The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Internet exchange point
An Internet exchange point is the physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers and content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks. IXPs reduce the portion of an ISP's traffic that must be delivered via their upstream transit providers, thereby reducing the average per-bit delivery cost of their service. Furthermore, the increased number of paths available through the IXP improves routing efficiency and fault-tolerance. In addition, IXPs exhibit the characteristics of; the primary purpose of an IXP is to allow networks to interconnect directly, via the exchange, rather than through one or more third-party networks. The primary advantages of direct interconnection are cost and bandwidth. Traffic passing through an exchange is not billed by any party, whereas traffic to an ISP's upstream provider is; the direct interconnection located in the same city as both networks, avoids the need for data to travel to other cities to get from one network to another, thus reducing latency.
The third advantage, speed, is most noticeable in areas that have poorly developed long-distance connections. ISPs in these regions might have to pay between 10 or 100 times more for data transport than ISPs in North America, Europe, or Japan. Therefore, these ISPs have slower, more limited connections to the rest of the Internet. However, a connection to a local IXP may allow them to transfer data without limit, without cost, vastly improving the bandwidth between customers of the two adjacent ISPs. A typical IXP consists of one or more network switches, to which each of the participating ISPs connect. Prior to the existence of switches, IXPs employed fiber-optic inter-repeater link hubs or Fiber Distributed Data Interface rings, migrating to Ethernet and FDDI switches as those became available in 1993 and 1994. Asynchronous Transfer Mode switches were used at a few IXPs in the late 1990s, accounting for 4% of the market at their peak, there was an attempt by Stockholm-based IXP NetNod to use SRP/DPT, but Ethernet has prevailed, accounting for more than 95% of all existing Internet exchange switch fabrics.
All Ethernet port speeds are to be found at modern IXPs, ranging from 10 Mb/second ports in use in small developing-country IXPs, to ganged 10 Gb/second ports in major centers like Seoul, New York, Frankfurt and Palo Alto. Ports with 100 Gb/second are available, for example, at the AMS-IX in Amsterdam and at the DE-CIX in Frankfurt. There are five types of business models for IXPs: Nonprofit organization Association of ISPs Operator-neutral for-profit company University or government agency Informal association of networksThe technical and business logistics of traffic exchange between ISPs is governed by mutual peering agreements. Under such agreements, traffic is exchanged without compensation; when an IXP incurs operating costs, they are shared among all of its participants. At the more expensive exchanges, participants pay a monthly or annual fee determined by the speed of the port or ports which they are using. Fees based on volume of traffic are less common because they provide a counterincentive to growth of the exchange.
Some exchanges charge a setup fee to offset the costs of the switch port and any media adaptors that the new participant requires. Internet traffic exchange between two participants on an IXP is facilitated by Border Gateway Protocol routing configurations between them, they choose to announce routes via the peering relationship – either routes to their own addresses, or routes to addresses of other ISPs that they connect to via other mechanisms. The other party to the peering can apply route filtering, where it chooses to accept those routes, route traffic accordingly, or to ignore those routes, use other routes to reach those addresses. In many cases, an ISP will have both a direct link to another ISP and accept a route to the other ISP through the IXP. In this way, the IXP acts as a backup link; when these conditions are met, a contractual structure exists to create a market to purchase network services, the IXP is sometimes called a "transit exchange". The Vancouver Transit Exchange, for example, is described as a "shopping mall" of service providers at one central location, making it easy to switch providers, "as simple as getting a VLAN to a new provider".
The VTE is run by a public entity. Advocates of green broadband schemes and more competitive telecommunications services advocate aggressive expansion of transit exchanges into every municipal area network so that competing service providers can place such equipment as video on demand hosts and PSTN switches to serve existing phone equipment, without being answerable to any monopoly incumbent. Euro-IX, the first association of Internet exchange points, was formed in May 2001; the Internet Exchange Federation, which includes Euro-IX, APIX, LAC-IX, was formed in November 2012. The African Internet Exchange Association joined the Internet Exchange Federation on 7 October 2014. List of Internet exchange points List of Internet exchange points by size Colocation centre Packet Clearing House Route server Historical IXPs Commercial Internet eXchange Federal Internet Exchange Network Access Point European Internet Exch
10 Gigabit Ethernet
10 Gigabit Ethernet is a group of computer networking technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of 10 gigabits per second. It was first defined by the IEEE 802.3ae-2002 standard. Unlike previous Ethernet standards, 10 Gigabit Ethernet defines only full-duplex point-to-point links which are connected by network switches; the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard encompasses a number of different physical layer standards. A networking device, such as a switch or a network interface controller may have different PHY types through pluggable PHY modules, such as those based on SFP+. Like previous versions of Ethernet, 10GbE can use either fiber cabling. Maximum distance over copper cable is 100 meters but because of its bandwidth requirements, higher-grade cables are required; the adoption of 10 Gigabit Ethernet has been more gradual than previous revisions of Ethernet: in 2007, one million 10GbE ports were shipped, in 2009 two million ports were shipped, in 2010 over three million ports were shipped, with an estimated nine million ports in 2011.
As of 2012, although the price per gigabit of bandwidth for 10 Gigabit Ethernet was about one-third compared to Gigabit Ethernet, the price per port of 10 Gigabit Ethernet still hindered more widespread adoption. Over the years the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.3 working group has published several standards relating to 10GbE. To implement different 10GbE physical layer standards, many interfaces consist of a standard socket into which different PHY modules may be plugged. Physical layer modules are not specified in an official standards body but by multi-source agreements that can be negotiated more quickly. Relevant MSAs for 10GbE include XENPAK, XFP and SFP+; when choosing a PHY module, a designer considers cost, media type, power consumption, size. A single point-to-point link can have different MSA pluggable formats on either end as long as the 10GbE optical or copper port type supported by the pluggable is identical. XENPAK had the largest form factor. X2 and XPAK were competing standards with smaller form factors.
X2 and XPAK have not been as successful in the market as XENPAK. XFP came after X2 and XPAK and it is smaller; the newest module standard is the enhanced small form-factor pluggable transceiver called SFP+. Based on the small form-factor pluggable transceiver and developed by the ANSI T11 fibre channel group, it is smaller still and lower power than XFP. SFP+ has become the most popular socket on 10GE systems. SFP+ modules do only optical to electrical conversion, no clock and data recovery, putting a higher burden on the host's channel equalization. SFP+ modules share a common physical form factor with legacy SFP modules, allowing higher port density than XFP and the re-use of existing designs for 24 or 48 ports in a 19-inch rack width blade. Optical modules are connected to a host by either a XFI or SerDes Framer Interface interface. XENPAK, X2, XPAK modules use XAUI to connect to their hosts. XAUI uses a four-lane data channel and is specified in IEEE 802.3 Clause 47. XFP modules use a XFI SFP + modules use an SFI interface.
XFI and SFI use a single lane data channel and the 64b/66b encoding specified in IEEE 802.3 Clause 49. SFP+ modules can further be grouped into two types of host interfaces: linear or limiting. Limiting modules are preferred for long-reach applications using 10GBASE-LRM modules. There are two basic types of optical fiber used for 10 Gigabit Ethernet: multi-mode. In SMF light follows a single path through the fiber while in MMF it takes multiple paths resulting in differential mode delay. SMF is used for long distance communication and MMF is used for distances of less than 300 m. SMF has a narrower core which requires a more precise termination and connection method. MMF has a wider core; the advantage of MMF is that it can be driven by a low cost Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for short distances, multi-mode connectors are cheaper and easier to terminate reliably in the field. The advantage of SMF is. In the 802.3 standard, reference is made to FDDI-grade MMF fiber. This has a minimum modal bandwidth of 160 MHz · km at 850 nm.
It was installed in the early 1990s for FDDI and 100BASE-FX networks. The 802.3 standard references ISO/IEC 11801 which specifies optical MMF fiber types OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4. OM1 has a 62.5 µm core. At 850 nm the minimum modal bandwidth of OM1 is 200 MHz·km, of OM2 500 MHz·km, of OM3 2000 MHz·km and of OM4 4700 MHz·km. FDDI-grade cable is now obsolete and new structured cabling installations use either OM3 or OM4 cabling. OM3 cable can carry 10 Gigabit Ethernet 300 meters using low cost 10GBASE-SR optics. OM4 can manage 400 meters. To distinguish SMF from MMF cables, SMF cables are yellow, while MMF cables are orange or aqua. However, in fiber optics there is no uniform color for any specific optical speed or technology with the exception being angular physical connector, it being an agreed color of green. There are active optical cables; these have the optical electronics connected eliminating the connectors between the cable and the optical module. They plug into standard SFP+ sockets, they are lower cost than other optical solutions because the manufacturer can match the electronics t
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th
Demon Internet is a British Internet service provider operating as a brand of Vodafone. It was one of the UK's earliest ISPs, offering dial-up Internet access services from 1 June 1992. In 1998 Demon was bought by Scottish Telecom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the private utility company Scottish Power. Scottish Telecom rebranded as Thus floated on the London Stock Exchange, thus plc demerged from Scottish Power in 2002. Thus became part of Cable & Wireless plc, part of Cable & Wireless Worldwide following a split of its parent; the company was purchased as part of the acquisition of Cable & Wireless Worldwide by Vodafone Group on 27 July 2012. Demon now operates as a brand of Vodafone. From 1996 to 2006 Demon operated a subsidiary ISP business in the Netherlands, it was sold to KPN in its operations transferred to their XS4ALL subsidiary. In January 2019, Vodafone announced its intention to close Demon and migrate its 15,000 remaining customers to more modern services. Demon Internet was born out of Demon Systems, a bespoke business software development company formed by Cliff Stanford, Grahame Davies and Owen Manderfield.
In a discussion of the need for a home-oriented dialup IP service on the CIX boards, Stanford suggested that if 200 people stepped up with a year's subscription, he would use Demon's infrastructure to create such a service. Dismissing the idea that the Demon name might upset those with religious convictions, Cliff Stanford laughingly said he had considered getting the numbers "666" incorporated in the dial up; the original Demon service was hosted using Apricot servers including a gigantic pair of LSI towers named "gate" and "post". When Demon started, WinSock was still a new concept, not available and MS-DOS users were expected to download Internet connection software based on the KA9Q implementation of TCP/IP. Other platforms able to connect to the service included OS/2 Warp, Archimedes, Atari and Mac. In 1995 the company acquired Chris Richard Clayton's Turnpike suite for Windows, its first service was the "standard dial-up" - full TCP/IP access on a static IP address with a user chosen 4 to 8 character "nodename" in the.demon.co.uk domain e.g. example.demon.co.uk.
This allowed users to receive SMTP mail and other IP traffic direct to their computers. It was possible to operate independently of Demon or to make use of Demon's mail, news and IRC servers. Demon was the first ISP to pioneer SDU service priced at £10 a month plus VAT, described in the sales literature as a "tenner a month"; the low price attracted enough new customers that it was profitable and served to expand Internet usage in the UK. Demon Internet received a healthy boost in user numbers when the UK Internet Book, written by pioneering internet writer Sue Schofield, negotiated with Demon to include a discount coupon in the book for newcomers to Demon; the book needed a change to Demon's mail systems. Schofield got a POP3 mail option added to the Demon service; the book sold 15,000 copies of many readers subscribing to Demon. Thanks to Demon Systems, Demon Internet always had a strong programming team allowing it to create solutions to emerging issues in-house. All three directors were programmers and Stanford wrote many business-critical pieces of software, writing modules to adapt MMDF to Demon's purposes.
Mark Turner one of Demon System's developers, wrote many of the accounts and operational systems. As Stanford was absorbed with corporate activities, Neil McRae took over the work on the mail system. Oliver Smith moved from Systems to Internet to automate services for internal and corporate customers, establish Demon as a technical leader in industry forums such as the RIPE, DNS registry communities, e.g..uk, emerging open-source development communities etc. Peter Galbavy was brought in to develop solutions for interoperability issues and Ronald Khoo developed low-level networking solutions that allowed the company to run on free operating systems and PC-based hardware. Many other key Demon people started out as developers -- Clive Feather, Richard Clayton. Armed with so many developers, many of whom made names for themselves within the developing industry, Stanford used the company's ability to contribute its developments to the Open Source community as a means of developing Demon's reputation beyond what its Internet service commanded.
Demon's home-dialup focus was its Achilles heel. The company had some exposure after sponsoring Fulham F. C. but British Telecom were sceptical of Demon's projected growth and did not provide for expansion, resulting in a regular shortage of lines and regular redigs of the top end of Hendon Lane, north London to lay down additional cables. Demon moved to Energis lines with a Regionally Organised Modem Pool and added Colt lines to the service so they had more control over which lines new customers used over separate 0845 numbers. In 1995, Demon acquired a 25% stake in competing UK Internet provider Cityscape Internet Services, as part of a deal to move Cityscape's backbone from Pipex to Demon. On 29 September, they acquired the remaining 75% of the company. Demon's early days are described in an interview with Cliff Stanford published in The Independent on 15 January 1996; the public telephone number of the company, many of the dialup access numbers, end with 666, a deliberate pun on the name Demon.
When Thus plc was formed as a parent of Demon, its randomly allocated company number ended in 666. After a spate of "access" related names many of its original servers' h
Juniper Networks, Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale, that develops and markets networking products. Its products include routers, network management software, network security products and software-defined networking technology; the company was founded in 1996 by Pradeep Sindhu, with Scott Kriens as the first CEO, where he remained until September 2008 and was has been credited with much of Juniper's early market success. It received several rounds of funding from venture capitalists and telecommunications companies before going public in 1999. Juniper grew to $673 million in annual revenues by 2000. By 2001 it had a 37% share of the core routers market, challenging Cisco's once-dominant market-share, it grew to $4 billion in revenues by 2004 and $4.63 billion in 2014. Juniper appointed Kevin Johnson as CEO in 2008, Shaygan Kheradpir in 2013 and Rami Rahim in 2014. Juniper Networks focused on core routers, which are used by internet service providers to perform IP address lookups and direct internet traffic.
Through the acquisition of Unisphere in 2002, the company entered the market for edge routers, which are used by ISPs to route internet traffic to individual consumers. Juniper Networks entered the IT security market with its own JProtect security toolkit in 2003 before acquiring security company NetScreen Technologies the following year, it entered the enterprise segment in the early 2000s, which accounted for one-third of revenues by 2005. As of 2014, Juniper has been focused on developing new software-defined networking products. Pradeep Sindhu, a scientist with Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center, conceived the idea for Juniper Networks while on vacation in 1995 and founded the company in February 1996. At the time, most routers used for Internet traffic were intended for phone calls and had dedicated circuits for each caller. Sindhu wanted to create data packet-based routers that were optimized for Internet traffic, whereby the routing and transferring of data occurs "by means of addressed packets so that a channel is occupied during the transmission of the packet only, upon completion of the transmission the channel is made available for the transfer of other traffic."
He was joined by engineers Bjorn Liencres from Sun Microsystems and Dennis Ferguson from MCI Communications. Sindhu started Juniper Networks with $2 million in seed funding, followed by $12 million in funding in the company's first year of operations. About seven months after the company's founding, Scott Kriens was appointed CEO to manage the business, while founder Sindhu became the Chief Technology Officer. By February 1997, Juniper had raised $8 million in venture funding; that year, Juniper Networks raised an additional $40 million in investments from a round that included four out of five of the largest telecommunications equipment manufacturers: Siemens, Nortel and 3Com. Juniper received $2.5 million from Qwest and other investments from AT&T. Juniper Networks had $3.8 million in annual revenue in 1998. By the following year, its only product, the M40 router, was being used by 50 telecommunications companies. Juniper Networks signed agreements with Ericsson to distribute the M40 internationally.
A European headquarters was established in the United Kingdom and an Asia-Pacific headquarters in Hong Kong. A subsidiary was created in Japan and offices were established in Korea in 1999. Juniper Networks's market share for core routers grew from 6% in 1998 to 17.5% one year and 20% by April 2000. Juniper Networks filed for an initial public offering in April 1999 and its first day on the NASDAQ was that June; the stock set a record in first-day trading in the technology sector by increasing 191% to a market capitalization of $4.9 billion. According to Telephony, Juniper Networks became the "latest darling of Wall Street", reaching a $7 billion valuation by late July. Within a year, the company's stock grew five-fold. Juniper Networks's revenues grew 600% in 2000 to $673 million; that same year, Juniper Networks moved its headquarters from Mountain View to California. By 2001, Juniper controlled one-third of the market for high-end core routers at the expense of Cisco Systems sales. According to BusinessWeek, "analysts unanimously agree that Juniper's boxes technically superior to Cisco's because the hardware does most of the data processing.
Cisco routers still relied on software, which results in slower speeds." However, Cisco provided a broader range of services and support and had an entrenched market position. The press depicted Juniper and Cisco as a "David versus Goliath" story. Cisco had grown through acquisitions to be a large generalist vendor for routing equipment in homes and for ISPs, whereas Juniper was thought of as the "anti-Cisco" for being a small company with a narrow focus. In January 2001, Cisco introduced a suite of router products that BusinessWeek said was intended to challenge Juniper's increasing market-share. According to BusinessWeek, Juniper's top-end router was four times as fast at only twice the cost of comparable Cisco products. Cisco's routers were not expected to erode Juniper's growing share of the market, but other companies such as Lucent and startups Avici Systems and Pluris had announced plans to release products that would out-pace Juniper's routers. Juniper introduced a suite of routers for the network edge.
Juniper's edge routers had a 9% market share two months after release. Both companies made exaggerated marketing claims.