the land in the village was farmed in the form of a number of open fields, divided into strips. The number of strips which each land owner possessed was based on his wealth. There was an area of open downland in the south of the parish for grazing sheep. Carshalton was known for its springs. Aul means well or spring. A ton is a farm, in some way enclosed; the meaning of the Cars element is uncertain but early spellings may indicate connection with a cross or cress, watercress having been grown locally. In his book History of the Worthies of England, the 17th century historian Thomas Fuller refers to Carshalton for its walnuts and trout. Land was put to arable use and the river Wandle gave rise to manufacturing using water power. A water mill to grind corn was mentioned in the Domesday Book. By the end of the 18th century it was recorded that there were several mills for the production of paper and parchment, snuff, log-wood and seed oil. There were bleaching grounds for calico.
There were timber framed houses from the end of the Middle Ages, brick and wooden weather boarded houses from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. By the middle of the 19th century Carshalton's population was 2,411, making it, at the time, the largest village in what was to become the London Borough of Sutton, it had a varied character with houses for the wealthy at one extreme and tenements in back yards at the other. In 1847 a railway line was laid from Croydon to Epsom through Carshalton, but the first station was built in fields south of Wallington. A station in the village itself was not established until 1868 when the Sutton to Mitcham Line was constructed; the development of Carshalton got into its stride in the early 1890s when the Carshalton Park Estate was sold for housing development. Carshalton is mentioned in the following historic Surrey folk-rhyme: "Sutton for mutton, Carshalton for beeves,Epsom for whores, Ewell for thieves." During the Victorian era and into the early 20th century, Carshalton was known for its lavender fields, but the increasing land demand for residential building put an end to commercial growing.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists 78 civilian casualties in Carshalton during World War II. From 1894 to 1965 Carshalton formed part of the Carshalton Urban District. Central Carshalton, around the ponds and High Street, retains a village character, although the busy A232 runs through the area. There are a number of buildings and open spaces protected by the Carshalton Village Conservation Area. Given the status by the London Borough of Sutton. In 1993 its boundary was extended to include parts of Mill Lane and parts of The Square and Talbot Road, containing the All Saints Church Rectory; the Conservation Area contains many of the Listed and Locally Listed Buildings which contribute to the historical significance of the area, is considered to contain some of the finest historical architecture and road layout within the Borough. An example is Stone Court, an early 19th-century building with a gate house, situated on the northern edge of Grove Park; the Sun public house, is a fine example of Victorian decorative brickwork, makes a positive contribution to the Conservation Area.
The Conservation Area comprises open parkland of historical importance, including the grounds of Carshalton House Estate (which contains St. Philomena's Catholic School, St Mary's Junior School, St Mary's In