Life of Pi (film)
Life of Pi is a 2012 survival drama film based on Yann Martel's 2001 novel of the same name. Directed by Ang Lee, the film's adapted screenplay was written by David Magee, it stars Suraj Sharma, Irrfan Khan, Rafe Spall, Tabu Hashmi, Adil Hussain, Gérard Depardieu; the storyline revolves around an Indian man named "Pi" Patel, telling a novelist about his life story, how at 16 he survives a shipwreck and is adrift in the Pacific Ocean on a lifeboat with a Bengal tiger. The film had its worldwide premiere as the opening film of the 51st New York Film Festival at both the Walter Reade Theater and Alice Tully Hall in New York City on September 28, 2012. Life of Pi emerged as a commercial success, earning over US$609 million worldwide, it was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards which included the Best Picture – Drama and the Best Director and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score. At the 85th Academy Awards it had eleven nominations, including Best Picture and Best Adapted Screenplay, won four including Best Director for Ang Lee.
In Canada, a young writer meets Pi Patel. Pi tells his story to him: Pi's father names him Piscine Molitor Patel after the swimming pool in France. In secondary school in Pondicherry, he adopts the name "Pi" to avoid the sound-alike nickname "Pissing Patel", he is raised in a Hindu family, but at 12 years old, is introduced to Christianity and Islam, decides to follow all three religions as he "just wants to love God". His mother supports his desire to grow. Pi's family owns a zoo, Pi takes interest in the animals a Bengal tiger named Richard Parker. After Pi gets dangerously close to Richard Parker, his father forces him to witness the tiger killing a goat; when Pi is 16, his father announces that they must move to Canada, where he intends to settle and sell the animals. The family books passage with the animals on a Japanese freighter. During a storm, the ship founders, he tries to find his family. A freed zebra jumps onto the boat with him; the ship sinks into the Mariana Trench drowning his family.
Pi sees what appears to be a survivor, but it turns out to be Richard Parker. After the storm, Pi awakens in the lifeboat with the zebra, is joined by a resourceful orangutan. A spotted hyena emerges from under a tarpaulin covering half of the lifeboat and snaps at Pi, forcing him to retreat to the end of the boat; the hyena kills the zebra and the orangutan. Richard Parker emerges from under the tarpaulin, killing the hyena before retreating back to cover for several days. Pi fashions a small tethered raft from flotation vests which he retreats to for safety from Richard Parker. Despite his moral code against killing, he begins fishing, enabling him to sustain the tiger as well; when the tiger jumps into the sea to hunt for fish and comes threateningly towards Pi, Pi considers letting him drown, but helps him back into the boat. One night, a humpback whale breaches near the boat, destroying its supplies. Pi trains Richard Parker to accept him in the boat, realizes that caring for the tiger is helping keep himself alive.
Weeks they encounter a floating island of interconnected trees. It is a lush jungle of edible plants, fresh water pools and a large population of meerkats, enabling Pi and Richard Parker to eat and drink and regain strength. At night, the island transforms into a hostile environment. Richard Parker retreats to the lifeboat while the meerkats sleep in the trees. Pi deduces. Pi and Richard Parker leave the island reaching the coast of Mexico. Pi is saddened, he is brought to a hospital. Insurance agents for the Japanese freighter company interview him, but do not believe his story and ask what happened, he tells a different story, in which the animals are replaced by human survivors: his mother for the orangutan, an amiable sailor for the zebra, the ship's brutish cook for the hyena. In this story, the cook feeds on his flesh, he kills Pi's mother after which Pi kills him with a knife and uses his remains as food and fish bait. The insurance agents are dissatisfied with this story, but they leave without questioning Pi further.
The writer recognizes the parallels between the two stories, noting that in the second one, Pi fills the role of the tiger. Pi asks which story the writer prefers, the writer chooses the first, to which Pi replies, "and so it goes with God". Glancing at a copy of the insurance report, the writer sees that the agents chose the first story. Piscine Molitor "Pi" Patel Gautam Belur as Pi, age 5 Ayush Tandon as Pi, age 11/12 Suraj Sharma as Pi, age 16/17 Irrfan Khan as Pi, adult Rafe Spall as The Writer Tabu as Gita Patel, Pi's mother Adil Hussain as Santosh Patel, Pi's father Ravi Patel, Pi's older brother: Ayan Khan as Ravi, age 7 Mohamed Abbas Khaleeli as Ravi, age 13/14 Vibish Sivakumar as Ravi, age 18/19 Gérard Depardieu as the Cook Wang Po-chieh as Sailor Jag Huang as Sailor Shravanthi Sainath as Anandi, Pi's teenage girlfriend Andrea Di Stefano as the Priest Elie Alouf as Francis Padmini Priyadarshini as Anandi's dance teacher The project had numerous directors and writers attached, the Los Angeles Times credited Fox 2000 Pictures executive Elizabeth Gabler with keeping the project active.
In February 2003 Gabler acquired the project to adapt L
Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson referred to as P. T. Anderson or PTA, is an American filmmaker, his films have been nominated for 25 Academy Awards, winning three for cast and crew. An alumnus of the Sundance Institute, Anderson directed his first feature film, Hard Eight, in 1996, he achieved critical and commercial success with Boogie Nights, set during the Golden Age of Porn. His 2007 film There Will Be Blood, about an oil prospector during the Southern California oil boom, is cited as one of the best films of the 2000s. Anderson's other notable films include Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, The Master, Inherent Vice, Phantom Thread. Anderson was born on June 26, 1970, in Studio City, Los Angeles, to Edwina and Ernie Anderson. Ernie was an actor, the voice of ABC and a Cleveland television late-night horror movie host known as "Ghoulardi". Anderson grew up in the San Fernando Valley, he is third youngest of nine children, had a troubled relationship with his mother but was close with his father, who encouraged him to become a writer or director.
Anderson attended a number of schools, including Buckley in Sherman Oaks, John Thomas Dye School, Campbell Hall School, Cushing Academy, Montclair Prep. Anderson was involved in filmmaking from a young age and never had an alternative plan to directing films, he made his first film when he was eight years old and started making movies on a Betamax video camera that his dad bought in 1982 when he was 12 years old. He started using 8 mm film but realized that video was easier, he began writing in adolescence, at 17 years old he began experimenting with a Bolex sixteen millimeter camera. After years of experimenting with "standard fare", he wrote and filmed his first real production as a senior in high school at Montclair Prep using money he earned cleaning cages at a pet store; the film was a 30-minute mockumentary shot on video called The Dirk Diggler Story, about a pornography star. Anderson attended Santa Monica College before enrolling and spending two semesters as an English major at Emerson College where he was taught by David Foster Wallace, only two days at New York University before he began his career as a production assistant on television films, music videos and game shows in Los Angeles and New York City.
Feeling that the material shown to him at film school turned the experience into "homework or a chore", Anderson decided to make a 20-minute film that would be his "college". For $20,000, made up of gambling winnings, his girlfriend's credit card, money his father set aside for him for college, Anderson made Cigarettes & Coffee, a short film connecting multiple story lines with a twenty-dollar bill; the film was screened at the 1993 Sundance Festival Shorts Program. He decided to expand the film into a feature-length film and was subsequently invited to the 1994 Sundance Feature Film Program. At the Sundance Feature Film Program, Michael Caton-Jones served as Anderson's mentor. While at the Sundance Feature Film Program, Anderson had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first full-length feature, retitled Hard Eight. Upon completion of the film, Rysher re-edited it. Anderson, who still had the workprint of his original cut, submitted the film to the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, where it was accepted and screened in the Un Certain Regard section.
Anderson managed to get his version released but only after he retitled the film, raised the $200,000 necessary to finish it. Reilly contributed the funding; the version, released was Anderson's and the acclaim from the film launched his career. The story concerns Sydney Brown, an experienced gambler who takes John Finnegan under his wing, while John becomes romantically involved with a troubled waitress; the film featured Philip Seymour Hoffman as an arrogant gambler, beginning a five-film collaboration between the pair. In his review of the film, Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert wrote, "Movies like Hard Eight remind me of what original, compelling characters the movies can sometimes give us."Anderson began working on the script for his next feature film during his troubles with Hard Eight, completing the script in 1995. The result was Anderson's breakout for the drama film Boogie Nights, based on his short film The Dirk Diggler Story and is set in the Golden Age of Porn; the film follows a nightclub dishwasher who becomes a popular pornographic actor under his stage name Dirk Diggler.
The script was noticed by New Line Cinema's president, Michael De Luca, who felt "totally gaga" reading it. It was released on October 10, 1997 and was a critical and commercial success; the film revived the career of Burt Reynolds, provided breakout roles for Wahlberg and Julianne Moore. After the film's production, Reynolds refused to star in Anderson's third film Magnolia. At the 70th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for three Academy Awards, including for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Original Screenplay. After the success of Boogie Nights, New Line told Anderson that he could do whatever he wanted for his next film and granted him creative control. Though Anderson wanted to make a film, "intimate and small-scale", the script "kept blossoming"; the resulting film was the ensemble piece Magnolia, which tells the sto
Quentin Jerome Tarantino is an American filmmaker and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, satirical subject matter, an aestheticization of violence, extended scenes of dialogue, ensemble casts consisting of established and lesser-known performers, references to popular culture and a wide variety of other films, soundtracks containing songs and score pieces from the 1960s to the 1980s, features of neo-noir film, his career began in the late 1980s when he wrote and directed My Best Friend's Birthday, the screenplay of which formed the basis for True Romance. In the early 1990s, he began his career as an independent filmmaker with the release of Reservoir Dogs in 1992, funded by money from the sale of his script Natural Born Killers to Oliver Stone. Empire deemed Reservoir Dogs the "Greatest Independent Film of All Time", its popularity was boosted by his second film, Pulp Fiction, a black comedy crime film, a major success both among critics and audiences. For his next effort, Tarantino paid homage to the blaxploitation films of the 1970s with Jackie Brown, an adaptation of Elmore Leonard's novel Rum Punch.
Kill Bill, a stylized "revenge flick" in the cinematic traditions of Kung fu films, Japanese martial arts, Spaghetti Westerns and Italian horror, followed six years and was released as two films: Volume 1 in 2003 and Volume 2 in 2004. Tarantino next directed Death Proof in 2007, as part of a double feature with Robert Rodriguez, under the collective title Grindhouse, his long-postponed Inglourious Basterds, which tells an alternate history of Nazi Germany, was released in 2009 to positive reviews. After that came critically acclaimed Django Unchained, a Western film set in the Antebellum South, his eighth film, The Hateful Eight, was released in its roadshow version in 70 mm film format, with opening "overture" and halfway-point intermission. His ninth film, Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, is scheduled to be released in 2019; the film, set in Los Angeles in 1969, is his first based on true events. Tarantino's films have garnered both commercial success, he has received many industry awards, including two Academy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, two BAFTA Awards and the Palme d'Or, has been nominated for an Emmy and a Grammy.
In 2005, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. Filmmaker and historian Peter Bogdanovich has called him "the single most influential director of his generation". In December 2015, Tarantino received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the film industry. Tarantino was born on March 27, 1963, in Knoxville, the only child of Connie McHugh and Tony Tarantino, an actor and producer, his father is of Italian descent, his mother has Irish and Cherokee ancestry. Quentin was named for Burt Reynolds' character in the CBS series Gunsmoke. Tarantino's mother met his father during a trip to Los Angeles, where Tony was a law student and would-be entertainer, she married him soon after, to gain independence from her parents. After the divorce, Connie Tarantino left Los Angeles and moved to Knoxville, where her parents lived. In 1966, Tarantino and his mother moved back to Los Angeles. Tarantino's mother married musician Curtis Zastoupil soon after arriving in Los Angeles, the family moved to Torrance, a city in Los Angeles County's South Bay area.
Zastoupil encouraged Tarantino's love of movies, accompanied him to numerous film screenings. Tarantino's mother allowed him to see movies with adult content, such as Carnal Knowledge and Deliverance. After his mother divorced Zastoupil in 1973, received a misdiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Tarantino was sent to live with his grandparents in Tennessee, he remained there less than a year before returning to California. At 14 years old, Tarantino wrote one of his earliest works, a screenplay called Captain Peachfuzz and the Anchovy Bandit, based on Hal Needham's 1977 film Smokey and the Bandit starring Burt Reynolds; the summer after his 15th birthday, Tarantino was grounded by his mother for shoplifting Elmore Leonard's novel The Switch from Kmart. He was allowed to leave only to attend the Torrance Community Theater, where he participated in such plays as Two Plus Two Makes Sex and Romeo and Juliet. At about 15, Tarantino dropped out of Narbonne High School in Los Angeles, he worked as an usher at a porn theater in Torrance, called the Pussycat Theatre.
Tarantino attended acting classes at the James Best Theatre Company, where he met several of his eventual collaborators. While at James Best, Tarantino met Craig Hamann, with whom he collaborated to produce My Best Friend's Birthday. Throughout the 1980s, Tarantino worked a number of jobs, he spent time as a recruiter in the aerospace industry, for five years, he worked at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach, California. Former Buffy the Vampire Slayer actor Danny Strong described Tarantino as "such a movie buff, he had so much knowledge of films that he would try to get people to watch cool movies."After Tarantino met Lawrence Bender at a Hollywood party, Bender encouraged him to write a screenplay. His first attempted script, which he described as a "straight 70s exploitation action movie" was never published and was abandoned soon after. Tarantino co-wrote and directed his first movie, My Best Friend's Birthday, in 1987; the final reel of the film was completely destroyed in a lab fire that occurred during editing, but its screenplay formed the basis for True Romance.
In 1986, Tarantino got his first Hollywood job, working with Roger Avary as production assistants on Dolph Lundgren's exercise video, Maximum Potentia
Searching for Sugar Man
Searching for Sugar Man is a 2012 Swedish–British–Finnish documentary film, about a South African cultural phenomenon and written by Malik Bendjelloul which details the efforts in the late 1990s of two Cape Town fans, Stephen "Sugar" Segerman and Craig Bartholomew Strydom, to find out whether the rumoured death of American musician Rodriguez was true, if not, to discover what had become of him. Rodriguez's music, which had never achieved success in the United States, had become popular in South Africa although little was known about him in that country. On 10 February 2013, the film won the BAFTA Award for Best Documentary at the 66th British Academy Film Awards in London, two weeks it won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 85th Academy Awards in Hollywood. Using Super 8 film to record stylised shots for the film, director Malik Bendjelloul ran out of money for more film to record the final few shots. After three years of cutting room work the main financial backers of the film threatened to withdraw funding to finish it.
He resorted to filming the remaining stylised shots on his smartphone using an iPhone app called 8mm Vintage Camera. Searching for Sugar Man was the opening film at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2012, where it won the Special Jury Prize and the Audience Award for best international documentary, it was released in the United Kingdom on 26 July 2012, had a limited release in the United States the following day. Searching for Sugar Man performed well during its theatrical release, earning $3,696,196 at the US box office. Searching for Sugar Man has received widespread critical acclaim; the film holds a 94% rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes with an average rating of 8/10, based on reviews from 126 critics. The site's critical consensus reads, "A fascinating portrait of a forgotten musical pioneer, Searching for Sugar Man is by turns informative and mysterious." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 79 out of 100 based on 32 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film a glowing four-star review, writing "I hope you're able to see this film...and yes, it exists because we need for it to." The New York Times critic Manohla Dargis wrote a positive review, calling the film "a hugely appealing documentary about fans, faith and an enigmatic Age of Aquarius musician who burned bright and hopeful before disappearing." Dargis subsequently named Searching for Sugar Man one of the 10 best films of 2012. The film's narrative of a South African story about an American musician omits that Rodriguez was successful in Australia in the 1970s and toured there in 1979 and 1981; because of this omission some critics have called the documentary "myth-making". However, the film focuses on his mysterious reputation in South Africa and the attempts of music historians there to track him down in the mid-1990s. South Africans were unaware of his Australian success due to the harsh censorship enacted by the apartheid regime coupled with international sanctions that made any communication with the outside world on the subject of banned artists impossible.
Searching for Sugar Man won the Best Documentary category at the 85th Academy Awards. Rodriguez declined to attend the award ceremony as he did not want to overshadow the filmmakers' achievement if he came up on stage with them. Upon accepting his award, Chinn remarked on such generosity, "That just about says everything about that man and his story that you want to know.” However, Malik Bendjelloul said on stage, "Thanks to one of the greatest singers Rodriguez." The film won the Best Documentary category at the 66th British Academy Film Awards on 10 February 2013. The Directors Guild of America awarded the DGA Award for best documentary on 2 February 2013; the Writers Guild of America awarded the WGA Award for best documentary. The Producers Guild of America awarded the PGA Award for best documentary; the American Cinema Editors awarded the ACE Eddie Award for best documentary. It won the Guldbagge Award for Best Documentary at the 48th Guldbagge Awards, it won The National Board of Review in New York on 5 December 2012.
The International Documentary Association awarded Searching for Sugar Man Best Feature and Best Music at the 28th Annual IDA Documentary Awards on 7 December 2012 at the Directors Guild of America building, Los Angeles, California. It won Best Documentary during Critics' Choice Awards – Searching for Sugar Man The film won the Cinema for Peace Most Valuable Documentary of the Year Award. Searching for Sugar Man won the Special Jury Prize and the Audience Award for best international documentary at the Sundance Film Festival; the film won the Audience Award at the Los Angeles Film Festival, the Audience Award at the Durban International Film Festival, the Audience Award at the Melbourne Film Festival, 2nd place Winner Audience Award at the Tribeca Film Festival and the Grand Jury Prize at the Moscow International Film Festival. At the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam held in November 2012, Searching for Sugar Man won both the Audience and the Best Music Documentary awards. Doha Tribeca Film Festival Searching for Sugar Man was awarded $50,000 where the film shared the "Best of the Fest" audience award with the Chinese feature film Full Circle.
Best Film—Días de Cine Awards Best Film—In-Edit Festival in Santiago de Chile The Cinema Eye Honors for Nonfiction Filmmaking has nominated Searching for Sugar Man for five awards, tying with The Imposter for the most nominations. Winners of the 6th Annual Cinema Eye Honors will be announced on 9 January 2013 as Cinema Eye returns for a third year to New York City's Museum of the Moving I
Once Upon a Time in Anatolia
Once Upon a Time in Anatolia is a 2011 internationally co-produced drama film, co-written and directed by Nuri Bilge Ceylan based on the true experience of one of the film's writers, telling the story of a group of men who search for a dead body on the Anatolian steppe. The film, which went on nationwide general release across Turkey on September 23, 2011, premiered at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival where it was a co-winner of the Grand Prix. Through the night, three cars carry a small group of men – police officers, a doctor, a prosecutor, grave diggers, gendarmerie forces, two brothers, homicide suspects – around in the rural surroundings of the Anatolian town Keskin, in search of a buried body. Kenan, one of the suspects, leads them from one water fountain to another; the darkness and visual indistinctness of the landscape do not help. Meanwhile, the men discuss a variety of topics, such as yoghurt, lamb chops, family, spouses, ex-wives, suicide, bureaucracy and their jobs. Philosophy is discussed, with one central and particular idea/theme mentioned a couple of times throughout the film—the idea that children invariably pay for their parents' mistakes.
After many stops the prosecutor begins to tell the doctor about a mysterious death where a woman predicted to her husband the exact date of her own death, a short time after she had given birth to a child. The story is interrupted when the prosecutor sees some of his men lashing out at Kenan after discovering that once again they are in the wrong spot; as the group discusses what to do next, Kenan asks the doctor for a cigarette which he tries to give him. Commisar Naci tells Kenan that he can have a cigarette when he earns it; the group stops at a nearby village to eat at the home of the town mayor. The mayor pleads with the prosecutor to speak to the authorities of his town to help provide funds to build a morgue where bodies can be prepared; when some of the men suggest that he bury the bodies the man informs them that emigration means that only old people are left in the town and when their children learn of their deaths they beg him not to bury the bodies so that they may come back and see their parents one last time.
The wind causes a power outage during which the mayor's young daughter brings the men tea on a tray, with a lamp on the tray lighting her face. Several of the men are struck by her beauty. After seeing her Kenan begins to cry. While waiting for the light to come back on the doctor asks about the cause of death of the woman who predicted her own death, and the prosecutor says it was natural, a heart attack. The doctor asks whether an autopsy was performed, the prosecutor replies that there was no need as the cause of death was obvious and unsuspicious; the doctor suggests that it may have been a self-induced heart attack with the use of drugs and therefore a suicide. Meanwhile, Kenan reveals what happened the night of the killing – while drunk he let slip the secret that the victim's son was his, things got ugly. After confessing to the comissar he is given a cigarette. Daylight breaks. Kenan takes them to the correct location where the group is able to unearth the body which they discover to their horror has been hogtied.
Needing to take the body to the hospital to be autopsied they realize that they do not have a body bag and that the body, now untied, had been tied by Kenan in order to make it fit in the trunk of his car. After contemplating whether to tie the body up again they succeed in making it fit by bending the corpse; the mother and son are waiting outside the hospital. The son throws a stone at Kenan hitting him between the eyes. Kenan cries. At the hospital the prosecutor again discusses the woman who predicted her own death with the doctor, they further discuss the possibility of suicide, where it is established that a certain prescription drug could have been used to induce the heart attack. The prosecutor is familiar with the drug. Possible reasons for suicide are discussed, the two come to a possible motive—her husband's confirmed infidelity. At the end of the discussion the prosecutor's behavior suggests that the woman may have been his own wife; the prosecutor invites the victim's wife to identify the body in the hospital morgue, files the necessary paperwork, departs, leaving the doctor to perform the autopsy.
The autopsy reveals the presence of soil in the lungs, implying that the victim had been buried alive, but the doctor intentionally omits that from the report. The movie ends with a shot from the doctor's perspective of the mother and son in the distance walking away with the husband's belongings; the son sees that a soccer ball has been accidentally kicked far from a schoolyard and he runs and retrieves it and kicks it back to the children in the yard. He runs back to his mother. Muhammet Uzuner as Doctor Cemal Yılmaz Erdoğan as Commissar Naci Taner Birsel as Prosecutor Nusret Ahmet Mümtaz Taylan as Chauffeur Arap Ali Fırat Tanış as Suspect Kenan Ercan Kesal as Mukhtar Cansu Demirci as Mukhtar's Daughter Erol Erarslan as Murder Victim Yaşar Uğur Arslanoğlu as Courthouse Driver Tevfik Murat Kılıç as Police Officer İzzet Şafak Karali as Courthouse Clerk Abidin Emre Şen as Sergeant Önder Burhan Yıldız as Suspect Ramazan Nihan Okutucu as Yaşar's wife Gülnaz Director Nuri Bilge Ceylan grew up in a small town similar to the one in the film in terms of mentality and hierarchy, says he feels a close connection to the characters
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Skyfall is a 2012 spy film, the twenty-third in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions. The film is the third to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond and features Javier Bardem as Raoul Silva, the villain, it was directed by Sam Mendes and written by Neal Purvis, Robert Wade, John Logan, features the theme song "Skyfall", written and performed by Adele. It was distributed by Columbia Pictures; the story centres on Bond investigating an attack on MI6. The film sees the return of two recurring characters after an absence of two films: Q, played by Ben Whishaw, Moneypenny, played by Naomie Harris. Mendes was approached to direct after the release of Quantum of Solace in 2008. Development was suspended when MGM ran into financial trouble, did not resume until December 2010; the original screenwriter, Peter Morgan, left the project during the suspension. When production resumed, Logan and Wade continued writing what became the final version. Filming began in November 2011 in the United Kingdom, with smaller portions shot in China and Turkey.
Skyfall premiered in London at the Royal Albert Hall on 23 October 2012 and was released in the United Kingdom on 26 October and the United States on 9 November. It was the first James Bond film to be screened in IMAX venues, although it was not filmed with IMAX cameras; the release coincided with the 50th anniversary of the series, which began with Dr. No in 1962. Skyfall was well-received by critics, who praised its screenplay, Mendes' direction, musical score, action sequences, it was the 14th film to gross over $1 billion worldwide, the first James Bond film to do so. It became the seventh-highest-grossing film at the time, the highest-grossing film in the UK, the highest-grossing film in the series, the highest-grossing film worldwide for both Sony Pictures and MGM, the second highest-grossing film of 2012; the film won several accolades, including two Academy Awards, two BAFTA Awards and two Grammy Awards. In Istanbul, MI6 agents James Bond and Eve Moneypenny pursue mercenary Patrice, who has stolen a hard drive containing details of undercover agents.
As Bond and Patrice fight atop a moving train, M orders Moneypenny to shoot Patrice. Bond is presumed Patrice escapes with the hard drive. Three months M is pressured by Gareth Mallory, the chairman of the Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament and a former SAS officer, to retire. MI6's servers are hacked and M receives a taunting computer message moments before the MI6 building explodes. Bond, who used his presumed death to retire, learns of returns to London. Although he fails a series of physical and psychological examinations, M approves his return to the field, ordering him to identify Patrice's employer, recover the stolen hard drive, kill Patrice, he meets MI6's new quartermaster, who gives him a radio beacon and a Walther PPK pistol. In Shanghai, Bond follows Patrice into a skyscraper but is unable to prevent him from killing a target; the two fight. Bond finds a casino token that Patrice intended to cash in for the assassination, which leads him to a casino in Macau. There, Bond is approached by Sévérine, Patrice's accomplice, asks to meet her employer.
She warns him that he is about to be killed by her bodyguards, but promises to help Bond if he will kill her employer. Bond joins Sévérine on her yacht, the Chimera, they travel to an abandoned island off the coast of Macau where they are taken prisoner by the crew and delivered to Sévérine's employer, Raoul Silva. Silva, once an MI6 agent, has now turned to cyberterrorism and orchestrated the attack on MI6. Silva kills Sévérine. At MI6's new underground headquarters, Q attempts to decrypt Silva's laptop, but inadvertently gives it access to the MI6 servers, which allows Silva to escape. Bond deduces that Silva, who has disguised himself as a police officer, wanted to be captured as part of a plan to kill M, whom he resents for disavowing and betraying him to the Chinese government, it is noted that when he tried to kill himself with Cyanide upon capture, his capsule was expired, failing to kill him but doing severe damage to his teeth and jaw. Bond gives chase through the London Underground and, despite a train crash, reaches a public inquiry into M's handling of the stolen hard drive, repels Silva's attack on it, extracts M by car.
Instructing Q and Bill Tanner to leave an electronic trail for Silva to follow, Bond takes M to Skyfall, the Bond family estate in the Scottish Highlands. They meet Skyfall's gamekeeper Kincade, together the trio set up a series of booby traps throughout the house; when Silva's men arrive, Bond, M, Kincade manage to kill most of them, but M is wounded. Silva himself arrives by helicopter with more men and heavy weapons, so Bond sends M and Kincade through a priest hole to a nearby chapel; as the house is destroyed Bond heads toward the chapel. Silva follows Kincade and M to the chapel, he forces his gun into M's hand and presses his temple to hers, begging her to kill them both. Bond arrives and kills Silva by throwing a knife into his back, but M succumbs to her wounds and dies in Bond's arms. Following M's funeral, Moneypenny formally introduces herself to Bond and tells him she is retiring from field work to become secretary for the newly appointed M, who B