The Sphere (newspaper)
The Sphere: An Illustrated Newspaper for the Home and The Sphere: The Empire's Illustrated Weekly, was a British newspaper, published by London Illustrated Newspapers weekly from 27 January 1900 until the closure of the paper on 27 June 1964. The first issue came out at the height of the Boer War and was a product of that conflict and the public appetite for images. At the time, it was in direct competition with The Graphic and Illustrated London News, evidence of this rivalry can be seen in the latter's publication shortly after of a new illustrated paper entitled The Spear in an attempt to confuse readers. During World War I, the weekly issues were called'war numbers' and over two hundred appeared between 1914 and 1919. In all, it totalled 3,343 issues, plus a special supplement issued in January 1965, entitled Winston Churchill: A Memorial Tribute; the Sphere was founded by Clement Shorter, who founded Tatler in the following year. It covered general news stories around the world, it was similar to another paper containing many graphic illustrations.
Those featured in The Sphere were by renowned artists including Montague Dawson. Other illustrators included Sidney Paget, Henry Matthew Brock, Fortunino Matania, Ernest Prater, Edmund Blampied and Claude Grahame Muncaster. Thomas Hardy's short story A Changed Man was first published in The Sphere, in two instalments in the 21 and 28 April 1900 editions. During World War I the newspaper was bought by the shipping magnate John Ellerman; the Sphere was popular during World War II. The British Library and the National Library of Scotland hold copies of the entire publication run of this newspaper. Illustrated London News Picture Library website Information on the Illustrated London News Group Thomas Hardy's A Changed Man Illustration of trench system from the Sphere magazine, Scran ID: 000-000-475-242-C, National Library of Scotland
Ian Robert Maxwell, born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch, was a British media proprietor and Member of Parliament. From Czechoslovakia, Maxwell rose from poverty to build an extensive publishing empire. After his death, huge discrepancies in his companies' finances were revealed, including his fraudulent misappropriation of the Mirror Group pension fund. Early in his life, Maxwell escaped from Nazi occupation, joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in World War II and was decorated after active service in the British Army. In subsequent years he worked in publishing. After six years as an MP during the 1960s, he again put all his energy into business, successively buying the British Printing Corporation, Mirror Group Newspapers and Macmillan Publishers, among other publishing companies. Maxwell had a flamboyant lifestyle, living in Headington Hill Hall in Oxford, from which he flew in his helicopter, sailing in his luxury yacht, the Lady Ghislaine, he was notably litigious and embroiled in controversy, including about his support for Israel at the time of the 1948 Palestine war.
In 1989, he had to sell successful businesses, including Pergamon Press, to cover some of his debts. In 1991, his body was discovered floating in the Atlantic Ocean, having fallen overboard from his yacht, he was buried in Jerusalem. Maxwell's death triggered the collapse of his publishing empire as banks called in loans, his sons attempted to keep the business together, but failed as the news emerged that the elder Maxwell had stolen hundreds of millions of pounds from his own companies' pension funds. The Maxwell companies applied for bankruptcy protection in 1992. Maxwell was born into a poor Yiddish-speaking Orthodox Jewish family in the small town of Slatinské Doly in the easternmost province of pre-World War II Czechoslovakia, his parents were Hannah Slomowitz. He had six siblings. In 1939, the area was reclaimed by Hungary. Most members of his family died in Auschwitz after Hungary was occupied in 1944 by Nazi Germany, but he had escaped to France. In Marseille, he joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in May 1940.
After the defeat in France and the retreat to Great Britain, Maxwell took part in a protest against the leadership of the Czechoslovak Army, with 500 other soldiers he was transferred to the Royal Pioneer Corps and to the North Staffordshire Regiment in 1943. He was involved in action across Europe, from the Normandy beaches to Berlin, achieved the rank of sergeant, he was promoted to the rank of captain. In January 1945, he received the Military Cross from Field Marshal Montgomery. Attached to the Foreign Office, he served in Berlin during the next two years in the press section. Maxwell naturalised as a British subject on 19 June 1946 and changed his name by deed of change of name on 30 June 1948. In 1945, he married Elisabeth "Betty" Meynard, a French Protestant, the couple had nine children over the next sixteen years: Michael, Christine, Karine, Ian and Ghislaine. In a 1995 interview, Elisabeth talked of how they were recreating his childhood family, victims of the Holocaust. Five of his children – Christine, Ian and Ghislaine – were employed within his companies.
Daughter Karine died of leukemia at age three, while Michael was injured in a car crash in 1961, at the age of fifteen, when his driver fell asleep at the wheel. Michael never died seven years later. After World War II, Maxwell used various contacts in the Allied occupation authorities to go into business, becoming the British and U. S. distributor for Springer Verlag, a publisher of scientific books. In 1951, he bought three-quarters of a minor publisher, they changed the name of the company to Pergamon Press and built it into a major publishing house. In 1964, representing the Labour Party, Maxwell was elected as Member of Parliament for Buckingham and re-elected in 1966, he gave an interview to The Times in 1968, in which he said the House of Commons provided him with a problem. "I can't get on with men", he commented. "I tried having male assistants at first. But it didn't work, they tend to be too independent. Men like to have individuality. Women can become an extension of the boss." Maxwell lost his seat in 1970 to the Conservative William Benyon.
He contested Buckingham again without success. At the beginning of 1969, it emerged; the Carr family, which owned the title, was incensed at the thought of a Czech immigrant with socialist politics gaining ownership and the board voted against Maxwell's bid without any dissent. The News of the World's editor Stafford Somerfield opposed Maxwell's bid in an October 1968 front page opinion piece, in which he referred to Maxwell's Czech origins and used his birth name, he wrote, "This is a British paper, run by British people...as British as roast beef and Yorkshire pudding... Let us keep it that way"; the tycoon who gained control was the Australian Rupert Murdoch, who that year acquired The Sun, which had previously interested Maxwell. In 1969, Saul Steinberg, head of "Leasco Data Processing Corporation", was interested in a strategic acquisition of Pergamon. Steinberg claimed that during negotiations, Maxwell falsely stated that a subsidiary responsible for publishing encyclopedias was profitable.
At the same time, Pergamon had been forced to reduce its profit forecasts for 1969 from £2.5 million to £2.05
News of the World
The News of the World was a national red top newspaper published in the United Kingdom from 1843 to 2011. It was at one time the highest-selling English-language newspaper in the world, at closure still had one of the highest English-language circulations, it was established as a broadsheet by John Browne Bell, who identified crime and vice as the themes that would sell copies. The Bells sold to Henry Lascelles Carr in 1891. Reorganised into News International, itself a subsidiary of News Corporation, it was transformed into a tabloid in 1984 and became the Sunday sister paper of The Sun; the newspaper concentrated on populist news. Its fondness for sex scandals gained it the nickname News of the Screws, it had a reputation for exposing national or local celebrities' drug use, sexual peccadilloes, or criminal acts, setting up insiders and journalists in disguise to provide either video or photographic evidence, phone hacking in ongoing police investigations. Sales averaged 2,812,005 copies per week in October 2010.
From 2006, allegations of phone hacking began to engulf the newspaper. These culminated in the revelation on 4 July 2011 that, nearly a decade earlier, a private investigator hired by the newspaper had intercepted the voicemail of missing British teenager Milly Dowler, found murdered. A Scotland Yard spokesperson admitted at the Leveson Inquiry that it had not been a private investigator who had deleted Dowler's voicemail. Amid a public backlash and the withdrawal of advertising, News International announced the closure of the newspaper on 7 July 2011; the scandal deepened when the paper was alleged to have hacked into the phones of families of British service personnel killed in action. Senior figures on the newspaper have been held for questioning by police investigating the phone hacking and corruption allegations. Arrested on 8 July 2011 were former editor Andy Coulson and former News of the World royal editor Clive Goodman, the latter jailed for phone hacking in 2007; the former executive editor Neil Wallis was arrested on 15 July 2011 and former editor Rebekah Brooks, the tenth person held in custody, on 17 July 2011.
On a visit to London on 17 February 2012, Murdoch announced he was soon to launch a Sunday edition of The Sun, which acted as a replacement to the News of the World. On 19 February 2012 it was announced that the first edition of The Sun on Sunday would be printed on 26 February 2012, it would employ some former News of the World journalists. The newspaper was first published as The News of the World on 1 October 1843, by John Browne Bell in London. Priced at three pence before the repeal of the Stamp Act or paper duty, it was the cheapest newspaper of its time and was aimed directly at the newly literate working classes, it established itself as a purveyor of titillation and criminal news. Much of the source material came from coverage of vice prosecutions, including transcripts of police descriptions of alleged brothels, "immoral" women. In 1924 the newspaper sponsored the 1924 Women's Olympiad held at Stamford Bridge in London. Before long, the News of the World established itself as the most read Sunday paper, with initial sales of around 12,000 copies a week.
Sales suffered because the price was not cut following the abolition of newspaper taxes and the paper was soon no longer among the leading Sunday titles, selling around 30,000 by 1880, a greater number but a smaller proportion, as newspaper sales had grown hugely. The title was sold by the Bell family in 1891 to Henry Lascelles Carr who owned the Welsh Western Mail; as editor, he installed his nephew Emsley Carr. The real engine of the paper's now quick commercial success, was George Riddell, who reorganised its national distribution using local agents. Matthew Engel, in his book Tickle the Public: One Hundred Years of the Popular Press, says that the News of the World of the 1890s was "a fine paper indeed"; the paper was not without its detractors, though. As one writer related: Frederick Greenwood, editor of the Pall Mall Gazette, met in his club one day Lord Riddell, who died a few years ago, in the course of conversation Riddell said to him, "You know, I own a paper." "Oh, do you?" said Greenwood, "what is it?"
"It's called the News of the World—I'll send you a copy", replied Riddell, in due course did so. Next time they met Riddell said, "Well Greenwood, what do you think of my paper?" "I looked at it", replied Greenwood, "and I put it in the waste-paper basket. And I thought,'If I leave it there the cook may read it'—so I burned it!" By 1912, the circulation was around three million by the early 1920s. Sales reached four million by 1939; this success encouraged other similar newspapers, of which the Sunday People, the Daily Mail, the Daily Express and the Daily Mirror are still being published. In 1928, the paper began printing in Manchester on the presses of the News Chronicle in Derby Street, moving in 1960 into Thomson House, Withy Grove when the News Chronicle closed; the move to Thomson House led to the immediate closure of the Empire News, a paper printed there and circulating in the North of England and Wales with a circulation of about 2.5 million. The Empire News and News of the World merged but Thomson House was printing the Sunday Pictorial and Sunday Times and did not have any further capacity with the News of the World arriving.
The paper's motto was "All human life is there". The paper's name was linked with sports events as early as 1903 whe
Alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War
There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam during the Sri Lankan Civil War during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilian buildings by both sides. A panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the civil war found "credible allegations" which, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the Tamil Tigers; the panel has called on the UNSG to conduct an independent international inquiry into the alleged violations of international law. The Sri Lankan government has denied that its forces committed any war crimes and has opposed any international investigation. In March 2014 the United Nations Human Rights Council authorised an international investigation into the alleged war crimes.
War crimes are prohibited by the Geneva Conventions. In 2002 the International Criminal Court was created by the Rome Statute to prosecute individuals for serious crimes, such as war crimes. Sri Lanka is not a signatory of the Rome Statute. Therefore, it is only possible for the ICC to investigate and prosecute war crimes in Sri Lanka if the UN Security Council was to refer Sri Lanka to the ICC, unlikely. However, individual countries may investigate and prosecute alleged culprits over whom they have jurisdiction, such as those with dual-nationality. In addition, a number of countries apply universal jurisdiction in respect of certain crimes, such as war crimes, allowing them to prosecute individuals irrespective of where the crime was committed, the nationality of the culprits and the nationality of the victims; the Tamil Tigers had been waging a full-scale war for an independent state of Tamil Eelam in the North and East of Sri Lanka since 1983. After the failure of the Norwegian mediated peace process in 2006 the Sri Lankan military launched offensives aimed at recapturing territory controlled by the Tamil Tigers.
By July 2007 the military had recaptured all of the east. The military offensive in the north escalated in October 2008 as the Sri Lankan military attacked the Vanni heartland of the Tamil Tigers. After successive defeats the Tamil Tigers were forced to retreat to the north-east coast in Mullaitivu District; the civilian population of the Vanni fled. The Sri Lankan government and human rights organisations have alleged that the civilians were forced to do so by the Tamil Tigers. By January 2009 the Tamil Tigers and the civilians were trapped in a small piece of land on the north-east coast; as the Sri Lankan military advanced further into Tamil Tiger controlled areas, international concern grew for the fate of the 350,000 civilians trapped. On 21 January 2009 the Sri Lankan military declared a 32 square kilometres Safe Zone 5 kilometres north-west of Puthukkudiyiruppu, between the A35 highway and Chalai Lagoon. According to the Sri Lankan the purpose of the Safe Zone was to allow the trapped civilians to cross into territory controlled by the military.
However few civilians crossed into the military territory. The Sri Lankan military, UN and human rights organisations accused the Tamil Tigers of preventing the civilians from leaving; the fighting between the military and the Tamil Tigers continued, causing the civilians to flee from the Safe Zone to a narrow strip of land between Nanthi Kadal lagoon and the Indian Ocean. On 12 February 2009 the military declared a new 10 square kilometres Safe Zone in this area, north-west of Mullaitivu town. Over the next three months a brutal siege of the Safe Zone occurred as the military blitzed by land and air the last remnants of Tamil Tigers trapped in the Safe Zone. Satellite images of the Safe Zone publishes by the UN, foreign governments and scientific organisations showed heavy damage that could have only been caused by bombardment. Many thousands of civilians were killed or injured; the UN, based on credible witness evidence from aid agencies as well civilians evacuated from the Safe Zone by sea, estimated that 6,500 civilians were killed and another 14,000 injured between mid-January, when the Safe Zone was first declared, mid-April.
There are no official casualty figures after this period but a report in The Times claims that civilian deaths increased to an average of 1,000 per day after mid-April 2009. The UN has refused to confirm the Times' allegations. Estimates of the death toll for the final four months of the civil war range from 15,000 to 20,000. A US State Department report has suggested that the actual casualty figures were much higher than the UN's estimates and that significant numbers of casualties were not recorded; as the civil war edged towards a bitter end in late April/early May the number of civilians leaving the Safe Zone turned from a trickle to a torrent. On 19 May the Sri Lankan government declared victory. After the end of the war a number of countries and human rights organisations called for an independent investigation into the final stages of the civil war. International organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have accused both sides in Sri Lanka's long-running conflict of deliberately putting civilians at risk to
Sunday Business was a national Sunday broadsheet financial newspaper published in the United Kingdom, which ran from 1996 to 2006, when it was turned into a magazine called The Business. It was founded by Tom Rubython in order to provide a Sunday alternative to the Financial Times, achieving sales of around 150,000 on launch, falling to fewer than 20,000 within months. In 1997 the title was bought by the Barclay Brothers - David and Frederick Barclay, who at the time owned The European newspaper and subsequently, The Daily Telegraph and The Scotsman, it was re-launched on 15 February 1998 with an exclusive interview with Gordon Brown - who promised a budget tailored towards the business community. Re-launched, The Sunday Business became a critical success and within its first two years of production had won numerous industry awards, including Newspaper of The Year and Newspaper Design of the Year; the newspaper became known as a launch pad for the successful careers of the small team put together by editor Jeff Randall in the winter of 1997/8.
The newspaper made various moves - both in physical location. The newspaper was based in Cavendish Square in Central London, while the re-launched newspaper was based in the offices of ITN News in Grays Inn Road, moving on to South Quay in London Docklands in 2000 and finally back to the City at Waterhouse Square. By the summer of 2003, most of the re-launch team had been head-hunted by rival national newspapers from across Fleet Street, and the production of the newspaper was handed over to the Press Association. From its offices in London's Victoria, under the editorship of Andrew Neil, it was rebranded The Business - a weekly glossy magazine - in the autumn of 2006; that magazine disappeared in 2008 as it was merged into The Spectator and subsequently re-emerged as the monthly Spectator Business magazine. Andrew Neil: Became presenter of the BBC weekly political roundup show, This Week, co-presenter of The Daily Politics in 2003. In November 2004 became Chief Executive of The Spectator. Neil served as Lord Rector of St Andrews University from 1999–2002.
Jeff Randall: Left in 2001 to become Business Editor of the BBC and from 2005 editor-at-large of The Daily Telegraph. Richard Northedge: A Fleet Street and City favourite, Northedge became Executive Editor of The Business before leaving to return to The Daily Telegraph newspaper group where he worked as Deputy City Editor for 12 years. Martin Baker: Left in 1999 to launch thestreet.co.uk, where he acted as editor-in-chief. He now works as an author and script editor, his first novel, was published in 2008. Its sequel, Version Thirteen, was published in 2014; the third in the financial-thriller trilogy is scheduled for 2018. Frank Kane: Left The Business to edit the business section of The Observer Newspaper. Working as non-executive chairman of ITP – a company which publishes Dubai editions of UK-based titles. Damian Reece: Joined The Daily Telegraph as Deputy City Editor in November 2005 from The Independent where he had been City Editor for two years. Took over as City Editor from Will Lewis when he became Editor of the Daily Telegraph in October 2006.
David Cracknell: Joined from The Press Association, where he was Political Correspondent. Left to join the Sunday Telegraph as Deputy Political Editor in 1999, became Political Editor of The Sunday Times in 2001, he left in 2008 to go into business and set up his own media consultancy Big Tent Communications that year. Damien McCrystal: Joined The Observer as business columnist in 2002 followed by London's Evening Standard as City Diarist. Now runs his own communications consultancy. Lucinda Rogers: Joined in 1997 and drew weekly for Sunday Business until 2001, along with other broadsheets; every Saturday she drew to order, either drawing portraits of politicians and other figures, or a long series of drawings of restaurants and chefs to accompany Damien McCrystal's reviews and features. Vivien Goldsmith: A veteran London journalist. Left in 2001 to work in Communications and PR across various companies, including Wellcome Trust Martin Essex: Joined Capital Economics as Senior International Economist in 2002 and became a Managing Editor at Dow Jones Newswires in 2006 Richard Wachman: Joined The Observer in 2001 Nils Pratley: Joined The Guardian as Associate City Editor in 2003.
Now financial editor. Mark Watts: Was sacked in 2001 after protesting the break-up of the paper's investigative team. A freelance journalist and television host. PJ Taylor: Went into PR - firstly at Freud Communications and subsequently head of national news at Network Rail Conal Walsh: Joined The Observer Richard Fletcher: Left in 2001 to join Sunday Telegraph. Moved to The Sunday Times. Editor of Telegraph.co.uk. Ann Brady: Joined The Times in 2003 John Belknap: Left in 1999 to start Belknap+Co - an independent design agency specialising in newspaper and magazine design. Julian Bovis: Joined The Daily Telegraph as Executive Design Editor in 2003 Scott Shillum: Founded visual communications agency VisualMedia in 2001 with brother Daniel Shillum. Adam Parsons: Joined the BBC as television sports journalist. Mark Hawthorne: Joined Conde Nast Publications in London. Became daily business co
The Daily Courant
The Daily Courant published on 11 March 1702, was the first British daily newspaper. It was produced by Elizabeth Mallet at her premises next to the King's Arms tavern at Fleet Bridge in London; the newspaper consisted with advertisements on the reverse side. Mallet advertised that she intended to publish only foreign news and would not add any comments of her own, supposing her readers to have "sense enough to make reflections for themselves". After only forty days Mallet sold The Daily Courant to Samuel Buckley, who moved it to premises in the area of Little Britain in London, at "the sign of the Dolphin". Buckley became the publisher of The Spectator; the Daily Courant lasted until 1735, when it was merged with the Daily Gazetteer
The Daily News (UK)
The Daily News was a national daily newspaper in the United Kingdom. The News was founded in 1846 by Charles Dickens, who served as the newspaper's first editor, it was conceived as a radical rival to the right-wing Morning Chronicle. The paper was not at first a commercial success. Dickens edited 17 issues before handing over the editorship to his friend John Forster, who had more experience in journalism than Dickens. Forster ran the paper until 1870. Charles Mackay, Harriet Martineau, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, G. K. Chesterton and Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina were among the leading reformist writers who wrote for the paper during its heyday. In 1870, the News absorbed the Morning Star. In 1876, Daily News and its correspondent Edwin Pears, Januarius MacGahan, sounded the first alarm respecting the Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria. In 1901, Quaker chocolate manufacturer George Cadbury bought the Daily News and used the paper to campaign for old age pensions and against sweatshop labour.
As a pacifist, Cadbury opposed the Boer War – and the Daily News followed his line. In 1906, the News sponsored an exhibition on sweated labour at the Queen's Hall; this exhibition was credited with strengthening the women's suffrage movement. In 1909, H. N. Brailsford and H. W. Nevinson resigned from the paper when it refused to condemn the force feeding of suffragettes. In 1912, the News merged with the Morning Leader, was for a time known as the Daily News and Leader. In 1928, it merged with The Westminster Gazette, in 1930, with the Daily Chronicle to form the centre-left News Chronicle; the chairman from 1911 to 1930 was eldest son of George Cadbury. 1846: Charles Dickens 1846: John Forster 1847: Eyre Evans Crowe 1851: Frederick Knight Hunt 1854: William Weir 1858: Thomas Walker 1869: Edward Dicey 1869: Frank Harrison Hill 1886: John Robinson 1896: Edward Tyas Cook 1901: Rudolph Chambers Lehmann 1902: Alfred George Gardiner 1920: Stuart Hodgson 1926: Tom ClarkeSource: 1911 Britannica "London Daily News" at the British Newspaper Archive