The District line is a London Underground service that crosses Greater London from east to west. From Upminster, the terminus, the line runs through Central London to Earls Court before dividing into three western branches, to Ealing Broadway and Richmond. There is a branch that goes from Earls Court to Kensington. A branch runs north from Earls Court to Edgware Road via Paddington, the track and stations between Barking and Aldgate East are shared with the Hammersmith & City line, and between Tower Hill and Gloucester Road and on the Edgware Road branch with the Circle line. Some of the stations are shared with the Piccadilly line, unlike Londons deep-level tube railways, the railway tunnels are just below the surface, and the trains are of a similar size to those on British main lines. The District line is the busiest of the lines as well the fifth busiest line overall on the London Underground with over 208 million passengers in the year 2011/12. The original Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini.
Services were operated at first using wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, electrification was financed by the American Charles Yerkes, and electric services began in 1905. In 1933 the railway was absorbed by the London Passenger Transport Board, in the first half of the 1930s the Piccadilly line took over the Uxbridge and Hounslow branches, although a peak-hour District line service ran on the Hounslow branch until 1964. Kensington has been served by the District line since 1946, the trains carried guards until one-person operation was introduced in 1985. The signalling system is being upgraded, and the current D Stock trains are to be replaced by new 7-car S Stock trains by spring 2017, the Metropolitan District Railway was formed to build and operate part an underground inner circle connecting Londons railway termini. The first line opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster, by 1871 when the District began operating its own trains, the railway had extended to West Brompton and a terminus at Mansion House.
Hammersmith was reached from Earls Court, services were extended to Richmond over the tracks of the London and South Western Railway and branches reached Ealing Broadway, Hounslow, as part of the project that completed the Circle line in October 1884, the District began to serve Whitechapel. Services began running to Upminster in 1902, after a link to the London, electric multiple-units were introduced on other services in 1905, and East Ham became the eastern terminus. Hounslow and Uxbridge were served by 2 or 3-car shuttles from Mill Hill Park, some served South Acton. Services were extended again to Barking in 1908 and Upminster in 1932, in 1933 Piccadilly trains reached to Hounslow West, the District continuing to run services with an off-peak shuttle from South Acton to Hounslow. Most of the cars on the District line were the 1904–05 B Stock type with wooden bodies. The off-peak District line services on the Hounslow branch were withdrawn on 29 April 1935, following bombing of the West London Line in 1940 the LMS and the Metropolitan line services over the West London Line were both suspended
Rail is an English magazine on the subject of current rail transport in Great Britain. It is published two weeks by Bauer Consumer Media and is available in the transport sections of many British newsagents. It is targeted primarily at the enthusiast market, but covers business issues, Rail is more than three decades old, and was known as Rail Enthusiast from its launch in 1981 until 1988. It is one of two railway magazines that increased its circulation in 2012. It has had roughly the same design for at least a decade. Rails continuing campaigns include one against advertising and media images showing celebrities, the magazines readership peaked in the late 1980s at around 45,000. Since the market for railway magazines has declined, although more titles have appeared, to meet the change in the market, the magazine has repositioned itself from being purely enthusiast-based to being more business-oriented. This has met some success, but the title must cater for enthusiasts. Rail organises conferences, including the annual National Rail Conference, the National Rail Awards, Rail publishes a mix of news and features written by its own editorial staff and freelance contributors.
The magazine takes a supportive stance on High Speed 2. The magazines Managing Editor is Nigel Harris, other staff include Assistant Editor, Richard Clinnick, Assistant News Editor, Paul Prentice and News and Features Writer, Stefanie Browne. Many of Rails editorial staff frequently appear on television and radio when an expert is needed to comment on a story
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Hammersmith & City line
The Hammersmith & City line of the London Underground runs between Hammersmith and Barking. Coloured salmon pink on the map, it serves 29 stations in 15.8 miles. It runs below ground in the section between Paddington and Bow Road, between Farringdon and Aldgate East it skirts the City of London, the capitals financial heart. The tunnels are just below the surface and are a size to those on British main lines. In 1863, the Metropolitan Railway began the worlds first underground railway service between Paddington and Farringdon with wooden carriages and steam locomotives. The following year, a railway west from Paddington to Hammersmith was opened, the line was extended to the east, in stages, reaching the East London Railway in 1884. The Hammersmith & City route was shown on the map as part of the Metropolitan line until 1990. The track and signalling systems are being upgraded, and the old 6-car C Stock trains have been replaced by new 7-car S Stock trains in a programme to increase capacity by 65 per cent by 2019.
The line runs parallel to the Great Western Main Line between Paddington and Westbourne Park, and parallel to the London and Southend Railway between West Ham and Barking. The line was mostly under the New Road using the cut-and-cover method between Paddington and Kings Cross and in tunnel and cuttings beside Farringdon Road. From 1865 the Met ran trains to Hammersmith and the GWR trains to Addison Road, in 1867 the line became jointly owned by the two companies. A year earlier some services had been extended via London & South Western Railways Hammersmith railway station, the railway was extended east of Farringdon and a terminus opened at Aldgate on 18 November 1876. In October 1884 the Met extended some Hammersmith services over the ELR to New Cross, the 6-car electric multiple units were jointly owned by the Met and GWR until 1923 when the GWR sold theirs to the Met. On 1 July 1933 the Metropolitan Railway was amalgamated with other Underground railways, tramway companies, to relieve congestion on the District line east of Whitechapel from 1936 some trains from Hammersmith were diverted from the East London line to Barking.
However, this caused problems and from 1941 Barking was again served by trains from Hammersmith. From 1937 new steel O stock trains, with remotely operated by the guard. It had been intended to operate the new trains with four or six cars, services to Kensington via the curve at Latimer Road were suspended in 1940 after bomb damage to the West London line and not restarted after the war. When the similar trains running on the Circle line were lengthened to six cars in 1959 and 1960, aluminium C Stock trains, with public address systems and originally unpainted, replaced these trains from 1970
Derby Litchurch Lane Works
Derby Litchurch Lane Works was built by the Midland Railway in Derby, England, in the 19th century. The plant has produced rolling stock under the ownership of the Midland Railway and this was completed by his successor Samuel W. Johnson, under the control of Thomas Gethin Clayton The Derby Carriage and Wagon works were built in 1876. This meant, for instance, that the traversers at the end of each shed were still in use a century later, production had begun in 1873 of carriages from kits supplied by the Pullman Company of Detroit in United States. These were followed by Claytons own design of 54-foot-long coaches, which incorporated both first- and third-class accommodation, and ran on four- or six-wheeled bogies, initially claret or dark red, with dark green locomotives, the livery of both was changed to the well-known crimson in 1883. Five layers of undercoat were used, followed by a top coat, a six-wheeled coach built in 1885 is in the National Railway Museum. In 1879 the first bogie coaches were built for the Midlands line to Glasgow over its newly opened Settle-Carlisle line, Claytons successor in 1903 was David Bain.
The works building sleeping cars and dining coaches, in 1904 two steam motor-carriages were fitted out for the Morecambe-Heysham service. Ten- and twelve-ton wagons were produced in quantity, starting with a set of components in the morning, Reid and E. J. H. Lemon studied American mass production methods and introduced them around 1919, raising output to 200 wagons and 10 coaches a week. The sawmill was recognised as the most modern and largest in Europe, with over 2000 miles of timber being seasoned, of sixty different varieties. In 1914 the works turned to producing supplies for the army of World War I, building ambulance trains and army wagons, in 1923 the Midland Railway became part of the London and Scottish Railway, and W. R. Reid was appointed Carriage & Wagon Superintendent. Together with the LNWRs Wolverton works, new coaches were built to the Midland design and these were still in use until nearly 1960, particularly on the Liverpool and Newcastle to Bristol expresses. Around 1929 the compartment doors, were replaced by two fixed lights, and with large windows.
All-wood construction gave way to steel panels, in the next decade the Works Superintendent, Ernest Pugson, realised the potential of the new technology of metallic arc welding, replacing many forged and cast components. He introduced the first composite welded steel/timber bodies with standardised jig-built components, the first open carriages, referred to as vestibule coaches, appeared. During World War II, Derby pioneered aeroplane wing production methods, with the loco works and fuselages were repaired and sent to a private contractor at Nottingham for assembly, initially of Hampden bombers but of other aircraft including Lancasters. After the war, the LMS began to produce its own, after nationalisation in 1948, as the main carriage works of the London Midland Region, the first Mk I all-steel carriages were produced. In 1953 the works began production of Derby Lightweight DMUs, units of aluminium construction, the use of glass fibre laminate was introduced for the roof ends. Trailer cars were built for the London Transport Executive as replacements on the London Underground Piccadilly line
Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough of West Midlands, England lying on the River Rea, a small river that runs through Birmingham. It is the largest and most populous British city outside London, the city is in the West Midlands Built-up Area, the third most populous urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,440,986 at the 2011 census. Birminghams metropolitan area is the second most populous in the UK with a population of 3.8 million and this makes Birmingham the 8th most populous metropolitan area in Europe. By 1791 it was being hailed as the first manufacturing town in the world, perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz. The damage done to the infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition.
Today Birminghams economy is dominated by the service sector and its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121. 1bn, and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors, Birminghams sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League and lawn tennis both originating from the city. Its most successful football club Aston Villa has won seven league titles, people from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the citys nickname of Brum. This originates from the citys name, which may in turn have been derived from one of the citys earlier names. There is a distinctive Brummie accent and dialect, Birminghams early history is that of a remote and marginal area. The main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era, within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years, by 1700 Birminghams population had increased fifteenfold and the town was the fifth-largest in England and Wales. The importance of the manufacture of goods to Birminghams economy was recognised as early as 1538. Equally significant was the emerging role as a centre for the iron merchants who organised finance, supplied raw materials. The 18th century saw this tradition of free-thinking and collaboration blossom into the phenomenon now known as the Midlands Enlightenment
British Rail Engineering Limited
The vast majority of BRELs output was for British Rail, including Mark 1, Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages, the latter for locomotive haulage and InterCity 125 diesel High Speed Trains. BREL built the NIR80 Class diesel-electric multiple units for Northern Ireland Railways, other Mark 3 derived vehicles included Class 150 diesel multiple units in the 1980s and numerous electric multiple units such as Classes 313 and 317. BREL had limited success in the market, notably with Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages for Irish Rail. BREL built prototypes such as the Class 210 DEMU and the experimental high-speed Advanced Passenger Train tilting during the 1970s, the Class 210 were externally very similar to the first batch of Class 317 EMUs, but half of the forward carriage was taken up by the engine room. Power was provided by a diesel engine driving a generator to power traction motors on the axles. A single engine was fitted at one end of the unit, BREL major production centres were at Crewe, Doncaster and York.
The historic site at Wolverton in Milton Keynes was progressively run down until the 1980s before being relegated to maintenance duties, latterly, BREL often acted as a sub contractor to a main contractor such as GEC, which supplied traction equipment. These contracts required BREL to build the frames, body shells and bogies, much of the electric locomotive construction programme of the 1980s, such as Classes 87,90 and 91, was carried out in this way. In 1989 BREL was purchased by the Swiss-Swedish conglomerate ABB, Trafalgar House, in 1992 it was bought out by ABB to form ABB Transportation Ltd. It has since become part of Bombardier Transportation, the privatisation of British Rail led to a hiatus in the ordering of rolling stock, which predictably led to the almost complete collapse of the rolling stock manufacturing industry. When purchases of rolling stock resumed, with little remaining capacity in the UK contracts were increasingly placed overseas, like Metro Cammell, BREL helped in the planning, design and, on occasion, the manufacturing of London Underground stock.
High Speed Train Advanced Passenger Train InterCity 225 British Rail London Underground 1986 Stock
The station serves as a junction for services from London Undergrounds District line and National Rail operators, as well as Tramlink route 3. Some early morning services on the Thameslink route are provided by Southern, the station is in Travelcard Zone 3. Platforms 1–4 are for London Underground, Platforms 5 and 8 are for suburban services, Platform 9 is for Thameslink and platforms 10a. Platforms 6 and 7 are adjacent to the fast tracks intended for express and outer suburban services, because long distance trains very rarely make scheduled stops at the station, access to these platforms is via sliding gates through safety fencing installed in 2014. The first railway station in Wimbledon was opened on 21 May 1838, the original station was to the south of the current station on the opposite side of the Wimbledon Bridge. The station was rebuilt on its current site for the opening of this service, District line steam-hauled services were replaced by electric services from 27 August 1905. Main line suburban services were replaced by electric rolling stock either side of World War I although long distance journeys continued to use steam traction until 1967.
The station was again with its current Portland stone entrance building by the Southern Railway in the late 1920s as part of the SRs construction of the line to Sutton. Parliamentary approval for this line had been obtained by the Wimbledon and Sutton Railway in 1910, from the W&SRs inception, the DR was a shareholder of the company and had rights to run trains over the line when built. In the 1920s, the London Electric Railway planned, through its ownership of the DR, to use part of the route for an extension of the City and South London Railway to Sutton. The SR objected and an agreement was reached that enabled the C&SLR to extend as far as Morden in exchange for the LER giving up its rights over the W&SR route, the SR subsequently built the line, one of the last to be built in the London area. It opened on 7 July 1929 to South Merton and to Sutton on 5 January 1930, on 2 June 1997, the West Croydon to Wimbledon Line was closed by Railtrack for conversion to operation as part of the Tramlink tram operations.
Part of platform 10 was used for the single track terminus of Tramlink route 3 and rail tracks, the new service opened on 30 May 2000. The other part of platform 10 was used as a terminus for Thameslink services, in 2015 platform 10 was split into two tram platforms, 10a and 10b, to allow higher frequency service on Tramlink. Wimbledon Station was the haunt of a Railway Collection Dog and he retired in 1956 having collected over £5,000 and spent the rest of his days with the residents at the Home. On his death in 1960 he was stuffed and returned to Wimbledon Station and he continued to collect for the Homes, in a glass case situated on Platform 5, until 1990 when he retired once more and became part of the National Railway Collection. To increase the number of Tramlink services, a platform was built in place of the former Thameslink bay platform track. In order for the work to be carried out, the service was suspended between Dundonald Road and Wimbledon until Sunday 1 November 2015, the new platform is called 10b and opened in November 2015
In 1865, Henry Hughes, who was a timber merchant engineer, began building horse-drawn tramcars and railway rolling stock at the Falcon Works in Loughborough. His first company was known as the Hughess Locomotive & Tramway Engine Works Ltd, records are very sparse, but it seems that he began producing steam locomotives about 1867 for the Paris Exhibition. His main business, was tram engines, lightweight steam engines which drew passenger cars, among these was The Pioneer for the Swansea and Mumbles Railway. These were distinct from those tramcars where the boiler and mechanism was integral with the passenger car, amongst the first steam locomotives built there was Belmont, which ran on the Snailbeach District Railways, and three 2 ft 3 in gauge 0-4-0STs for the Corris Railway supplied in 1878. The Corris locomotives are said to have been works numbers 322,323 and 324, implying that the tram vehicles, in 1881 Hughes built two 3 ft gauge 0-4-0STs for the Liverpool Corporation Water Committee for use in the construction of the waterworks at Lake Vyrnwy in Wales.
In 1881 the company ran into problems and in 1882 it was in receivership. Hughes departed, soon after, for New Zealand, where in collaboration with local engineer E. W Mills, late in 1882 the company reformed as the Falcon Engine & Car Works Ltd. and supplied three more locomotives of the same design for the railways at Vyrnwy. Again there are few records, but the factory remained busy with railway and tramway locomotives and rolling stock. Among these were tank locomotives for Ireland and the Azores, some were subcontracts from other firms, such as Kerr Stuart, at that time in Glasgow. In 1889 the assets were taken over by the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation and it became known as the Brush Electrical Engineering Company. Between 1901 and 1905 the Brushmobile electric car was developed using a Vauxhall Motors engine, one of these six featured in the film Carry on Screaming. Nearly 100 buses, plus some lorries were built using French engines until 1907, in all, about 250 steam locomotives were built in addition to the tram engines.
Production finished after World War I and the company concentrated on transport-related electrical equipment, including tramcars, trolleybuses, in World War II Brush Coachworks diversified into aircraft production, building 335 de Havilland Dominies for the Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm. Wing sections were built for Lancaster bombers and Hampden fuselages were overhauled, in 1952 the coachworks was closed and the goodwill and patents were bought by neighbouring Willowbrook. Close to Derby and its workshops, it retained its contacts with the railway. Acquired by Heenan & Froude in 1947, it was merged with W. G. Bagnall to produce diesel locomotives, in 1951, the company Brush Bagnall Traction Limited was formed. When British Railways began to replace its fleet of steam engines, in 1957 it and Brush Electrical Machines were bought up by Hawker Siddeley to become the Brush Electrical Engineering Company Limited. As part of Hawker Siddeley Electric Power Group it passed to BTR plc and it is now part of FKI Energy Technologies
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
A traction motor is an electric motor used for propulsion of a vehicle, such as an electric locomotive or electric roadway vehicle. Direct-current motors with field windings were the oldest type of traction motors. These provided a speed-torque characteristic useful for propulsion, providing high torque at speeds for acceleration of the vehicle. By arranging the field winding with multiple taps, the speed characteristic could be varied, a further measure of control was provided by using pairs of motors on a vehicle, for slow operation or heavy loads, two motors could be run in series off the direct current supply. Where higher speed was desired, the motors could be operated in parallel, making a higher voltage available at each, parts of a rail system might use different voltages, with higher voltages in long runs between stations and lower voltage near stations where slower operation would be useful. A variant of the DC system was the AC operated series motor, since both the armature and field current reverse at the same time, the behavior of the motor is similar to that when energized with direct current.
The AC system allowed efficient distribution of power down the length of a rail line, AC induction motors and synchronous motors are simple and low maintenance, but are awkward to apply for traction motors because of their fixed speed characteristic. An AC induction motor only generates useful amounts of power over a speed range determined by its construction. Traditionally road vehicles have used diesel and petrol engines with a mechanical or hydraulic transmission system, these were series-wound brushed DC motors, usually running on approximately 600 volts. The availability of high-powered semiconductors has now made practical the use of much simpler, synchronous AC motors are occasionally used, as in the French TGV. Before the mid-20th century, a large motor was often used to drive multiple driving wheels through connecting rods that were very similar to those used on steam locomotives. Examples are the Pennsylvania Railroad DD1, FF1 and L5 and the various Swiss Crocodiles and it is now standard practice to provide one traction motor driving each axle through a gear drive.
Usually, the motor is three-point suspended between the bogie frame and the driven axle, this is referred to as a nose-suspended traction motor. The problem with such an arrangement is that a portion of the weight is unsprung, increasing unwanted forces on the track. In the case of the famous Pennsylvania Railroad GG1, two bogie-mounted motors drove each axle through a quill drive, the Bi-Polar electric locomotives built by General Electric for the Milwaukee Road had direct drive motors. The rotating shaft of the motor was the axle for the wheels, by mounting the relatively heavy traction motor directly to the power cars frame rather than to the bogie, better dynamics are obtained allowing better high-speed operation. The DC motor was the mainstay of electric drives on both electric and diesel-electric locomotives, street-cars/trams and diesel electric drilling rigs for many years. It consists of two parts, an armature and fixed field windings surrounding the rotating armature mounted around a shaft