Johann Michael Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period, the younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn. Michael Haydn was born in 1737 near the Hungarian border, his father was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who served as "Marktrichter", an office akin to village mayor. Haydn's mother Maria, née Koller, had worked as a cook in the palace of Count Harrach, the presiding aristocrat of Rohrau. Mathias was an enthusiastic folk musician, who during the journeyman period of his career had taught himself to play the harp, he made sure that his children learned to sing. Michael went to Vienna at the age of eight, his early professional career path being paved by his older brother Joseph, whose skillful singing had landed him a position as a boy soprano in the St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna choir under the direction of Georg Reutter, as were Johann Georg Albrechtsberger and Franz Joseph Aumann, both composers with whom Haydn traded manuscripts. By Michael's 12th birthday he was earning extra money as a substitute organist at the cathedral and had performed preludes and fantasies of his own composition.
The early 19th-century author Albert Christoph Dies, based on Joseph's late-life reminiscences, wrote: Reutter was so captivated by's talents that he declared to his father that if he had twelve sons he would take care of them all. The father saw himself freed of a great burden by this offer, consented to it, some five years after dedicated Joseph's brothers Michael, still Johann to the musical muse. Both were taken on as choirboys, and, to Joseph's unending joy, both brothers were turned over to him to be trained; the same source indicates that Michael was a brighter student than Joseph, that it was Michael's singing, the more admired. About 1753, he left the choir school because of the break of his voice. In 1760 Michael was appointed Kapellmeister at Großwardein and in 1762, was appointed concertmaster at Salzburg, where he remained for 44 years, during which he wrote over 360 compositions comprising both church and instrumental music. From their mutual sojourn in Salzburg, Haydn was acquainted with Mozart, who held his work in high esteem.
On 17 August 1768 he married singer Maria Magdalena Lipp. Although Lipp was disliked by the women in Mozart's family for some reason, she still created the role of Barmherzigkeit in Mozart's first musical play, Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, 1767, the role of Tamiri in his short pastoral opera Il re pastore of 1775. Leopold Mozart criticized Haydn's heavy drinking. In Salzburg Haydn taught Anton Diabelli. Michael remained close to Joseph all of his life. Joseph regarded his brother's music to the point of feeling Michael's religious works were superior to his own. In 1802, when Michael was "offered lucrative and honourable positions" by "both Esterházy and the Grand Duke of Tuscany," he wrote to Joseph in Vienna asking for advice on whether or not to accept any of them, but in the end chose to stay in Salzburg. Michael and Maria Magdalena Haydn named their daughter Aloisia Josepha not in honor of Michael's brother, but after Josepha Daubrawa von Daubrawaick, who substituted as godmother at the baptism for Countess de Firmian.
He died in Salzburg at the age of 68. Musicologist Karl Geiringer has claimed that Michael Haydn has not received the recognition he deserves from posterity, his church music, his choruses for male voices, many of his instrumental works are on respectable level and ought to be revived. Michael Haydn never compiled a thematic catalog of his works, nor did he supervise the making of one; the earliest catalog was compiled in 1808 by Nikolaus Lang for his'Biographische Skizze'. In 1907 Lothar Perger compiled a catalogue of his orchestral works, the Perger-Verzeichnis, for Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich, somewhat more reliable than Lang's catalog and attaches P. numbers to many of Haydn's instrumental works. And in 1915 Anton Maria Klafsky undertook a similar work regarding Michael's sacred vocal music. In 1982, Charles H. Sherman, who has edited scores of many of his symphonies for Doblinger, published a chronological catalog of them which some recording companies have adopted. In 1991, Sherman joined forces with T. Donley Thomas to publish a chronological catalog of Michael's complete works using a single continuous range of numbers after Köchel's pioneering catalog of all of Mozart's works and Otto Erich Deutsch's similar comprehensive compendium for all of Schubert's works.
Further important amendments to the Sherman/Thomas catalogue have been made by Dwight Blazin. The task of cataloging Michael's music is facilitated by the fact that he always entered the date of completion on his manuscripts. Guesswork was necessary. Haydn's sacred choral works are regarded as his most important; some of these works include the Requiem pro defuncto Archiepisc
Symphony No. 98 (Haydn)
The Symphony No. 98 in B♭ major, Hoboken I/98, is the sixth of the twelve London symphonies composed by Joseph Haydn. It was completed in 1792 as part of the set of symphonies composed on his first trip to London, it was first performed at the Hanover Square Rooms in London on 2 March 1792. Haydn composed the symphony in early 1792. At the time, Haydn was in the midst of the first of his two visits to London, under contract to perform a series of new symphonies with an orchestra led by Johann Peter Salomon as concertmaster; the symphony was performed on 2 March 1792 at the Hanover Square Rooms, with Haydn directing the orchestra from the keyboard. The premiere came two weeks after that of the Symphony No. 93, one week before that of the Sinfonia Concertante. Haydn recalled that at the premiere of the No. 98, the first and fourth movements were encored. The work is scored for one flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani and cembalo. At the symphony’s premiere, Haydn played the cembalo part on a fortepiano, but in many modern performances the part is played on a harpsichord, what the German word cembalo means.
The cembalo part is only scored for a brief solo in the fourth movement, but Haydn would have conducted the premiere sitting at the keyboard and used it in a continuo role throughout the whole of the symphony. In modern performances, the B♭ horn part is played with B♭ basso, rather than B♭ alto, horns, it is that B♭ basso horns were preferred in the 1792 premiere, making the symphony the first of Haydn’s to employ the instrument. The trumpet and timpani parts are scored in B♭. Adagio – Allegro, 22 Adagio, 34 Menuetto. Presto, 34 Finale. Presto, 68 The first movement is in sonata form and is preceded by an introduction marked "Adagio"; the introduction is in B♭ minor, consists of three differing statements of an upwards broken chord, followed by a downward motion. Haydn uses the introductory motif as the primary theme of the "Allegro" section of the movement, although this time it is in B♭ major; the use of common thematic material in an introduction and a movement proper is an uncommon compositional device for the time.
After its first statement in the Allegro, the motif proceeds to dominate the entire movement. The exposition modulates to the dominant, as is conventional for a sonata form movement in a major key, but no new theme is presented. Instead, the opening theme, albeit in a varied form, is reprised in the new key; the sonata can thus be called monothematic. After the exposition follows a long development section a recapitulation that involves unusually significant variations to the material presented in the exposition; the movement is in F major and sonata form. There are no trumpet or timpani parts; the movement and hymn-like, makes noticeable use of material from two works by Mozart, the Coronation Mass and Symphony No. 41, it was intended by Haydn as a tribute to his friend and fellow-composer, who died in December 1791: Haydn was composing the symphony when he heard, was distressed by, the news of his friend's death. The movement's principal theme, introduced by the strings and marked "cantabile", is an exact quotation from Agnus Dei from Mozart's Coronation Mass.
The second theme is in the dominant. The exposition is not repeated. Instead there is a transition section into the development, it is in this transition. The recapitulation involves new treatments of the principal theme: on its first reprise, the theme is accompanied by a passage for solo cello in counterpoint. After the second theme is reprised, the oboes present the first theme again. Six measures from the end of the movement, the first two measures of the theme are presented for a final time, by an oboe and a bassoon with a chromatic accompaniment from the strings; the movement fades to a pianissimo conclusion. The chromaticism accompanying the final statement of the theme was omitted from published editions of the symphony until the 1950s, when H. C. Robbins Landon restored Haydn's original score. Haydn went on to quote the Agnus Dei of Mozart's Coronation Mass more in the Agnus Dei of his own Harmoniemesse, his scoring reflects that of the Adagio in his Symphony 98; the third movement is trio.
The minuet is in B♭ major. Its second section starts conventionally in the dominant of F major but shifts into A♭ major for a flute solo; the trio remains in B♭ major, but omits the trumpets and timpani. The music critic Michael Steinberg described the trio as "gently rustic"; the fourth movement is the longest finale among Haydn's symphonies. It is in 68 time; the exposition is repeated, after it concludes in the dominant of F major, there is a lengthy pause before the development commences in A♭ major. The development contains modulations through a wide range of keys and prominent solos for the principal violin who, in the premiere performance, was Johann Peter Salomon; the principal violin's part continues into the beginning of the recapitulation when it plays the first theme as a solo. After the recapitulation there is a lengthy coda, in which Haydn slows the tempo slows to "piu moderato" but introduces sixteenth notes to give the movement a new momentum. Towards the end of the coda comes the surprising keyboard solo, consisting of an 11-measure passage of sixteenth notes.
Haydn was not a keyboard virtuoso. But the composer and organist Samuel Wesley, at the 1792 premiere, recollected that Haydn had executed the keyboard solo proficiently: "His Performance on the Piano Forte, although not such as to stamp him a first rate
Symphony No. 93 (Haydn)
Symphony No. 93 in D major, Hoboken I/93, one of the twelve London symphonies written by Joseph Haydn. It was completed in 1791 as one of the set of symphonies completed for his first trip to London, it was first performed at the Hanover Square Rooms in London on 17 February 1792. Of the twelve London symphonies, No. 93 appears first in the Hoboken-Verzeichnis catalogue. However, it was the third to be composed of the set, after No. 96 in D major and No. 95 in C minor. The work is in standard four-movement form and scored for two flutes, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets and strings. Adagio — Allegro assai, 34 Largo cantabile, cut time in G major Menuetto. Allegro, 34 Finale: Presto ma non troppo, 24 The first movement is in sonata form: after an introduction follows an exposition that ends with a repeat sign, a development, a recapitulation and a coda; the introduction is twenty measures long and marked "Adagio". It opens with the orchestra playing the tonic note, D, in unison, avoiding the establishment of the home key of D major with root-position harmony.
The introduction proceeds on an harmonic excursion, through the dominant, a Neapolitan chord, a diminished seventh, the parallel minor, the subdominant minor, before concluding with a dominant seventh chord. After the dominant seventh chord, the main body of the movement, marked "Allegro", commences with the statement of the principal theme; the exposition continues with a transitional passage before a secondary theme in the dominant, A major. The American musicologist A. Peter Brown compared the secondary theme to a Ländler; the development involves significant re-working of a motif from the secondary theme. The motif is inverted, passed through a series of remote keys. Unusually for a late Haydn work, the recapitulation involves few surprises, it reprises the secondary themes in the tonic before a short coda. Towards the end of the second movement, the music becomes slower and softer until an unexpected fortissimo bassoon "fart" brings the music back for the movement's closing; this shows Haydn's sense of humor—similar to the 2nd movement of the Surprise Symphony.
Antony Hodgson identifies George Szell as a conductor, not afraid to overdo "the vulgarity of this joke". Hodgson argues that "if, in concert, none of the audience laughs the episode must have been underplayed." The minuet proper has a ländler character. The minuet's trio is original and juxtaposes timpani-punctated fanfare outbursts with quieter passages scored only for strings. In the fourth movement, the oboe quotes "Viva la libertà" from Mozart's Don Giovanni. Haydn wrote in a letter to Maria Anna von Genzinger that he was not satisfied with the finale because he considered it weak compared to the first movement, he stated that he planned to revise it, but there is no evidence that any revision took place. Symphony No.93 in D major, Hob. I:93: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Symphony No. 93 is available in PDF format created from MuseData
The Seasons (Haydn)
For the titled work by Antonio Vivaldi, see The Four Seasons. The Seasons, Hob. XXI:3), is a secular oratorio by Joseph Haydn, first performed in 1801. Haydn was led to write The Seasons by the great success of his previous oratorio The Creation, which had become popular and was in the course of being performed all over Europe; the libretto for The Seasons was prepared for Haydn, just as with The Creation, by Baron Gottfried van Swieten, an Austrian nobleman who had exercised an important influence on the career of Mozart. Van Swieten's libretto was based on extracts from the long English poem "The Seasons" by James Thomson, published in 1730. Whereas in The Creation Swieten was able to limit himself to rendering an existing libretto into German, for The Seasons he had a much more demanding task. Olleson writes, "Even when Thomson's images were retained, they required abbreviation and adaptation to such an extent that no more than faint echoes of them can be discerned, the libretto loses all touch with the poem, its starting point.
During the course of the oratorio, the words are van Swieten's own or imported from foreign sources."Like The Creation, The Seasons was intended as a bilingual work. Since Haydn was popular in England, he wished the work to be performable in English as well as German. Van Swieten therefore made a translation of his libretto back into English, fitting it to the rhythm of the music. Olleson notes that it is "fairly rare" that the translated version matches the Thomson original. Van Swieten's command of English was not perfect, the English text he created has not always proven satisfying to listeners. Gone is the bloom of Thomson's original." Olleson calls the English text "often grotesque", suggests that English-speaking choruses should perform the work in German: "The Seasons is better served by the decent obscurity of a foreign language than by the English of the first version." Van Swieten's words show some inconsistency in tone, ranging from the rustically humorous to the uplifting. The composition process was arduous for Haydn, in part because his health was failing and because Haydn found van Swieten's libretto to be rather taxing.
Haydn took two years to complete the work. Like The Creation, The Seasons had a dual premiere, first for the aristocracy whose members had financed the work for the public; the oratorio was considered a clear success, but not a success comparable to that of The Creation. In the years that followed, Haydn continued to lead oratorio performances for charitable causes, but it was The Creation that he led, not The Seasons; the aging Haydn lacked the energy needed to repeat the labor of self-publication that he had undertaken for The Creation and instead assigned the new oratorio to his regular publisher at that time, Breitkopf & Härtel, who published it in 1802. The Seasons is written for a large late-Classical orchestra, a chorus singing in four parts, three vocal soloists, representing archetypal country folk: Simon and Hanne; the solo voices are thus the same three as in The Creation. The orchestral parts are for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 1 alto trombone, 1 tenor trombone and 1 bass trombone, timpani and strings.
However, some of the key early performances at the Tonkünstler Society in Vienna were for much larger forces. Material surviving from these large-scale Viennese performances indicates the use of tripled wind, doubled brass and as many as ten horn players, backed up by at least eighty string players and similar numbers of singers. In addition, a fortepiano plays in secco recitatives, with or without other instruments from the orchestra; the oratorio is divided into four parts, corresponding to Spring, Summer and Winter, with the usual recitatives, arias and ensemble numbers. Among the more rousing choruses are a hunting song with horn calls, a wine celebration with dancing peasants, a loud thunderstorm, an absurdly stirring ode to toil: The huts that shelter us, The wool that covers us, The food that nourishes us, All is thy grant, thy gift, O noble toil. Haydn remarked that while he had been industrious his whole life, this was the first occasion he had been asked to write a chorus in praise of industry.
Some lyrical passages are the choral prayer for a bountiful harvest, "Sei nun gnädig, milder Himmel", the gentle nightfall that follows the storm, Hanne's cavatina on Winter. The work is filled with the "tone-painting" that characterized The Creation: a plowman whistles as he works, a bird shot by a hunter falls from the sky, there is a sunrise (evoking the one
Johann Peter Salomon
Johann Peter Salomon was a German violinist, composer and musical impresario. He was the second son of Philipp Salomon, an oboist at the court in Bonn, his birth home was at Bonngasse 515, coincidentally the birth home of Beethoven. At the age of thirteen, he became a violinist in the court orchestra and six years became the concert master of the orchestra of Prince Heinrich of Prussia, he composed several works for the court, including an oratorio. He moved to London in the early 1780s, where he worked as a composer and played violin both as a celebrated soloist and in a string quartet, he made his first public appearance at Covent Garden on 23 March 1781. While in England, Salomon composed two operas for the Royal Opera, several art songs, a number of concertos, chamber music pieces, he is best known today, however, as a concert organiser and conductor. Salomon brought Joseph Haydn to London in 1791–92 and 1794–95, together with Haydn led the first performances of many of the works that Haydn composed while in England.
Haydn wrote his symphonies numbers 93 to 104 for these trips, which are sometimes known as the Salomon symphonies. Haydn's esteem for his impresario and orchestral leader can sometimes be seen in the symphonies: for example, the cadenza in the slow movement of the 96th and the phrase marked Salomon solo ma piano in the trio of the 97th. Salomon is said to have had a hand in providing Haydn with the original model for the text of The Creation, he was one of the founder-members of the Philharmonic Society and led the orchestra at its first concert on 8 March 1813. Salomon is believed to have given the Jupiter nickname to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Symphony No. 41. Amongst his protégés was the English composer and soloist George Pinto. Salomon died in London of injuries suffered when he was thrown from his horse, he is buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Salomon's violin playing was regarded in his day. Robbins Landon praises his personal qualities: "Salomon was not only a clever and sensitive impresario, he was generous, scrupulously honest, efficient in business matters."
Beethoven, who knew Salomon from his days in Bonn, wrote to Ries on hearing of his death, "Salomon's death grieves me much, for he was a noble man, I remember him since I was a child."Since 2011 the Royal Philharmonic Society has awarded the Salomon Prize to highlight talent and dedication within UK orchestras. Hubert Unverricht; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie, ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5 The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, by John Warrack and Ewan West, ISBN 0-19-869164-5 Robbins Landon, H. C. Haydn: Chronicle and Works. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Marianna Martines or Marianne von Martinez, was an Austrian singer and composer of the classical period. Marianna Martines's paternal grandfather was a Spanish soldier, her father, Nicolo Martines, for a time pursued a career as a soldier. He changed careers, serving in Vienna as Maestro di Camera at the papal nuncio. For service to the Empire, Marianna's brothers in 1774 acquired a patent of nobility, hence the "von" in the family surname. In his youth in Italy, Nicolo had befriended the poet Pietro Trapassi, who wrote under the name Metastasio; the latter had risen in eminence, to the point that in 1730 he was called to Vienna to serve as the Poet Laureate of the Empire. Metastasio resided with the Martines family for the entire rest of his life, his presence would prove crucial to Marianne's career. The Martines family lived in rooms in a large building on the Michaelerplatz, "a stately building still standing in the Kohlmarkt." As was common in the days before elevators, the floors of the building corresponded to the social class of the inhabitants.
On the lowest floor were the rooms of the dowager princess of the wealthy Esterházy family. The Martines family were on third floor. Another resident of the middle floors was Nicola Porpora, a well-known Italian singing teacher and composer. At the top, in a cold and leaky attic room, lived a struggling young composer, Joseph Haydn, trying to make his way as a freelance musician; the lives of all of these people came to be connected, in part through Marianna Martines. She was born into this home in 1744. Though baptized Anna Catherina, she chose to go by the name Marianna. Metastasio, the family friend, made it a practice to help out with the raising and careers of the Martines children. In the case of Marianna, he noticed her precocious talents early, thus came to oversee her education and otherwise, he first arranged for her to take keyboard lessons from Haydn, whom Metastasio had met as a result of their living in the same building. At age ten, Marianna began singing lessons with Porpora, who had met Haydn and taken him on as his assistant.
Soon after Marianna began her music lessons she demonstrated a talent for composition, so she began still further lessons with Johann Adolph Hasse and the Imperial court composer Giuseppe Bonno. Metastasio saw to it that Marianna received a thorough general education, which far surpassed what was considered standard for women of her social class at that time, she was a native speaker of both Italian and German, in an autobiographical letter to Padre Martini indicated that she had good command of French. The musicologist Charles Burney, visiting Vienna, found that she could speak English; as a child Martines was good enough to perform before the Imperial court, where according to the Helene Wessely, she "attracted attention with her beautiful voice and her keyboard playing." The adult Marianna was asked to perform before the Empress Maria Theresa. A number of the works that Martines composed are set for solo voice, her biographers conjecture that the first singer of these works was their composer.
If so, they constitute further evidence for her ability, as the music shows a "predilection for coloratura passages, leaps over wide intervals and trills indicat that she herself must have been an excellent singer.". Martines wrote a number of two oratorios to Italian texts; these texts are enough, the work of her mentor Metastasio. Surviving compositions include four masses, six motets, three litanies for choir, she wrote in the Italian style. Her harpsichord performance practice was compared to the style of C. P. E. Bach. Martines’s compositions were well regarded in her time, some scholars have suggested that Mozart modeled his 1768 Mass, K. 139, after the "Christe" of Martines’s Mass No. 1 in D major. The Michaelerkirche, saw a performance of her third mass in 1761, her fourth mass was completed in 1765. Martines’s name and music were known throughout Europe, she was admitted to the Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna in 1773, her Italian oratorio Isacco figura del redentore was premiered by massive forces in concerts of the Tonkünstler-Societät, a long-standing series that performed large-scale works by Haydn, Mozart and Handel.
The vocal soloists included Caterina Cavalieri, Ludwig Fischer. Martines and her sister, neither of whom married, looked after their family friend Metastasio until his death in 1782. Upon his passing, Metastasio left his estate to the Martines family. Marianna and her sister hosted musical soirees at their home; these weekly musical events attracted many distinguished guests, including Haydn and Irish tenor Michael Kelly. Mozart was a frequent guest to the soirees and composed four-hand piano sonatas to perform with Marianne. Though she was an active and accomplished performer and composer she never sought an appointed position, her last known public appearance was on March 27, 1808, attending a performance of Haydn’s oratorio The Creation conducted by Salieri, in tribute to the now-elderly composer. She died on 1
Ignace Joseph Pleyel was an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period. He was born in Ruppersthal in the son of a schoolmaster named Martin Pleyl, he was the 24th of 38 children in the family. While still young, he studied with Johann Baptist Vanhal, from 1772 he became the pupil of Joseph Haydn in Eisenstadt; as with Beethoven, born 13 years Pleyel benefited in his study from the sponsorship of aristocracy, in this case Count Ladislaus Erdődy. Pleyel evidently had a close relationship with Haydn. Among Pleyel's apprentice work from this time was a puppet opera Die Fee Urgele, performed in the marionette theater at the palace of Eszterháza and in Vienna. Pleyel also wrote at least part of the overture of Haydn's opera Das abgebrannte Haus, from about the same time. Pleyel's first professional position may have been as Kapellmeister for Count Erdődy, although this is not known for certain. Among his early publications was a set of six string quartets, his Opus 1. In the early 1780s, Pleyel visited Italy, where he composed an opera and works commissioned by the king of Naples, Ferdinand I.
Attracted to the benefits associated with an organist position, Pleyel moved to Strasbourg, France in 1783 to work alongside Franz Xaver Richter, the maître de chapelle at the Strasbourg Cathedral. The Cathedral was appealing to Pleyel as it possessed a full orchestra, a choir, a large budget devoted to performances. After establishing himself in France, Pleyel voluntarily called himself by the French version of his name, Ignace. While he was the assistant maître de chapelle at Strasbourg Cathedral, he wrote more works than during any other period in his musical career. At the cathedral, he would organize concerts that featured his symphonies concertantes and liturgical music. After Richter's death in 1789, Pleyel assumed the function of full maître de chapelle. In 1788 Pleyel married Françoise-Gabrielle Lefebvre, the daughter of a Strasbourg carpet weaver; the couple had the eldest being their son Camille. Maria Pleyel, née Moke, the wife of Camille, was one of the most accomplished pianists of her time.
In 1791, the French Revolution abolished musical performances in church as well as public concerts. Seeking alternative employment, Pleyel traveled to London, where he led the "Professional Concerts" organized by Wilhelm Cramer. In this capacity Pleyel inadvertently played the role of his teacher's rival, as Haydn was at the same time leading the concert series organized by Johann Peter Salomon. Although the two composers were rivals professionally, they remained on good terms personally. Just like Haydn, Pleyel made a fortune from his London visit. On his return to Strasbourg, he bought a large house, the moated Château d'Ittenwiller 48°23′03.8″N 7°26′33″E, about 35 km south, between nearby Saint-Pierre and Eichhoffen in the Bas-Rhin department. With the onset of the Reign of Terror in 1793 and 1794, life in France became dangerous for many, not excluding Pleyel, he was brought before the Committee of Public Safety a total of seven times due to the following: his foreign status, his recent purchase of a château, his ties with the Strasbourg Cathedral.
He was subsequently labeled a Royalist collaborator. The outcome of the Committee's attentions could have been imprisonment or execution. With prudent opportunism, Pleyel preserved his future by writing compositions in honor of the new republic. All were written in Strasbourg at times surrounding the Terror. Below are the pieces composed with dates of publication and details: La Prise de Toulon for solo and 3 voice choir with piano accompaniment. Hymne de Pleyel chanté au Temple de la Raison for choir with piano accompaniment. Hymne à l'Être Suprême two part cantata La Révolution du 10 août for soloists and orchestra Most of these compositions debuted at the Strasbourg Cathedral, known at the time as the Temple de l'Être Suprême, as churches were outlawed during the Terror. Pleyel thus came to be known as Citoyen Pleyel. With his involvement in artistic propaganda and loyalism to the new regime, Pleyel can be seen as the ultimate musical champion of Strasbourg republicanism. In addition to composing the above works for the Strasbourg public, Pleyel contributed to the Parisian music scene during the Revolution.
One example is Le Jugement de Pâris, a pantomime-ballet by Citoyen Gardel and performed with Pleyel's music on 5 March 1793. Pleyel moved to Paris in 1795. In 1797 he set up a business as a music publisher, which among other works produced a complete edition of Haydn's string quartets, as well as the first miniature scores for study; the publishing business lasted for 39 years and published about 4,000 works during this time, including compositions by Adolphe Adam, Luigi Boccherini, Ludwig van Beethoven, Muzio Clementi, Johann Baptist Cramer, Johann Ladislaus Dussek, Johann Nepomuk Hummel and Georges Onslow. Pleyel visited Vienna on business in 1805, meeting his now elderly mentor Haydn for a final time and hearing Beethoven play. In 1807, Pleyel became a manufacturer of pianos.