Barnack is a village and civil parish, now in the Peterborough unitary authority of the ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire, England. Barnack is in the north-west of the unitary authority, 3.5 miles south-east of Stamford, Lincolnshire. The parish includes the hamlet of Pilsgate about 1 mile northwest of Barnack. Both Barnack and Pilsgate are on the B1443 road; the 2011 Census recorded a parish population of 931. Barnack is part of the Soke of Peterborough, associated with Northamptonshire but had its own County Council from 1888 until 1965. From 1894 until 1965 there was a Barnack Rural District, a subdivision of the Soke, which formed part of Huntingdon and Peterborough until 1974. Barnack is notable for its former limestone industry, its Anglo-Saxon parish church and an unusual early Bronze Age burial. Hills and Holes, an area of Roman and quarrying, is now a nature reserve; the Barnack burial is an important early Bronze. It comes from a complicated monument, expanded and altered on at least three different occasions.
The original burial was rich for the period, but was covered by only a small barrow. Additional burials and cremations were cut into the barrow, it was enlarged twice. At the same time, three concentric ditches were dug around the barrow; the final monument had a diameter of 50 metres. When gravel quarrying threatened the barrow in 1974, the decision was taken to excavate; the objects recovered were donated to the British Museum but replicas are displayed in Peterborough Museum and Art Gallery. The primary burial was of a man aged between 35–45, he died sometime between 2330 and 2130 BC. He was robustly built and quite tall for the time: about 5 feet 10 inches, he was suffering from slight arthritis. Marks on his bones, those of the other people in the barrow, show that they were used to squatting, it is unknown just how they sat. His teeth had no disease but were well worn, showing he ate a gritty diet of cereals; the grave goods of the primary burial are prestigious. There is a large "beaker" pot and a copper dagger, common items found in graves of the time.
There is a piece of oak charcoal. It is unknown what this was for and archaeologists have been unable to provide an adequate explanation why it was buried in the grave. There is an unusual pendant made of either bone from a sperm walrus ivory. However, the most luxurious item is a stone wrist-guard; these Stone wrist-guards have between two and six holes drilled into them. However, the wrist-guard from Barnack has eighteen holes, each one was filled with a foil-thin disc of gold; the wrist-guard was never intended to be worn since the gold caps in the holes would have stopped it from being tied to the arm. Fewer than a hundred such wrist-guards have been found in Great Britain and the example from Barnack is arguably the finest. A similar less refined wrist-guard from Driffield in Yorkshire is in the British Museum; the Church of England parish church of St John the Baptist is notable for its 11th-century Anglo-Saxon tower. The interior of the church includes a high-quality late Saxon Romanesque sculpture of Christ in Majesty.
The tower is topped by what may be one of the earliest spires in England, dating to around the 12th Century. Oolitic Lincolnshire limestone, including some called "Barnack rag", was a valuable building stone first used by the Romans. Quarrying continued in the Middle Ages when the abbeys at Peterborough, Ramsey and Bury St Edmunds all used Barnack stone, the monasteries were in dispute over the rights to it. Blocks of stone were transported on sleds to the river Welland and loaded onto barges on which they were taken down the River Nene and the Fenland waterways. Most notably, Barnack stone was used to build Ely Cathedrals. Barnack stone was used extensively for buildings in Stamford, it is that the stone was carved in the village. A possible Barnack school of Anglo-Saxon sculpture has been identified; the stone was used for numerous buildings in Barnack itself, most notably the parish church. Another notable example is 7 Station Road, a 13th or 14th century house remodelled in the 16th or early 17th century.
It is a Grade II* listed building. The best Barnack stone had been worked out by about 1460, but after the dissolution of the monasteries, supplies became available from demolition of the Fenland monasteries and was re-used in Cambridge colleges. Lesser-quality Barnack stone continued to be quarried until the 18th century, in 1825 it was quarried as roadstone for the Great North Road. After the useful stone had been removed, the bare heaps of lime-rich rubble were covered by a rich carpet of wild flowers, such as the pasque flower and pyramidal orchid, which can be seen today; the quarry area, now a National Nature Reserve, is called the "Hills and Holes" or "Hills and Hollows". Barnack water mill was built in the 18th century, its undershot water wheel is in situ but none of the mill's interior machinery remains. Barnack windmill is a tower mill built of Barnack stone in 1797, its commercial use as a mill ceased in 1914 and for a time it stood derelict. Its interior machinery survives complete and the mill was restored in 1959–62.
In 1846 the Syston and Peterborough Railway opened. It included a station in the parish about 1 mile north of Barnack, it was nearer Uffington, Lincolnshire than Barnack, so it was called Uffington station. The Syston – Peterborough line was absorbed by the Midland Railway, which in 1858 renamed the station Uffington and Barnack. British Railways closed the station in 1952, that line's nearest station to Ba
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The Den is a football stadium in Bermondsey, south-east London, the home of Millwall Football Club. It is adjacent to the South London railway originating at London Bridge, a quarter of a mile from the Old Den, which it replaced in 1993. Built on a previous site of housing, a church and the Senegal Fields playgrounds, it has an all-seated capacity of 20,146; the highest match attendance in the 2017-18 season was 17,614. The Den is the sixth ground that Millwall have occupied since their formation in the Millwall area of the Isle of Dogs in 1885; the New Den, as it was known to distinguish it from its predecessor, was the first new all-seater stadium in England to be completed after the Taylor Report on the Hillsborough disaster of 1989. It was designed with effective crowd management in mind, with the escape routes being short and direct. After chairman Reg Burr decided that it would not be viable to redevelop The Old Den as an all-seater stadium, he announced in 1990 that the club would relocate to a new stadium in the Senegal Fields area in south Bermondsey.
It was planned to have a seating capacity of between 25,000 and 30,000, the club opted to wait so the capacity was kept to just over 20,000. Millwall played their final game at The Old Den on 8 May 1993 after 83 years and moved to the new stadium a quarter-of-a-mile away from Cold Blow Lane; the £16 million New Den was opened by John Smith, the leader of the Labour Party and of the Opposition at the time, on 4 August 1993 prior to a prestigious friendly against Sporting Portugal, which Sporting won 2–1. The Den was the first new stadium constructed for a professional football team in London since 1937. Millwall have experienced mixed fortunes since relocating to The Den, their first season at the stadium saw them finish third in Division One — their highest finish since relegation from the top flight four years earlier. However, their dreams of Premier League football were ended by a defeat in the playoffs and they were relegated to Division Two in 1996, not winning promotion from that level until 2001.
They again came close to reaching the Premier League in 2002, finishing fourth, but once again losing in the playoffs. The Lions reached the FA Cup final for the first time in 2004, despite a 3–0 defeat by Manchester United they qualified for a European competition for the first time in their history. Millwall have been relegated twice since then. However, the stadium has yet to host Premier League football - Millwall had played in the old First Division for two seasons from 1988 during their final few years at their previous stadium. In September 2016 Lewisham Council approved a compulsory purchase order of land surrounding The Den rented by Millwall, as part of a major redevelopment of the "New Bermondsey" area; the plans are controversial because the developer, Renewal, is controlled by offshore companies with unclear ownership, is seen by the club and local community to be profiteering by demolishing existing homes and businesses as well as Millwall's car-park and the acclaimed and well recognised Millwall Community Trust - to build up to 2,400 new private homes, with no council housing and less than 15% of'affordable housing'.
Millwall had submitted their own plans for regeneration centred around the football club itself, but the council voted in favour of Renewal's plans. In December 2016 Private Eye reported how Renewal had been founded by a former Lewisham Council leader and senior officer, suggesting potential bias, that the decision to approve Renewal's plans may have been made as long ago as 2013 despite the fact that no due diligence had been able to be carried out by PricewaterhouseCoopers due to "poor" and "limited" access to information and management at Renewal, registered in the Isle of Man. On 20 January 2011 the east stand of The Den was renamed as the Dockers Stand, paying tribute to Millwall's earlier history and supporter-base of Thames dockers; the south stand is known as the Cold Blow Lane stand, the name of the road which led into The Old Den. The north stand is for visiting supporters and the west stand was renamed the Barry Kitchener stand, named after Millwall's longest serving player, it houses press box and executive seats.
In 1994, a boxing match was held at The Den. Local boy Michael Bentt lost his WBO World Heavyweight Championship to Herbie Hide; the fight was Bentt's last after being rushed to the hospital and told he could never fight again, after suffering brain injuries in the loss. On 1 May 2006, The Den hosted the FA Women's Cup Final between Arsenal L. F. C. and Leeds United L. F. C.. Arsenal Ladies won the Cup 5–0. Three international matches have been hosted at The Den. Ghana 1–1 Senegal, Jamaica 0–0 Nigeria and Australia 3–4 Ecuador. Former Millwall player Tim Cahill scored two of Australia's goals, becoming the country's all-time top scorer. On September 5, 2015, the ground hosted Rugby league as Wigan Warriors defeated the Catalans Dragons 42-16 in a Super League Super 8s match in front of a crowd of 8,101; the Den hosted the Samaritans Celebrity Soccer Sixes on 18 May 2008. Film and Television stars played at The Den, the first time the event has not been hosted by a Premier League Club. Babyshambles failed losing 3-2 to dance act Faithless.
The winners of the women's trophy were Cansei de Ser Sexy. Around 150 celebrities took part including McFly, Tony Hadley, Amy Winehouse and ex-Millwall fan favourite Terry Hurlock to raise money for the charity; the Den doubles as The Dragon's Lair, home ground of Harchester United in the TV series Dream
Marholm is a civil parish in the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. West of Peterborough and one mile from the seat of the Fitzwilliam family at Milton Hall; the parish covers some 1,400 acres, with the village positioned in the centre. For electoral purposes it forms part of Northborough ward in North West Cambridgeshire constituency. According to the 2011 census there were 75 females living in the parish. Peterborough Crematorium, a holder of the prestigious Green Flag Award, is located in 26 acres of land in the Parish, much of it left as original ancient woodland. Located just north is Woodcroft Castle. In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Marholm like this:MARHOLM, a parish in Peterborough district, Northampton. Post town, Peterborough. Acres, 1,790. Real property, £1,534. Pop. 172. Houses, 33; the property belongs chiefly to the Hon. G. W. Fitzwilliam; the living is a rectory in the diocese of Peterborough. Value, £311. * Patron, the Hon. G. W. Fitzwilliam.
The church is Norman early English later English. There are alms houses with £14 a year. Marholm Church, otherwise known as the Church of St Mary, is a Grade I listed building; the earliest known alterations to the church can be dated at 1534 by Sir William Fitzwilliam of Milton when the chancel was re-built. Marholm Farmhouse is a Grade II* listed building, it is a thatched building made from coursed stone rubble. The date 1633 is carved into the stone below the roof however there is evidence to suggest the origins of the building could date earlier the recessed windows; the Farm has been occupied by the Darby family since 1912. The Darby family are one of the oldest tenants to the Fitzwilliam estate and are traceable to nearly 400 years ago on the Castor register. Home Farmhouse is a Grade II listed building, it was listed 15-Dec-1955. It is similar to Marholm Farmhouse, again it is a thatched building made from coursed stone rubble with flush quoins. Home Farm was run to meet the domestic needs of Milton rather than for income.
In the 20th century it was used as a mixed farm and after the First World War began a remarkable period of Dairy farming that ceased in 1998. The population of the last two centuries has shown a steady rise and subsequent fall of total population in Marholm; this trend is true in within both the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1801 the population of Marholm was recorded to be 109, by 1851 this figure had risen to 172 only to have fallen back down to 146 by the turn of the century in 1901; the trend continues in the 20th century. Between 1901 and 1951 Marholm saw its biggest increase in population during any period in the last two centuries with the population peaking at its highest with 266, however fast forward 60 years to 2011 the population has reverted to levels recorded in 1901 with 151 people counted. According to the 2011 census 13% of the population are aged 0–17, 68% aged between 18-74, 19% are aged 75+; the average ages is 51 years old. According to the 2011 census, 98 % of the population is White Irish.
The remainder 2 % is made up of Black Caribbean. Ethnicity figures are similar in the 2001 Census with 97% of the population being White British & Irish; the largest sector in employment in 1881 for males was agriculture with 26. This was most expected as the parish covers some 1,400 acres and has always retained an agricultural community. Although over the last 50 years the domination of agriculture has diminished Marholm still retains its rural feel. In contrast with the most recent 2011 occupational census data we see a large proportion has moved away from agriculture and into tertiary sector jobs, 44% of the Marholm population work in office related jobs. A large proportion of the female population in 1881 were recorded with either unknown of unspecified occupations with 13 and 17 respectively. Marholm is a small village surrounded by inhabited countryside. Typical housing in the area is detached, semi-detached and flats, with property prices regarded as'average to high'; the 2017 average value for property in Marholm is £419,382 with a 2.91% increase from values 12 months ago.
Over the last 10 years Marholm's properties have increased by 14.45%. Prices in Marholm are higher than the averages shown in other nearby villages with Glinton showing an average of £204,833, whilst the average value in Upton is £255,361; the closest primary school to Marholm is Watergall Primary School located just 1.9 miles away from Marholm. In their most recent Ofsted report the school was founded to'require improvement' in a number of areas, despite being surrounded by a number of alternative primary schools it still manages to attract an intake of 200 pupils; the nearest secondary school is Ken Stimpson Community School, Ofsted found the school as'good' and it is located 6.3 miles away from Marholm. Media related to Marholm at Wikimedia Commons
Norwich and Peterborough Building Society
Norwich & Peterborough Building Society is a trading name of Yorkshire Building Society based in Bradford, West Yorkshire. At the time of merger with YBS, it was the ninth largest building society in the United Kingdom, with assets in excess of £4.9 billion. It was formed by the merger of the Norwich and Peterborough building societies in 1986; the Society had over 45 branch offices located in East Anglia and the surrounding counties of Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire, but there was a branch in Gibraltar and High Holborn, London. The former Head Office was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second in 1988, on a green field business park at Lynch Wood, where an important operational presence is retained by the Yorkshire. N&P employed over 800 staff, of whom half are based at Lynch Wood. In January 2017, parent YBS Group announced the proposed closure of 28 branches, all current accounts and the eventual withdrawal of the N&P brand. Remaining N&P branches re-opened on Monday 9 July as YBS branches.
The Norwich Building Society was founded in 1852 under the imposing title of Norwich and District Provident Permanent Benefit Building and Freehold Land Society. This was unconnected with the mutual Norwich Union Society for the Insurance of Houses and Merchandise from Fire, founded in 1797. After the Second World War, in 1947, the Norwich Benefit Building Society incorporated, ceasing to act in the name of its trustees, the name was simplified; the Society absorbed Thetford and Suffolk Mutual Benefit Building Society in 1961. Shortly after, in 1860, Peterborough Provincial Benefit Building Society was established by railway workers at the Corn Exchange, Peterborough and, in 1896, it registered under the Building Societies Act 1874; the fast growth of the railways had not only created large numbers of workers, it had led to a shortage of housing in the Peterborough area. The new Society enabled its members to build their own homes in the city. Although limited to railwaymen, the Society opened its membership to the general public in 1924, moving to new premises in Priestgate.
In 1962, its name was changed to the Peterborough Building Society and, soon after, the Head Office moved to a refurbished building in Market Place. The first branch office was opened at March, Cambridgeshire in 1961; the Society absorbed King's Lynn Building Society in 1967, based in the offices of the estate agents Geoffrey Collins & Co. at Blackfriars Street. Further mergers followed with Stamford Building Society in 1980 and Argyle Building Society in 1985. Norwich and Peterborough Building Society was formed by the merger of the two societies in 1986. At that time the Peterborough's assets were £280m and the Norwich's were £176m. An separate City of Peterborough and District Permanent Building Society transferred engagements to Northampton Town and County Building Society in 1959. Anglia Building Society was formed by amalgamation of this Society with Leicestershire Building Society in 1966 and subsequently merged with Nationwide Building Society in 1987; the Society conducted regular dialogues through members’ meetings and other events.
It was clear from these that members had a high level of trust in the Society and wished it to continue as a mutual. In order to help maintain normal business activities for the benefit of all members without the disruption caused by speculative activity, new customers opening savings accounts providing membership of the Society were required to enter into an agreement to assign to the Charities Aid Foundation any windfall benefits to which they may have become entitled in the future as an investing member. In December 2010, it was reported that the Society had received a number of takeover approaches and was keeping its options open; the Society had sold Keydata Investment Services products to some 3,100 customers via its Independent Financial Advisers between November 2005 and June 2009, when the firm was put into administration by the FSA. In July 2009, the Serious Fraud Office commenced an investigation into Keydata Investment Services Ltd. following a referral by the FSA. Shortly afterwards, in November 2009, the Society announced the closure of 10 branches outside its "regional heartland" effective March 2010 and in January 2011, chief executive, Matthew Bullock, announced his retirement once a successor could be found.
In light of tougher regulation, Aviva Life Services UK Ltd. was reappointed to provide financial advice to members. Following expressions of interest by US equity firm JC Flowers, Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Money and Coventry Building Society, the Board entered into exclusive discussions with Yorkshire Building Society on 19 March 2011. On 22 March, the Society announced it would repay investor losses arising from the collapse of Keydata. Mr. Bullock stepped down on 31 March. On the Board's "strong recommendation", shareholding and borrowing members voted in favour of the proposal at an Extraordinary General Meeting held in Peterborough on 22 August. FSA approval followed on 23 September and the transfer of engagements was completed on 1 November, ending 160 years of independent trading; the Society's principal purpose was the making of loans which were secured on residential property and funded by its members. However, for its size, the Society offered a wide range of financial services and advice to its 470,000 customers.
Cheques and bank giro credits were cleared through
Thomas Cook was an English businessman. He is best known for founding the travel agency Thomas Son. Thomas Cook was born to John and Elizabeth Cook, who lived at 9 Quick Close in the village of Melbourne, Derbyshire. At the age of 10, Cook started working as an assistant to a local market gardener for a wage of six pence a week. At the age of 14, he secured an apprenticeship with his uncle John Pegg, spent five years as a cabinet maker. Ec He was brought up as a strict Baptist. In February 1826, Cook became a Baptist missionary, toured the region as a village evangelist, distributing pamphlets and working as a cabinet maker to earn money. In 1832, Cook moved to Eve Street in Market Harborough. Influenced by the local Baptist minister Francis Beardsall, he took the temperance pledge on New Year's Day in 1833; as a part of the temperance movement, he held anti-liquor processions. On 2 March 1833, Cook married Marianne Mason at Barrowden in Rutland. A son, John Mason Cook, was born on 13 January 1834.
Thomas Cook died at Thorncroft, Leicester, on 18 July 1892, having been afflicted with blindness in his declining years. He was buried with his daughter at Welford Road Cemetery, Leicester. Cook's idea to offer excursions came to him while "walking from Market Harborough to Leicester to attend a meeting of the Temperance Society". With the opening of the extended Midland Counties Railway, he arranged to take a group of temperance campaigners from Leicester Campbell Street railway station to a teetotal rally in Loughborough, eleven miles away. On 5 July 1841, Thomas Cook escorted around 500 people, who paid one shilling each for the return train journey, on his first excursion. During the following three summers he planned and conducted outings for local temperance societies and Sunday school children. On 4 August 1845 he arranged for a party to travel from Leicester to Liverpool. In 1846, he took 350 people from Leicester on a tour of Scotland. In 1851 he arranged for 150,000 people to travel to the Great Exhibition in London.
Four years he planned his first excursion abroad, when he took two groups on a'grand circular tour' of Belgium and France, ending in Paris for the Exhibition. During the 1860s he took parties to Switzerland, Italy and the United States; the Thomas Cook statue outside Leicester Railway Station, London Road, Leicester was unveiled on 14 January 1994 by his great-great-grandson Thomas Cook. It was sculpted by James Walter Butler RA. In 1872, he formed a partnership with his son, John Mason Cook, renamed the travel agency as Thomas Cook & Son, they acquired business premises on London. The office contained a shop which sold essential travel accessories, including guide books, luggage and footwear. Thomas saw his venture as both social service. In accordance with his beliefs, he and his wife ran a small temperance hotel above the office, their business model was refined by the introduction of the'hotel coupon' in 1868. Detachable coupons in a counterfoil book were issued to the traveller; these were valid for either a restaurant meal or an overnight hotel stay provided they were on Cook's list.
Conflicts of interest between father and son were resolved when the son persuaded his father, Thomas Cook, to retire at the end of 1878. He moved back to Leicester and lived until his death; the firm's growth was consolidated by John Mason Cook and his three sons by its involvement with military transport and postal services for Britain and Egypt during the 1880s, when Cook began organising tours to the Middle East. By 1888, the company had established offices around the world, including three in Australia and one in Auckland, New Zealand and in 1890, the company sold over 3¼ million tickets. John Mason Cook promoted, led, excursions to, for example, the Middle East where he was described as "the second-greatest man in Egypt". However, while arranging for the German Emperor Wilhelm II to visit Palestine in 1898, he contracted dysentery and died the following year. Thomas Cook was a frontrunner of establishing tourism systems and thus made Mass Tourism possible in Italy. First, the circular tickets could be used on all Italian railways.
These tickets allowed travel by train for a preset number of days along predetermined routes. Second, Thomas Uncle designed a series of hotel coupons to complement circular tickets, which could be exchanged for lodging and meals at designated accommodations. Last, he introduced the circular notes which could be changed at designated hotels and tickets agents for Italian lire at a predetermined exchange rate. Cook's introduction of tourism-specific currency facilitated easier and effective trips within Italy. By introducing a dispersed coupon system, Cook "helped to stabilize the burgeoning Italian economy not only by increasing the revenues from tourism but by expanding the circulation of Italy's new currency, the lira." The coupon system spread and were well accepted throughout Italian cities. Furthermore, thanks to this system, middle class Italians could afford to travel more and more easily. Cook had an ultimate goal to put tourism in the service of unifying the Italian state before Italian unification.
He became more aware of Italian politics and became concerned with the fate of the newly unified Italian state. He pondered how tourism could ameliorate the political difficulties, he believed that tourism could reinforce the unification of Italy by physical travel from one place to another, connecting different regions of Italy. In 1880, the Italian gove
BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television and online. The BBC holds the television and radio UK broadcasting rights to several sports, broadcasting the sport live or alongside flagship analysis programmes such as Match of the Day, Test Match Special, Ski Sunday, Today at Wimbledon and Grandstand. Results and coverage is added to the BBC Sport Website and through the BBC Red Button interactive television service; the BBC has broadcast sport for several decades under individual programme names and coverage titles. Grandstand was one of the more notable Sport programmes, broadcasting sport since the programmes launch in 1958; the BBC first began to brand sport coverage as'BBC Sport' in 1988 for the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, by introducing the programme with a short animation of a globe circumnavigated by four coloured rings. This practice continued throughout the next two decades. Upon the launch of the BBC News website in 1997, sport was included in the BBC's online presence for the first time.
In May 2007, the BBC Trust approved plans for several BBC departments, including BBC Sport, to be moved to a new development in Salford. The new development at MediaCityUK marks a major decentralisation of BBC departments from London and a key investment in the north of England where BBC spending in the region had been low; the department moved into Quay House, MediaCityUK in late 2011 and early 2012 with the first Sports bulletins being broadcast from the new BBC Sport Centre on 5 March 2012. In 2017, BBC Sport launched a new on-air identity, becoming the first BBC property to implement the broadcaster's new corporate typeface; the BBC shares the rights to the FIFA World Cup with ITV. A near equal split of group stage and knockout stage games are shown, including a semi-final and the final is shown on both networks; the BBC will broadcast all its matches from the 2018 World Cup in 4K UHD and VR to a limited number of viewers subject to bandwidth. The BBC shows highlights of the Premier League on Match of the Day, hosted by Gary Lineker since 1999.
Match of the Day 2 and Match of the Day 2 Extra, are presented by Mark Chapman. Dan Walker hosts Football Focus every Saturday lunchtime before Jason Mohammad presents Final Score every Saturday afternoon. Pundits for Match of the Day include Alan Shearer, Danny Murphy, Jermaine Jenas, Martin Keown and Ian Wright while commentators include Guy Mowbray, Steve Wilson, Jonathan Pearce, Steve Bower, Simon Brotherton, Alistair Mann, Martin Fisher, Mark Scott and John Roder; the BBC broadcasts live coverage of the FA Cup and will do so until 2021. BBC Sport holds the rights to broadcast the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and the Queen's Club Championships live on its television platforms; the Wimbledon contract has been held by the BBC since 1927 and the current contract lasts until 2024 making it the longest such contract in the world. The BBC produce over 900 hours of footage, distributed to broadcasters in 159 different countries. BBC Wimbledon coverage is presented by former British number one and 1976 French Open Champion Sue Barker.
Matches are broadcast live on BBC Two, the Red Button, or Online via the BBC Sport website. Highlights are shown on the long-running Today at Wimbledon, presented by Clare Balding, who replaced John Inverdale in 2015; the same year, the programme was renamed "Wimbledon 2day", with a new lighthearted magazine format, but after only one year, the format has been abandoned for 2016. Following on the trial which commenced with 2018 World Cup the BBC will broadcast all Centre Court matches from the 2018 Wimbledon Championships in 4K UHD via iPlayer. Commentators include Barry Davies, John McEnroe, Boris Becker, John Lloyd, Andy Roddick, Martina Navratilova, David Mercer, Nick Mullins, Jonathan Overend, Anne Keothavong, Virginia Wade, Sam Smith, Tracy Austin, Tim Henman, Andrew Castle, Lindsay Davenport, Pat Cash, John Inverdale, Chris Bradnam, Jamie Baker, Dan Lobb, Guy McCrea, Mark Petchey, Simon Reed, Matt Chilton, Peter Fleming, Elizabeth Smylie, Jo Durie, Louise Pleming, Andrew Cotter, Ronald McIntosh and Alison Mitchell.
Regular tournament weather updates are provided by Carol Kirkwood. The BBC broadcasts two traditional Grass warm up events in the fortnight before the Wimbledon Championships. First is the AEGON Championships from Queen's Club; the BBC has covered the tournament since 1979 and has a contract in place until 2024. Coverage is led by Sue Barker with commentary by Andrew Castle, Andrew Cotter, John Lloyd & Peter Fleming; the following week is the WTA AEGON International event from Eastbourne. In 2015, coverage was introduced by John Inverdale and Lee McKenzie with commentary from Andrew Cotter, Sam Smith, Chris Bradnam & Annabel Croft. Both events are shown on BBC Two; the BBC holds rights to show daily TV highlights from the Australian Open. Coverage is presented by Sue Barker with commentary from John Lloyd; the BBC has exclusive free to air TV rights for 8 singles matches from the ATP World Tour Finals which includes the semi final and the final. The BBC covered the event between 2009 and 2011, followed by an extension for 2012 and 2013.
This was extended again in 2013 through to 2015. It was extended again in 2016 for another 2 years before another deal was announced in 2017 and will run until 2020. With Sky Sports, showing one afternoon match per day including one semi-final and the final which are shown on BBC Two; the BBC has a joint deal with Eurosport to show all of Britain's Davis Cup matches for three years to 2017, with coverage predominately broadcast on BBC Two and the Red Button. BBC Radio covers the four Grand Slam tournaments - the A