In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
Charlotte Riddell, known as Mrs J. H. Riddell, was a popular and influential Irish-born writer in the Victorian period, she was the author of 56 books and short stories, became part-owner and editor of St. James's Magazine, a prominent London literary journal in the 1860s. Born Charlotte Eliza Lawson Cowan in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, Ireland, on 30 September 1832, Riddell was the youngest daughter of James Cowan of Carrickfergus, High Sheriff for the County of Antrim, Ellen Kilshaw of Liverpool, England. In the winter of 1855, four years after her father's death and her mother moved to London. Charlotte was visited by death again the following year. In 1857, she married Joseph Hadley Riddell, a civil engineer from Staffordshire but resident in London, it is known that they moved to live in St John's Lodge between Harringay and West Green in the mid-1860s, moving out in 1873 as the area was being built up. There were no children of the marriage, her first novel, The Moors and the Fens, appeared in 1858.
She issued it under the pseudonym of F. G. Trafford, which she only abandoned for her own name in 1864. Novels and tales followed in quick succession, between 1858 and 1902 she issued thirty volumes; the most notable is George Geith of Fen Court, by F. G. Trafford, for which Tinsley paid her £800, it was dramatised in 1883 by Wybert Reeve, was produced at Scarborough, was afterwards played in Australia. From 1867, Mrs. Riddell was co-proprietor and editor of the St. James's Magazine, started in 1861 under Mrs. S. C. Hall, she edited a magazine called Home in the sixties, wrote short tales for the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Routledge's Christmas annuals. Her short stories were less successful than her novels. Riddell was prominent as a writer of ghost stories. Five of her novels—Fairy Water, The Uninhabited House, The Haunted River, The Disappearance of Mr. Jeremiah Redworth and The Nun's Curse—deal with buildings blighted by supernatural phenomena. Riddell wrote several shorter ghost stories, such as "The Open Door" and "Nut Bush Farm", which were collected in the volume Weird Stories.
Her husband died in 1880. After 1886, she lived in seclusion at Middlesex, she was the first pensioner of the Society of Authors, receiving a pension of £60 a year in May 1901. She died from cancer in Ashford, Kent, on 24 September 1906. Mrs. Riddell, by making commerce the theme of many of her novels, introduced a new element into English fiction, although Balzac had naturalised it in the French novel, she was intimately acquainted with the topography of the City of London, where the scenes of her novels were laid. At the same time she possessed a rare power of describing places of which she had no first-hand knowledge; when she wrote The Moors and the Fens she had never seen the district. Her publications included: Zuriel's Grandchild The Ruling Passion The Moors and the Fens The Rich Husband Too Much Alone City and Suburb The World in Church George Geith of Fen Court Maxwell Drewitt Phemie Keller The Race for Wealth Far Above Rubies My First Love Austin Friars Long Ago A Life's Assize How to Spend a Month in Ireland The Earl's Promise Home, Sweet Home Fairy Water Mortomley's Estate The Haunted House at Latchford The Uninhabited House Above Suspicion The Haunted River Her Mother's Darling The Disappearance of Jeremiah Redworth Maxwell Drewitt The Mystery in Palace Gardens Alaric Spenceley The Senior Partner A Struggle for Fame Susan Drummond Berna Boyle: A Love Story of the County Down Mitre Court The Government Official The Nun's Curse Head of the Firm Daisies and Buttercups Frank Sinclair's Wife: And Other Stories Weird Stories Idle Tales Princess Sunshine: And Other Stories Handsome Phil: And Other Stories The Collected Ghost Stories of Mrs J. H. Riddell The 7th Fontana Book of Great Ghost Stories Victorian Tales of Terror The Penguin Book of Classic Fantasy by Women Gaslit Nightmares 100 Ghastly Little Ghost Stories The Mammoth Book of Haunted House Stories "Banshee's Warning" "A Strange Christmas Game" "Forewarned, Forearmed" "Hertford O'Donnell's Warning" "Nut Bush Farm" "The Old House in Vauxhall Walk" "Old Mrs Jones"'"The Open Door" "Sandy the Tinker" "Walnut-Tree House" "The Last of Squire Ennismore" "A Terrible Vengeance" "Why Dr Cray Left Southam" "Conn Kilrea" "The Rusty Sword" "Diarmid Chittock's Story" "Handsome Phil" Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Elizabeth.
"Riddell, Charlotte Eliza Lawson". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. charlotteriddell.co.uk – impressively comprehensive source of information on the author. The Literary Gothic Works by J. H. Riddell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Mrs. J. H. Riddell at Internet Archive
Harry Furniss was an English artist and illustrator. He established his career on The Illustrated London News before moving to Punch, he illustrated Lewis Carroll's novel Sylvie and Bruno. Although Furniss was born in Wexford, Ireland, he identified himself as English, his father being English and his mother Scottish, he was educated at Dublin’s Wesley College. His first job as an illustrator was for the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, when it was purchased by the owner of The Illustrated London News he moved to that magazine. There he produced illustrations of social events such as the Boat Race and the annual fancy dress ball at Brookwood Asylum, as well as acting as a special correspondent reporting on less pleasant aspects of life in contemporary England, such as the scandalous divorce trial of Lady Colin Campbell; the following extract from his autobiography gives due warning that his illustrations should not always be thought of as being produced by a witness to the events depicted.
One boat race, for example, is much like another. Some years ago I executed a panoramic series of sketches of the University Race from start to finish, as they were urgently wanted, the drawings had to be sent in the same day. Early in the morning, before the break of fast, I found myself at Putney, rowing up to Mortlake, taking notes of the different points on the way — local colour through a fog. Getting home before the Londoners started for the scene, I was at work, the drawings — minus the boats — were sent in shortly after the news of the race. After some years Furniss moved to The Graphic writing and illustrating a series of supplements titled "Life in Parliament", he comments that "from this time forward it would be difficult to name any illustrated paper with which I have not at sometime or other been connected", his most famous humorous drawings were published in Punch, for which he started working in 1880, to which he contributed over 2,600 drawings. He left Punch in 1894 when its owners discovered that he had sold one of his'Punch' drawings to Pears Soap for use in an advertising campaign.
He illustrated Lewis Carroll's novel Sylvie and Bruno in 1889 and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded in 1893. Carroll and Furniss sometimes produced text simultaneously. Carroll exerted strong control over Furniss' illustration, to such an extent that Furniss would pretend to be out when Carroll called at his home. After completing Sylvie and Bruno Concluded Furniss vowed never to work for the author again. In 1890, he illustrated the Badminton Library's volume on Golf. On leaving Punch Furniss brought out his own humorous magazine Lika Joko, but when this failed he moved to America where he worked as a writer and actor in the fledgling film industry and where, in 1914, he pioneered the first animated cartoon film for Thomas Edison, his two-volume autobiography, titled The Confessions of a Caricaturist was published in 1902, a further volume of personal recollections and anecdotes, Harry Furniss At Home, was published in 1904. Furniss wrote and illustrated twenty-nine books of his own, including Some Victorian Men and Some Victorian Women and illustrated thirty-four works by other authors, including the complete works of Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray.
On some projects, like his illustrations for G. E. Farrow's Wallypug books, Furniss collaborated with his daughter, fellow artist Dorothy Furniss. Furniss married Marian Rogers in the Strand in 1877. Royal Academy, an artistic joke — 1887 M. P.'s in Session — 1889 Australian Sketches- Made on Tour — 1899 The Confessions of a Caricaturist — 1901 Harry Furniss At Home — 1904 Some Victorian Women - Good and Indifferent — 1923 Some Victorian Men — 1924 The Two Pins Club — 1925 Romps with verses by Horace Lennard, printed by Edmund Evans — 1885 Sylvie and Bruno by Lewis Carroll — 1889 Brayhard, The Adventures of One Ass and Seven Champions — 1890 Sylvie and Bruno Concluded by Lewis Carroll — 1893 The Wallypug of Why by G. E. Farrow; the confessions of a caricaturist. Unwin. Retrieved 17 May 2011. Furniss, Harry. Harry Furniss at home. T. F. Unwin. Retrieved 17 May 2011. Works by Harry Furniss at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Harry Furniss at Internet Archive Yesterday's Papers Some Victorian Women.
Good and Indifferent, 1923 Harry Furniss at Library of Congress Authorities, with 41 catalogue records
The social season, or season, refers to the traditional annual period when it is customary for members of a social elite of society to hold balls, dinner parties and charity events. Until World War I, it was the appropriate time to be resident in the city rather than in the country in order to attend such events. In modern times in the United Kingdom, "the Season" is known to encompass various prestigious events that take place during the spring and summer. According to Sloaney Season, it starts with Cheltenham Festival, includes Grand National, Badminton Horse Trials, Chelsea Flower Show, Epsom Derby, Royal Ascot, Henley Royal Regatta, others; the London social season evolved in the 17th and 18th centuries, in its traditional form it peaked in the 19th century. In this era the British elite was dominated by landowning aristocratic and gentry families who regarded their country house as their main home, but spent several months of the year in the capital to socialise and to engage in politics.
The most exclusive events were held at the town mansions of leading members of the aristocracy. Exclusive public venues such as Almack's played a secondary role; the Season coincided with the sitting of parliament and began some time after Christmas and ran until midsummer late June. The social season played a role in the political life of the country: the members of the two Houses of Parliament were all participants in the season, but the Season provided an opportunity for the children of marriageable age of the nobility and gentry to be launched into society. Debutantes were formally introduced into society by presentation to the monarch at royal court during Queen Charlotte's Ball until the practice was abolished by Queen Elizabeth II in 1958. Debutantes are still presented at the ball but no longer in the presence of the British monarch; the traditional Season went into decline after the First World War, when many aristocratic families gave up their London mansions. From this time on an increasing number of society events took place at public venues, making it harder to maintain social exclusivity.
Many events that take place far from central London came to be regarded as part of the social season, including Royal Ascot and the Henley Royal Regatta. The events that now constitute the London social season are hosted or sponsored by large companies. Western dress codes still apply to certain events in the season where the Queen maintains an official role. According to the peerage guide Debrett's, the traditional social season runs from April to August. Glyndebourne Opera Festival The Proms Royal Academy Summer Exhibition West End theatre Chelsea Flower Show Royal Ascot Cheltenham Gold Cup Badminton Horse Trials Grand National Royal Windsor Horse Show Epsom Derby Glorious Goodwood Cartier Queen's Cup Trooping the Colour Garter Service of the Order of the Garter Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo Boat Race Henley Royal Regatta Guards Polo Club The Championships, Wimbledon Cowes Week Lord's Test cricket matchAlthough several of these events are not held in London, such as the Hurlingham Polo Association at Guards Polo Club, the organisers of most events attempt to avoid date clashes, so it is possible to visit all of them in the same year.
The traditional end of the London Season is the Glorious Twelfth of August, which marks the beginning of the shooting season. Society would retire to the country to shoot birds during the autumn and hunt foxes during the winter before coming back to London again with the spring. Many events of the season have traditional expectations with regard to Western dress codes. At Royal Ascot, for example, hats are compulsory in most enclosures, to be admitted to the Royal Enclosure for the first time one must either be a guest of a member or be sponsored for membership by two members who have attended for at least six years as a member; this continues to maintain a exclusive character to the Royal Enclosure. If permitted to enter, gentlemen are required to wear either black or grey morning dress with waistcoat and a top hat. A gentleman may remove his top hat within a restaurant, a private box, a private club or that facility's terrace, balcony or garden. Hats may be removed within any enclosed external seating area within the Royal Enclosure Garden.
Ladies must wear hats. In the Queen Anne Enclosure, gentlemen are required to wear lounge suits with ties and ladies must wear a hat. At Henley Royal Regatta, in the Stewards' Enclosure gentlemen must wear a lounge jacket and tie. Rowing club colours on a blazer or cap are encouraged. A lady's skirt hem must reach below the knee and is checked before entry by the Stewards' Officers and both ladies and gentlemen will be turned away if they fail to comply with the dress code, no matter their prestige in rowing or elsewhere. Hats are not required for ladies; when a student protested being denied entry to the Stewards' Enclosure for failing to meet the dress code, saying she had worn the dress "in the Royal Enclosure at Ascot and nobody said anything," a spokesman defended the dress code saying "The intention is to maintain the atmosphere of an English Garden party of the Edwardian period by wearing a more traditional dress." Members must display their enamel badges at all times. Anyone found using a mobile phone is asked to leave and their Stewards' Enclosure host, identified by the number on the guests badge, may have his membership withdrawn as a result.
At polo matches, it is usual for gentlemen to wear a blazer and always white trousers. Ladies should wear flat shoes, as the tradition of "treading in the divots" preclude
Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes. A physician, in 1887 he published A Study in Scarlet, the first of four novels about Holmes and Dr. Watson. In addition, Doyle wrote over fifty short stories featuring the famous detective; the Sherlock Holmes stories are considered milestones in the field of crime fiction. Doyle was a prolific writer. One of Doyle's early short stories, "J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement", helped to popularise the mystery of the Mary Celeste. Doyle is referred to as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle or Conan Doyle, his baptism entry in the register of St Mary's Cathedral, gives "Arthur Ignatius Conan" as his given names and "Doyle" as his surname. It names Michael Conan as his godfather; the cataloguers of the British Library and the Library of Congress treat "Doyle" alone as his surname. Steven Doyle, editor of The Baker Street Journal, wrote, "Conan was Arthur's middle name. Shortly after he graduated from high school he began using Conan as a sort of surname.
But technically his last name is simply'Doyle'." When knighted, he was gazetted as Doyle, not under the compound Conan Doyle. Doyle was born on 22 May 1859 at 11 Picardy Place, Scotland, his father, Charles Altamont Doyle, was born in England, of Irish Catholic descent, his mother, was Irish Catholic. His parents married in 1855. In 1864 the family dispersed because of Charles's growing alcoholism, the children were temporarily housed across Edinburgh. In 1867, the family lived in squalid tenement flats at 3 Sciennes Place. Doyle's father died in 1893, in the Crichton Royal, after many years of psychiatric illness. Supported by wealthy uncles, Doyle was sent to England, at the Jesuit preparatory school Hodder Place, Stonyhurst in Lancashire at the age of nine, he went on to Stonyhurst College until 1875. While Doyle was not unhappy at Stonyhurst, he did not have any fond memories since the school was run on medieval principles, with subjects covering rudiments, Euclidean geometry and the classics.
Doyle commented in his life that the academic system could only be excused "on the plea that any exercise, however stupid in itself, forms a sort of mental dumbbell by which one can improve one's mind." He found it harsh, citing that instead of compassion and warmth, it favoured the threat of corporal punishment and ritual humiliation. From 1875 to 1876, he was educated at the Jesuit school Stella Matutina in Austria, his family decided that he would spend a year there with the objective of perfecting his German and broadening his academic horizons. He rejected the Catholic faith and became an agnostic. A source attributed his drift away from religion to the time spent in the less strict Austrian school, he later became a spiritualist mystic. From 1876 to 1881, Doyle studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, including periods working in Aston and Ruyton-XI-Towns, Shropshire. During that time, he studied practical botany at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. While studying, Doyle began writing short stories.
His earliest extant fiction, "The Haunted Grange of Goresthorpe", was unsuccessfully submitted to Blackwood's Magazine. His first published piece, "The Mystery of Sasassa Valley", a story set in South Africa, was printed in Chambers's Edinburgh Journal on 6 September 1879. On 20 September 1879, he published his first academic article, "Gelsemium as a Poison" in the British Medical Journal, a study which The Daily Telegraph regarded as useful in a 21st-century murder investigation. Doyle was the doctor on the Greenland whaler Hope of Peterhead in 1880. On July 11, 1880 John Gray's Hope and David Gray's Eclipse met up with the Leigh Smith. Photographer W. J. A. Grant took a photograph aboard the Eira of Doyle along with Smith, the Gray brothers, ships surgeon William Neale; this was the Smith exploration of Franz Josef Land that on August 18th resulted in the naming of Cape Flora, Bell Island, Nightingale Sound, Gratton Island, Mabel Island. As M. B. C. M. after his graduation from university in 1881, he was ship's surgeon on the SS Mayumba during a voyage to the West African coast.
He completed his Doctor of Medicine degree on the subject of tabes dorsalis in 1885. In 1882, Doyle joined former classmate George Turnavine Budd as his partner at a medical practice in Plymouth, but their relationship proved difficult, Doyle soon left to set up an independent practice. Arriving in Portsmouth in June 1882, with less than £10 to his name, he set up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea; the practice was not successful. While waiting for patients, Doyle returned to writing fiction. Doyle was a staunch supporter of compulsory vaccination and wrote several articles advocating for the practice and denouncing the views of anti-vaccinators. In early 1891, Doyle attempted the study of ophthalmology in Vienna, he had studied at the Portsmouth Eye Hospital to qualify to perform eye tests and prescribe glasses. Vienna was suggested by his friend Vernon Morris as a place to spend six months and train to be an eye surgeon. Doyle found it too difficult to understand the German medica
Google Books is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives; the Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004; the Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. However, it has been criticized for potential copyright violations, lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.
As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website. In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight; the four access levels used on Google Books are: Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. The publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview; this could be because Google can not identify the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of snippets can harm the market for the work.
Google maintains. No preview: Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized; as these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, Google would respect the request. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work: It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project. If the book has been scanned, Google will reset its access level as'No preview'. Most scanned works are commercially available. In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, made available on Google Books for preview; the publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can choose to make the book viewable, allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can be made available for sale on Google Play. Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher; the publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.
For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Pa
Mary Ellen Edwards
Mary Ellen Edwards known as MEE, was an English artist who contributed to many Victorian newspapers and journals, as well being a prolific illustrator of children's books. Mary Ellen Edwards was born the daughter of Mary Johnson and Downes Edwards, a farmer and engineer who had a number of successful inventions, she was born on her father’s farm in Surbiton on 9 November 1838. She came from an artistic family, her uncle was E. Killingworth Johnson and her mother's uncle was James Wright, both Members of the Society of Painters in Water Colours, she spent her early years with her family in Surbiton, the Isle of Man, South Kensington, Chelsea, London. On 13 June 1866, Edwards married John Freer. Freer worked for a steam navigation service. Edwards and Freer had one son, John E. L. Freer, born in 1867. Edward's first husband died in 1869. At this time and over the following decade Mary Ellen was submitting her work to the annual Royal Academy shows. In 1872 she married the artist John Charles Staples, with whom she worked on many projects until his death at the end of the century.
Due to her location early on in life, she was unable to receive much formal training in art. She did, attend South Kensington School of Art for one term, she moved as a child and as an adult, preventing extended periods of education at one place. She started her artistic career at an early year in the medium of watercolor. At age 12, she switched from watercolor to oil. Outside of watercolor and engraving, Edwards was a successful illustrator, drawing her works on a wooden medium. In 1959, Checkmated, a self-made design was displayed on the cover of Illustrated Times, a weekly illustrated news magazine in Britain. In 1862, she sent her first two major works into the Royal Academy in England, her works Idle Hours and I Wandered by the Brookside were accepted and displayed. From 1864 to 1908, she sent in work every year. By 1908, she had exhibited 38 art pieces at the Royal Academy, her first piece that gained notoriety due to being purchased for publication, The Last Kiss, was displayed in 1865. Purchased and subsequently engraved were her works In Memoriam and Good-bye.
She established a substantial reputation for her illustrations of Trollope's The Claverings, serialized in the Cornhill Magazine from 1866 to 1867. She illustrated many children's books, including That Boy of Northcott's by Charles Lever, many of which were printed in Cornhill as well. From 1869 to 1880 she was on the staff of The Graphic. Throughout her lengthy career, she worked for the Cornhill Magazine, the Illustrated Times, the Graphic, Churchman and Good Works. Outside of her nearly-annual submissions to the Royal Academy, she exhibited four works at the Royal Society of British Artists, one work at the Royal Scottish Academy, eight works at the Royal Glasgow Institute, two works at the British Institution, nine works at the Society of Women Artists, she contributed to exhibits at the Dudley Gallery in both watercolor and in black and white while her work was exhibited in galleries in France. Her illustration Waifs from the Great City was included in the 1905 book Women Painters of the World.
Mary Ellen Edwards lived in both the 19th and early 20th centuries. Due to the prevailing social climate of the time, she was not popular among a society that viewed her art through the traditional male lens, she focused more on illustrations that conveyed emotion in a social setting, she was successful at it. Furthermore, many of her works revolve around social settings with groups of people, she was exceptional at illustrating emotion in her work, her pieces are powerful and easy to understand. Her style did not catch on among the broad population due to her status as a member of "feminine art". Idle Hours I Wandered by the Brookside The Last Kiss In Memoriam Good-bye Checkmated That Boy of Northcott's Pleading for Peace The Old Church Path Rosalind and Celia The Dance of Death Media related to Mary Ellen Edwards at Wikimedia Commons "Women Painters and Illustrators"