Richmond, British Columbia
Richmond is a coastal city located in the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is part of the Metro Vancouver area, it is the major part of Lulu Island. As of 2016, it has an estimated population of 198,309 people with 60% being immigrants, the highest proportion of immigrants in Canada. Richmond is the location of Vancouver International Airport. During the 2010 Winter Olympics, Richmond was the site for the long track speed skating events. Richmond is located on Lulu Island at the mouth of the Fraser River, it encompasses some smaller uninhabited islets to the north and south. Neighbouring communities are Vancouver and Burnaby to the north, New Westminster to the east, Delta to the south; the Strait of Georgia forms its western border. Coast Salish bands had temporary camps on the island, to fish and collect berries, which were scattered and moved from year to year. Certain Coast Salish summer camps were located at Garry Point, Woodward's Landing, along with the site of the Terra Nova cannery, which had at one time been a Musqueam village.
The Township of Richmond was named by Founding Father John Wesley Sexsmith after his birthplace The Township of Richmond, Lennox County, Ontario. The Township of Richmond, Lennox County, Ontario was named for Governor General for British North America, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, Yorkshire, England; the first published reference to "Richmond" was a pamphlet about the local farmstead established on Sea Island by Hugh McRoberts. His daughter chose this name because the view across the Fraser River reminded her of Richmond, north of Sydney, Australia. At the meeting in her home to choose the name Mrs. Hugh Boyd, wife of the first reeve of Richmond, was told that the name came from her birthplace, England; the Township of Richmond, British Columbia incorporated on November 10, 1879. The Township of Richmond was modeled after Ontario’s political townships – an incorporated municipality, consisting of communities that are united as a single entity with a single municipal administration; each community was represented on the municipal council through a ward electoral system with five wards until 1946 when the ward electoral system was replaced with the at large electoral system, in place.
On December 3, 1990, Richmond was designated as a City. The first Town Hall, the Agricultural Hall and the Methodist Church, were built at the corner of No.17 Rd and No.20 Rd near the main settlement on the northwestern tip of Lulu Island at North Arm. The old fishing village of Steveston on the southwestern tip of Lulu Island is now home to several museums and heritage sites, as well as a working harbour for fishing boats. London Heritage Farm, the Gulf of Georgia Cannery and the Britannia Shipyard National Historic Site in Steveston highlight these parts of Richmond's diverse history. Richmond is made up of most of the islands in the Fraser River delta, the largest and most populated island being Lulu Island; the city of Richmond includes all but a small portion of Lulu Island. The next largest island, Sea Island, is home to the Vancouver International Airport. In addition to Lulu and Sea Islands, 15 smaller islands make up the city's 129.66 square kilometres land area, including: Mitchell Island, an industrial island accessed via the Knight Street Bridge, a bridge which connects Richmond and Vancouver.
Richmond Island, a former sand bar, has been turned into a peninsula that can only be reached from Vancouver, but technically is within Richmond's city limits. Shady Island, an uninhabited island covered with trees, which can be reached over land by foot at low tide from near Steveston; the city includes the fishing village of Steveston, located in the far southwest corner of the city, Burkeville, which shares Sea Island with the airport. Both Steveston and Burkeville were independent villages. Since all of Richmond occupies islands in a river delta, the city has plenty of rich, alluvial soil for agriculture, was one of the first areas in British Columbia to be farmed by Europeans in the 19th century; the drawback of Richmond's geographical location was that since all the land averages just one metre above sea level, it was prone to flooding during high tide. As a result, all the major islands are now surrounded by a system of dykes, although not as massive as those in the Netherlands or the levees of New Orleans, serve to protect the town from anticipated sources of flooding.
There is a possibility that, during an earthquake, the dykes could rupture and the alluvial soil may liquefy, causing extensive damage. Richmond is at risk of a major flood if the Fraser River has an unusually high spring freshet. Recreational trails run along the tops of many of the dykes, Richmond supports about 1,400 acres of parkland; because of the high water table few houses in Richmond have basements and until the late 1980s few buildings were above 3 storeys high. Because of proximity to the airport, current building regulations limit the height of buildings to 150 feet. Richmond enjoys a temperate climate; because it is not as close to the mountains, it receives 30% less rain than neighbouring Vancouver. It snows in winter and the summer temperatures are mild to warm. Richmond is very prone to fog in the cooler months. Richmond's 2016 population of 198,309 makes it the fourth largest city in British Columbia, after Vancouver and Burnaby. Richmond has an immigrant population of the highest in Canada.
Richmond has over 50% of residents identifying as Chinese, ma
A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that sells food. A grocer is a bulk seller of food. Grocery stores offer non-perishable foods that are packaged in bottles and cans. Large grocery stores that stock significant amounts of non-food products, such as clothing and household items, are called supermarkets; some large supermarkets include a pharmacy, customer service and electronics sections. In Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and convenience shops are sometimes described as grocery businesses, groceries or grocers. Small grocery stores that sell fruits and vegetables are known as greengrocers or produce markets, small grocery stores that predominantly sell prepared food, such as candy and snacks, are known as convenience shops or delicatessens; some grocery stores form the centerpiece of a larger complex that includes other facilities, such as gas stations, which will operate under the store's name. Some groceries specialize in the foods of a certain nationality or culture, such as Chinese, Middle-Eastern, or Polish.
These stores are known as ethnic markets and may serve as gathering places for immigrants. In many cases, the wide range of products carried by larger supermarkets has reduced the need for such specialty stores; the variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season. Beginning as early as the 14th century, a grocer was a dealer in comestible dry goods such as spices, peppers and cocoa, coffee; because these items were bought in bulk, they were named after the french word for wholesaler, or "grossier". This, in turn, is derived from the Medieval Latin term "grossarius", from which the term "gross" is derived; as increasing numbers of staple food-stuffs became available in cans and other less-perishable packaging, the trade expanded its province. Today, grocers deal in a wide range of staple food-stuffs including such perishables as dairy products and produce; such goods are, called groceries. Many rural areas still contain general stores that sell goods ranging from tobacco products to imported napkins.
Traditionally, general stores have offered credit to their customers, a system of payment that works on trust rather than modern credit cards. This allowed farm families to buy staples; the first self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly, was opened in 1916 in Memphis, Tennessee, by Clarence Saunders, an inventor and entrepreneur. Prior to this innovation, grocery stores operated "over the counter," with customers asking a grocer to retrieve items from inventory. Saunders' invention allowed a much smaller number of clerks to service the customers, proving successful "partly because of its novelty because neat packages and large advertising appropriations have made retail grocery selling an automatic procedure." The early supermarkets began as chains of grocer's shops. The development of supermarkets and other large grocery stores has meant that smaller grocery stores must create a niche market by selling unique, premium quality, or ethnic foods that are not found in supermarkets. A small grocery store may compete by locating in a mixed commercial-residential area close to, convenient for, its customers.
Organic foods are becoming a more popular niche market for the smaller stores. Grocery stores operate in many different styles ranging from rural family-owned operations, such as IGAs, to boutique chains, such as Whole Foods Market and Trader Joe's, to larger supermarket chain stores. In some places, food cooperatives, or "co-op" markets, owned by their own shoppers, have been popular. However, there has been a trend towards larger stores serving larger geographic areas. Large "all-in-one" hypermarkets such as Walmart and Meijer have forced consolidation of the grocery businesses in some areas, the entry of variety stores such as Dollar General into rural areas has undercut many traditional grocery stores; the global buying power of such efficient companies has put an increased financial burden on traditional local grocery stores as well as the national supermarket chains, many have been caught up in the retail apocalypse of the 2010s. However, many European cities are so dense in population and buildings, large supermarkets, in the American sense, may not replace the neighbourhood grocer's shop.
However, "Metro" shops have been appearing in town and city centres in many countries, leading to the decline of independent smaller shops. Large out-of-town supermarkets and hypermarkets, such as Tesco and Sainsbury's in the United Kingdom, have been weakening trade from smaller shops. Many grocery chains like Spar or Mace are taking over the regular family business model. Larger grocer complexes that include other facilities, such as petrol stations, is common in the United Kingdom, where major chains such as Sainsbury's and Tesco have many locations operating under this format. Traditional shops throughout Europe have been preserved because of their history and their classic appearance, they are sometimes still found in rural areas, although they are disappearing. Grocery stores in Latin America have been growing fast since the early 1980s. A large percentage of food sales and other articles take place in grocery stores today; some examples are the Chilean chains Cencosud, Walmart (Lid
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body. Many cosmetics are designed for use of applying to the face and body, they are mixtures of chemical compounds. Cosmetics applied to the face to enhance its appearance are called make-up or makeup. Common make-up items include: lipstick, eye shadow, foundation and contour. Whereas other common cosmetics can include skin cleansers, body lotions and conditioner, hairstyling products and cologne. In the U. S. the Food and Drug Administration, which regulates cosmetics, defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions". This broad definition includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product; the FDA excludes pure soap from this category. The word cosmetics derives from the Greek κοσμητικὴ τέχνη, meaning "technique of dress and ornament", from κοσμητικός, "skilled in ordering or arranging" and that from κόσμος, meaning amongst others "order" and "ornament".
Cosmetics have been in use for thousands of years. The absence of regulation of the manufacture and use of cosmetics has led to negative side effects, deformities and death through the ages. Examples are the prevalent use of ceruse, to cover the face during the Renaissance, blindness caused by the mascara Lash Lure during the early 20th century. Egyptian men and women used makeup to enhance their appearance, they were fond of eyeliner and eye-shadows in dark colors including blue and black. Ancient Sumerian men and women were the first to invent and wear lipstick, about 5,000 years ago, they crushed gemstones and used them to decorate their faces on the lips and around the eyes. Around 3000 BC to 1500 BC, women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization applied red tinted lipstick to their lips for face decoration. Ancient Egyptians extracted red dye from fucus-algin, 0.01% iodine, some bromine mannite, but this dye resulted in serious illness. Lipsticks with shimmering effects were made using a pearlescent substance found in fish scales.
Six thousand year old relics of the hollowed out tombs of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs are discovered. According to one source, early major developments include: Kohl used by ancient Egypt as a protectant of the eye. Castor oil used by ancient Egypt as a protective balm. Skin creams made of beeswax, olive oil, rose water, described by Romans. Vaseline and lanolin in the nineteenth century; the Ancient Greeks used cosmetics as the Ancient Romans did. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament, such as in 2 Kings 9:30, where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and in the book of Esther, where beauty treatments are described. One of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines is the fungus Tremella fuciformis, used as a beauty product by women in China and Japan; the fungus increases moisture retention in the skin and prevents senile degradation of micro-blood vessels in the skin, reducing wrinkles and smoothing fine lines. Other anti-aging effects come from increasing the presence of superoxide dismutase in the brain and liver.
Tremella fuciformis is known in Chinese medicine for nourishing the lungs. In the Middle Ages, it seemed natural that the face should be whitened and the cheeks rouged. During the sixteenth century, the personal attributes of the women who used make-up created a demand for the product among the upper class. Cosmetic use was frowned upon at many points in Western history. For example, in the 19th century, Queen Victoria publicly declared make-up improper and acceptable only for use by actors. Many women in the 19th century liked to be thought of as fragile ladies, they emphasized their delicacy and femininity. They aimed always to look interesting. Sometimes ladies discreetly used a little rouge on the cheeks and used "belladonna" to dilate their eyes so it would make them stand out more. Make-up was frowned upon in general during the 1870s when social etiquette became more rigid. Teachers and clergywomen were forbidden from the use of cosmetic products. During the 19th century, there was a high number of incidences of lead-poisoning because of the fashion for red and white lead makeup and powder.
This led to swelling and inflammation of the eyes, weakened tooth enamel, caused the skin to blacken. Heavy use was known to lead to death. However, in the second part of the 19th century, great advances were made in chemistry from the chemical fragrances that enabled a much easier production of cosmetic products, it was acceptable for actresses in the 1800s to use makeup, famous beauties such as Sarah Bernhardt and Lillie Langtry could be powdered. Most cosmetic products available were still either chemically dubious or found in the kitchen amid food coloring and beetroot. By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were in widespread use by women in nearly all industrial societies around the world. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." This included cosmetics, which were among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture" and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.
As of 2016, the world's
Abbotsford, British Columbia
Abbotsford is a city located in British Columbia, adjacent to the Canada–United States border, Greater Vancouver and the Fraser River. With an estimated population of 141,397 people it is the largest municipality in the province outside Metro Vancouver. Abbotsford-Mission has the third highest proportion of visible minorities among census metropolitan areas in Canada, after the Greater Toronto Area and the Greater Vancouver CMA, it is home to Tradex, the University of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford International Airport. As of the 2016 census, it is the largest municipality of the Fraser Valley Regional District and the fifth-largest municipality of British Columbia; the Abbotsford–Mission metropolitan area of around 180,518 inhabitants as of the 2016 census is the 23rd largest census metropolitan area in Canada. It has been named by Statistics Canada as Canada's most generous city in terms of charitable donations for nine straight years; the community of 375.55 square kilometres is the largest city by area in British Columbia.
The municipality's southern boundary is the Canada–United States border. In Canada, it is bordered by the Township of Langley to the west, the District of Mission to the north, the City of Chilliwack to the east. Much of Abbotsford has views of the Coast Mountains. Abbotsford's colonial development began when the Royal Engineers surveyed the area in response to the gold rush along the Fraser River in 1858; this led to the building of the first transportation route to link the Fraser Valley. The settlement grew and the production of butter and tobacco began by the late 1860s. In 1889, former Royal Engineer John Cunningham Maclure applied for a Crown grant to obtain the 160 acres that would become Abbotsford. There is some controversy over the origin of the Abbotsford name; the most cited origin is that Maclure named the land "Abbotsford" after family friend Henry Braithwaite Abbott, the western superintendent of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Until 1922 the name was spelled Abottsford. Maclure's sons stated that the property had been named for Sir Walter Scott's home and pronounced it with the accent on ford, while in his years Maclure himself claimed that the naming had been "a combination of two ideas".
The title passed hands to Robert Ward, who filed a townsite subdivision on July 9, 1891. In 1891, the CPR built a railway line through the area that connected Mission with the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway at Sumas, Washington; this route was the only rail connection between Vancouver and Seattle until 1904. The Village of Abbotsford was incorporated in 1892. At that time Robert Ward sold many of the lots to private investors, but sold off a significant portion to the Great Northern Railway's subsidiary company the Vancouver and Eastern Railway; the British Columbia Electric Railway arrived in 1910. The Interurban, as the BCER tram linking Abbotsford with Vancouver and Chilliwack was called, was discontinued in 1950, but BCER's successor BC Hydro retains the right to re-introduce passenger rail service. Service to Vancouver runs from neighbouring Mission by way of the West Coast Express; the most notable natural disaster to hit Abbotsford was a major flood of the Fraser River in 1948.
In September 1984 Pope John Paul II held an open-air mass for over 200,000 people at the Abbotsford International Airport. The amalgamation of the Village of Abbotsford and the District of Sumas into the District of Abbotsford occurred in 1972; the District of Abbotsford amalgamated with the District of Matsqui in 1995 to become the City of Abbotsford, raising the population significantly. In June 2013, the City of Abbotsford spread chicken manure on a homeless camp located in the city. Abbotsford Mayor Bruce Banman publicly apologized for the incident. A lawsuit was launched on behalf of some of the homeless, stating that a bylaw which prevents overnight camping in Abbotsford parks is against their right to shelter; the city has formed a homelessness action plan, has approved a proposal for a supportive housing facility. The city of Abbotsford has a long and ongoing history of gang-related crime and efforts to reduce it. Abbotsford City Council comprises a council-manager form of local government.
The mayor and council were elected on November 15, 2014. The mayor is Henry Braun. Councillors elected in 2014 were: Patricia Ross, Les Barkman, Moe Gill, Ross Siemens, Brenda Falk, Dave Loewen, Kelley Chahal, Sandy Blue. School trustees elected are: Cindy Schafer, Stan Petersen, Shirley Wilson, Rhonda Pauls, Preet S. Rai, Freddy Latham, Phil Anderson; the Abbotsford flag and coat of arms are the same, featuring straight, diagonal crosses representing Abbotsford as at a "crossroads". At the centre is a strawberry blossom to symbolize the local berry industry; the flag of Abbotsford was blue in colour. The change to green was initiated in 1995 when the District of Abbotsford and the District of Matsqui amalgamated to create the City of Abbotsford. According to the 2011 Census, 65.74% of Abbotsford's population have English as mother tongue. The Abbotsford metropolitan area has Canada's highest proportion of ethnic South Asians. In 2016, the City of Abbotsford had 35,310 South Asians, while the Abbotsford CMA had 38,250.
Chinatown in Vancouver, British Columbia, is Canada's largest Chinatown. Centred on Pender Street, it is surrounded by Gastown and the Downtown financial and central business districts to the west, the Downtown Eastside to the north, the remnant of old Japantown to the northeast, the residential neighbourhood of Strathcona to the east; the approximate borders of Chinatown as designated by the City of Vancouver are the alley between Pender and Hastings Streets, Georgia Street, Gore Avenue, Taylor Street, although unofficially the area extends well into the rest of the Downtown Eastside. Main and Keefer Streets are the principal areas of commercial activity. Chinatown remains a popular tourist attraction and is one of the largest historic Chinatowns in North America. However, it experienced decline as newer members of Vancouver's Cantonese Chinese community dispersed to other parts of the metropolitan area, it has been more overshadowed by the newer Chinese immigrant business district along No. 3 Road in the City of Richmond, south of Vancouver.
Many affluent Hong Kong and Taiwanese immigrants have moved there since the late 1980s, coinciding with the increase of Chinese ethnic retail and restaurants in that area. This new area is designated the "Golden Village" by the City of Richmond; the proposed renaming of the area to "Chinatown" met resistance both from merchants in Vancouver's Chinatown and from non-Chinese residents and merchants in Richmond itself. Chinatown was once known for its neon signs, but like the rest of the city, lost many signs to changing times and a sign bylaw passed in 1974; the last of these was the Ho Ho sign, removed in 1997. Ongoing efforts at revitalization include efforts by the business community to improve safety by hiring private security, considering new marketing promotions, introducing residential units into the neighbourhood by restoring and renovating heritage buildings; the current focus is on the adaptive reuse of the distinctive association buildings. Due to the large ethnic Chinese presence in Vancouver—especially represented by multi-generation Chinese Canadians and first-generation immigrants from Hong Kong—the city has been referred to as "Hongcouver".
However, in recent years, most immigration has been from Mainland China. Chinatown is becoming old traditional businesses flourish. Today the neighbourhood features many traditional restaurants, markets, tea shops, clothing stores, other shops catering to the local community and tourists alike; the Vancouver office of Sing Tao Daily, one of the city's four Chinese-language dailies, remains in Chinatown. OMNI British Columbia had its television studio in Chinatown from 2003 to 2010; the renowned bar & nightclub known as ‘Fortune Sound Club’ is situated within the heart of Chinatown. As of 2019, they have grown to become one of the most popular night clubs in all of BC, rivalling off the Granville Entertainment District and bringing in world-class musicians. Vancouver experienced large numbers of immigrants from the Asia-Pacific region in the last two decades of the twentieth century, most notably from China, whose population in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area was estimated at 300,000 in the mid-1990s.
A significant development since the 1980s has been the increase of transnational awareness among the Chinese. The heightened mobility of capital, information and commodities across territorial boundaries and distance challenged the traditional meaning of migration. Compared to Chinatown itself, more Chinese immigrants have settled in Richmond, drawn by its lower house prices, considerable concentration of Chinese retailers, the nearby Vancouver airport; the business heart of Chinatown was visibly affected after the arrival of suburban Asian shopping districts, such as Richmond's Aberdeen Centre, promoted as North America's largest enclosed Asian mall in the proximity of other Chinese shopping centres, which offered more parking and open space than historic Chinatown. In 1979, the Chinatown Historic Area Planning Committee sponsored a streetscape improvement program to add various Chinese-style elements to the area, such as specially paved sidewalks and red dragon streetlamps that demarcated the area's borders while emphasizing it as a destination for heritage tourism.
Starting with its designation by the province as a historic area in 1971 and subsequent economic shifts, Chinatown shifted from a central business district to playing a cultural role. Murality, a local non-profit, is installing a mural on East Pender Street with the aim of bringing colour and vitality to the neighbourhood; the growth of Chinatown during much of the 20th century created a healthy, robust community that became an aging one as many Chinese immigrants no longer lived nearby. Noticing local businesses suffering, the Chinatown Merchants Association cited the lack of parking and restrictive heritage district rules as impediments to new uses and renovations, their concerns subsequently led to a relaxation of zoning laws to allow for a wider range of uses, including necessary demolition. Additions in the mid-1990s included a large parkade, a shopping mall, the largest Chinese restaurant in Canada. More residential projects around the community and a lowering of property taxes helped to maintain a more rounded community.
Reinvigoration was a discussed topic along government members, symbolically embedded in the Millennium Gate project, which opened in 2002. It can be argued that the role of the early Chinese settlers in Vancouver's Chinatown area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries helped to put Vancouver on the global map as a popular destination for Asian investment
Avigilon, a Motorola Solutions company, designs and manufactures advanced AI, video analytics, network video management software and hardware, surveillance cameras, access control solutions. Avigilon solutions are made in North America in manufacturing facilities located in Richmond and Plano, USA, they are installed in over 120 countries worldwide with the help of 1,500 resellers and are used in many locations globally including schools, retail environments, critical infrastructure, transportation stations and more. Avigilon Corporation was founded in 2004 by Alexander Fernandes in Vancouver, British Columbia. Avigilon publicly announced the first high-definition surveillance system built from the ground up in 2006 and began selling its products in December 2007; the system included an 11 MP camera and high-definition network video recording software. Since Avigilon has expanded its offerings to include a broad range of high-definition cameras, from 1 MP to 30 MP in resolution, a variety of camera formats, including dome and fixed.
The company has become well-known for its advanced video analytics, including Avigilon Appearance Search™ and Unusual Motion Detection technologies, solutions that are designed to integrate legacy equipment into new high-definition video surveillance systems, including its analog encoders and the Avigilon Artificial Intelligence Appliance. The company released Avigilon Blue™, its first cloud platform for security and surveillance, in 2018. Avigilon went public on November 2011 on the Toronto Stock Exchange, it was announced in February 2018 that Motorola Solutions has agreed to acquire Avigilon in a deal worth C$1.2 billion. The acquisition was completed in March 2018. Official website